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A Topological Framework for Local Structure Analysis in Condensed Matter

Lazar, Emanuel A.; Han, Jian; Srolovitz, David J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/08/2015 Português
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Physical systems are frequently modeled as sets of points in space, each representing the position of an atom, molecule, or mesoscale particle. As many properties of such systems depend on the underlying ordering of their constituent particles, understanding that structure is a primary objective of condensed matter research. Although perfect crystals are fully described by a set of translation and basis vectors, real-world materials are never perfect, as thermal vibrations and defects introduce significant deviation from ideal order. Meanwhile, liquids and glasses present yet more complexity. A complete understanding of structure thus remains a central, open problem. Here we propose a unified mathematical framework, based on the topology of the Voronoi cell of a particle, for classifying local structure in ordered and disordered systems that is powerful and practical. We explain the underlying reason why this topological description of local structure is better suited for structural analysis than continuous descriptions. We demonstrate the connection of this approach to the behavior of physical systems and explore how crystalline structure is compromised at elevated temperatures. We also illustrate potential applications to identifying defects in plastically deformed polycrystals at high temperatures...

Non-equilibrium properties of a pumped-decaying Bose-condensed electron-hole gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region

Hanai, Ryo; Littlewood, Peter B.; Ohashi, Yoji
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/06/2015 Português
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We theoretically investigate a Bose-condensed exciton gas out of equilibrium. Within the framework of the combined BCS-Leggett strong-coupling theory with the non-equilibrium Keldysh formalism, we show how the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of excitons is suppressed to eventually disappear, when the system is in the non-equilibrium steady state. The supply of electrons and holes from the bath is shown to induce quasi-particle excitations, leading to the partial occupation of the upper branch of Bogoliubov single-particle excitation spectrum. We also discuss how this quasi-particle induction is related to the suppression of exciton BEC, as well as the stability of the steady state.; Comment: 7 pages, 2 figures, Proceedings of QFS-2015

Lattice Gauge Theory for Condensed Matter Physics: Ferromagnetic Superconductivity as its Example

Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Recent theoretical studies of various strongly-correlated systems in condensed matter physics reveal that the lattice gauge theory(LGT) developed in high-energy physics is quite a useful tool to understand physics of these systems. Knowledges of LGT are to become a necessary item even for condensed matter physicists. In the first part of this paper, we present a concise review of LGT for the reader who wants to understand its basics for the first time. For illustration, we choose the abelian Higgs model, a typical and quite useful LGT, which is the lattice verison of the Ginzburg-Landau model interacting with a U(1) gauge field (vector potential). In the second part, we present an account of the recent progress in the study of ferromagnetic superconductivity (SC) as an example of application of LGT to topics in condensed matter physics, . As the ferromagnetism (FM) and SC are competing orders with each other, large fluctuations are expected to take place and therefore nonperturbative methods are required for theoretical investigation. After we introduce a LGT describing the FMSC, we study its phase diagram and topological excitations (vortices of Cooper pairs) by Monte-Carlo simulations.; Comment: 31 pages, 13 figures, Invited review article of Mod.Phys.Lett.B

Dynamics of Symmetry Breaking Out of Equilibrium: From Condensed Matter to QCD and the Early Universe

Boyanovsky, D.; de Vega, H. J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/09/1999 Português
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The dynamics of symmetry breaking during out of equilibrium phase transitions is a topic of great importance in many disciplines, from condensed matter to particle physics and early Universe cosmology with definite experimental impact. In these notes we provide a summary of the relevant aspects of the dynamics of symmetry breaking in many different fields with emphasis on the experimental realizations. In condensed matter we address the dynamics of phase ordering, the emergence of condensates, coarsening and dynamical scaling. In QCD the possibility of disoriented chiral condensates of pions emerging during a strongly out of equilibrium phase transition is discussed. We elaborate on the dynamics of phase ordering in phase transitions in the Early Universe, in particular the emergence of condensates and scaling in FRW cosmologies. We mention some experimental efforts in different fields that study this wide ranging phenomena and offer a quantitative theoretical description both at the phenomenological level in condensed matter, introducing the scaling hypothesis as well as at a microscopic level in quantum field theories. The emergence of semiclassical condensates and a dynamical length scale is shown in detail, in quantum field theory this length scale is constrained by causality. The large N limit provides a natural bridge to compare the solutions in different settings and to establish similarities and differences.; Comment: 35 pages...

Cold Rydberg atoms for quantum simulation of exotic condensed matter interactions

Hague, J. P.; Downes, S.; MacCormick, C.; Kornilovitch, P. E.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/10/2013 Português
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Quantum simulators could provide an alternative to numerical simulations for understanding minimal models of condensed matter systems in a controlled way. Typically, cold atom systems are used to simulate e.g. Hubbard models. In this paper, we discuss a range of exotic interactions that can be formed when cold Rydberg atoms are loaded into optical lattices with unconventional geometries; such as long-range electron-phonon interactions and extended Coulomb like interactions. We show how these can lead to proposals for quantum simulators for complex condensed matter systems such as superconductors. Continuous time quantum Monte Carlo is used to compare the proposed schemes with the physics found in traditional condensed matter Hamiltonians for systems such as high temperature superconductors.

Zoology of condensed matter: Framids, ordinary stuff, extra-ordinary stuff

Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo; Piazza, Federico; Rattazzi, Riccardo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/01/2015 Português
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We classify condensed matter systems in terms of the spacetime symmetries they spontaneously break. In particular, we characterize condensed matter itself as any state in a Poincar\'e-invariant theory that spontaneously breaks Lorentz boosts while preserving at large distances some form of spatial translations, time-translations, and possibly spatial rotations. Surprisingly, the simplest, most minimal system achieving this symmetry breaking pattern---the "framid"---does not seem to be realized in Nature. Instead, Nature usually adopts a more cumbersome strategy: that of introducing internal translational symmetries---and possibly rotational ones---and of spontaneously breaking them along with their space-time counterparts, while preserving unbroken diagonal subgroups. This symmetry breaking pattern describes the infrared dynamics of ordinary solids, fluids, superfluids, and---if they exist---supersolids. A third, "extra-ordinary", possibility involves replacing these internal symmetries with other symmetries that do not commute with the Poincar\'e group, for instance the galileon symmetry, supersymmetry or gauge symmetries. Among these options, we pick the systems based on the galileon symmetry, the "galileids", for a more detailed study. Despite some similarity...

Ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices: mimicking condensed matter physics and beyond

Lewenstein, Maciej; Sanpera, Anna; Ahufinger, Veronica; Damski, Bogdan; De, Aditi Sen; Sen, Ujjwal
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We review recent developments in the physics of ultracold atomic and molecular gases in optical lattices. Such systems are nearly perfect realisations of various kinds of Hubbard models, and as such may very well serve to mimic condensed matter phenomena. We show how these systems may be employed as quantum simulators to answer some challenging open questions of condensed matter, and even high energy physics. After a short presentation of the models and the methods of treatment of such systems, we discuss in detail, which challenges of condensed matter physics can be addressed with (i) disordered ultracold lattice gases, (ii) frustrated ultracold gases, (iii) spinor lattice gases, (iv) lattice gases in "artificial" magnetic fields, and, last but not least, (v) quantum information processing in lattice gases. For completeness, also some recent progress related to the above topics with trapped cold gases will be discussed.; Comment: Review article. v2: published version, 135 pages, 34 figures

The Onset of Phase Transitions in Condensed Matter and Relativistic QFT

Rivers, R. J.; Kavoussanaki, E.; Karra, G.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/01/2000 Português
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Kibble and Zurek have provided a unifying causal picture for the appearance of topological defects like cosmic strings or vortices at the onset of phase transitions in relativistic QFT and condensed matter systems respectively. There is no direct experimental evidence in QFT, but in condensed matter the predictions are largely, but not wholly, supported in superfluid experiments on liquid helium. We provide an alternative picture for the initial appearance of strings/vortices that is commensurate with all the experimental evidence from condensed matter and consider some of its implications for QFT.; Comment: 37 pages, to be published in Condensed Matter Physics, 2000

Visibility of the Amplitude (Higgs) Mode in Condensed Matter

Podolsky, Daniel; Auerbach, Assa; Arovas, Daniel P.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The amplitude mode is a ubiquitous collective excitation in condensed matter systems with broken continuous symmetry. It is expected in antiferromagnets, short coherence length superconductors, charge density waves, and lattice Bose condensates. Its detection is a valuable test of the corresponding field theory, and its mass gap measures the proximity to a quantum critical point. However, since the amplitude mode can decay into low-energy Goldstone modes, its experimental visibility has been questioned. Here we show that the visibility depends on the symmetry of the measured susceptibility. The longitudinal susceptibility diverges at low frequency as \chi_{\sigma\sigma} ~ i/\omega (d=2) or log(1/|\omega|) (d=3), which can completely obscure the amplitude peak. In contrast, the scalar susceptibility is suppressed by four extra powers of frequency, exposing the amplitude peak throughout the ordered phase. We discuss experimental setups for measuring the scalar susceptibility. The conductivity of the O(2) theory (relativistic superfluid) is a scalar response and therefore exhibits suppressed absorption below the Higgs mass threshold, \sigma ~ \omega^{2d+1}. In layered, short coherence length superconductors, (relevant e.g. to cuprates) this threshold is raised by the interlayer plasma frequency.; Comment: 17 pages...

Proceedings of the 35th Annual Australian/New Zealand Condensed Matter and Materials Meeting

Radhanpura, K.; Hargreaves, S.; Lewis, R. A.; Krüger, H.; Rey, E.; Si, P. -Z.; Söhnel, T.; Jovic, V.; Metson, J. B.; Waterhouse, G. I. N.; Abiona, A. A.; Kemp, W. J.; Byrne, A. P.; Ridgeway, M. C.; Timmers, H.; Cashion, J. D.; Gates, W. P.; Greaves, T.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/07/2011 Português
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The 35th Australian/New Zealand Annual Condensed Matter and Materials Meeting was held at the Charles Sturt University campus in Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia from the 1st to the 4th of February 2011. The conference was attended by 92 delegates from a range of universities across Australia, New Zealand and further afield. There were a total of 9 invited and 21 contributed talks during the three days of scientific sessions, as well as 2 poster sessions with a total of 49 poster presentations. All presenters were invited to submit a manuscript for publication in the conference proceedings. The length limits where six pages for invited papers and four pages for contributed papers. Each manuscript was reviewed by two anonymous referees and 18 papers were accepted for publication. The accepted manuscripts are also available at the online publication section of the Australian Institute of Physics national web site (http://www.aip.org.au/).; Comment: A.P. Micolich (Editor), ISBN 978-0-646-55969-8 (2011). 18 papers from 35th Australian/New Zealand Annual Condensed Matter and Materials Meeting, 85 pages

Atomistic misconception of current model for condensed matter evaporation and new formulation

Semak, V. V.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/05/2014 Português
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Even though the phenomenon of evaporation is omnipresent and has immense scientific and technological importance, the research effort to unveil its fundamentals remains inadequately low. As one particular consequence, the textbooks and educational courses are lacking detailed explanation of evaporation and its effects. In order to advance fundamental theory of evaporation and increase accuracy of evaporation simulation a novel evaporation theory is presented. This integrated Atomistic(Molecular)-Kinetics-Gasdynamics theoretical model that combines statistical mechanics, gas dynamics and thermodynamics approaches opens a path to detailed description of nonstationary, nonequilibrium evaporation of condensed matter. The main innovation of the proposed approach is that, unlike all previous and current models of evaporation that are based on the assumption of evaporation as emission of the particles that are not bound within the condense phase, the described new model treats evaporation of condensed phase as escape of the particles of sufficient kinetic energy out of potential well located at the boundary of condensed and gaseous phases. Correspondingly, the re-condensation of the vapor onto the surface is treated as entrapment of the vapor particles with kietic energy lower than the depth of the potential well. The described novel research will open new opportunities to substantially advance our knowledge and provide needed contributions to chemical...

Amplitude / Higgs Modes in Condensed Matter Physics

Pekker, David; Varma, C. M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The order parameter and its variations in space and time in many different states in condensed matter physics at low temperatures are described by the complex function $\Psi({\bf r}, t)$. These states include superfluids, superconductors, and a subclass of antiferromagnets and charge-density waves. The collective fluctuations in the ordered state may then be categorized as oscillations of phase and amplitude of $\Psi({\bf r}, t)$. The phase oscillations are the {\it Goldstone} modes of the broken continuous symmetry. The amplitude modes, even at long wavelengths, are well defined and decoupled from the phase oscillations only near particle-hole symmetry, where the equations of motion have an effective Lorentz symmetry as in particle physics, and if there are no significant avenues for decay into other excitations. They bear close correspondence with the so-called {\it Higgs} modes in particle physics, whose prediction and discovery is very important for the standard model of particle physics. In this review, we discuss the theory and the possible observation of the amplitude or Higgs modes in condensed matter physics -- in superconductors, cold-atoms in periodic lattices, and in uniaxial antiferromagnets. We discuss the necessity for at least approximate particle-hole symmetry as well as the special conditions required to couple to such modes because...

What can gauge-gravity duality teach us about condensed matter physics?

Sachdev, Subir
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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I discuss the impact of gauge-gravity duality on our understanding of two classes of systems: conformal quantum matter and compressible quantum matter. The first conformal class includes systems, such as the boson Hubbard model in two spatial dimensions, which display quantum critical points described by conformal field theories. Questions associated with non-zero temperature dynamics and transport are difficult to answer using conventional field theoretic methods. I argue that many of these can be addressed systematically using gauge-gravity duality, and discuss the prospects for reliable computation of low frequency correlations. Compressible quantum matter is characterized by the smooth dependence of the charge density, associated with a global U(1) symmetry, upon a chemical potential. Familiar examples are solids, superfluids, and Fermi liquids, but there are more exotic possibilities involving deconfined phases of gauge fields in the presence of Fermi surfaces. I survey the compressible systems studied using gauge-gravity duality, and discuss their relationship to the condensed matter classification of such states. The gravity methods offer hope of a deeper understanding of exotic and strongly-coupled compressible quantum states.; Comment: 34 pages...

Thermodynamic QED Coherence in Condensed Matter: Microscopic Basis of Thermal Superradiance

Sivasubramanian, S.; Widom, A.; Srivastava, Y. N.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/09/2002 Português
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Electromagnetic superradiant field coherence exists in a condensed matter system if the electromagnetic field oscillators undergo a mean displacement. Transitions into thermal states with ordered superradiant phases have been shown to theoretically exist in Dicke-Preparata models. The theoretical validity of these models for condensed matter has been called into question due to non-relativistic diamagnetic terms in the electronic Hamiltonian. The microscopic bases of Dicke-Preparata thermal superradiance for realistic macroscopic systems are explored in this work. The impossibility of diaelectric correlations in condensed matter systems (via the Landau-Lifshitz theorem) provides a strong theoretical basis for understanding the physical reality of condensed matter thermodynamic superradiant phases.; Comment: 11 pages, no figures, LaTeX format

Finite temperature effects in Bose-Einstein Condensed dark matter halos

Harko, Tiberiu; Madarassy, Eniko J. M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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457.9382%
Once the critical temperature of a cosmological boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Zero temperature condensed dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian gravitational condensate, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state, with barotropic index equal to one. In the present paper we analyze the effects of the finite dark matter temperature on the properties of the Bose-Einstein Condensed dark matter halos. We formulate the basic equations describing the finite temperature condensate, representing a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation that takes into account the presence of the thermal cloud. The static condensate and thermal cloud in thermodynamic equilibrium is analyzed in detail, by using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and Thomas-Fermi approximations. The condensed dark matter and thermal cloud density and mass profiles at finite temperatures are explicitly obtained. Our results show that when the temperature of the condensate and of the thermal cloud are much smaller than the critical Bose-Einstein transition temperature, the zero temperature density and mass profiles give an excellent description of the dark matter halos. However...

Spin-polarized muons in condensed matter physics

Blundell, S. J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/07/2002 Português
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A positive muon is a spin-1/2 particle. Beams of muons with all their spins polarized can be prepared and subsequently implanted in various types of condensed matter. The subsequent precession and relaxation of their spins can then be used to investigate a variety of static and dynamic effects in a sample and hence to deduce properties concerning magnetism, superconductivity and molecular dynamics. Though strictly a lepton, and behaving essentially like a heavy electron, it is convenient to think of a muon as a light proton, and it is often found with a captured electron in a hydrogen-like atom known as muonium. This article outlines the principles of various experimental techniques which involve implanted muons and describes some recent applications. The use of muons in condensed matter physics has shed new light on subjects as diverse as passivation in semiconductors, frustrated spin systems, vortex lattice melting, and quantum diffusion of light particles.; Comment: 17 pages, 21 figures, review article

The Fermi Gases and Superfluids: Short Review of Experiment and Theory for Condensed Matter Physicists

Levin, K.; Hulet, Randall G.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/02/2012 Português
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The study of ultracold atomic Fermi gases is a rapidly exploding subject which is defining new directions in condensed matter and atomic physics. Quite generally what makes these gases so important is their remarkable tunability and controllability. Using a Feshbach resonance one can tune the attractive two-body interactions from weak to strong and thereby make a smooth crossover from a BCS superfluid of Cooper pairs to a Bose-Einstein condensed superfluid. Furthermore, one can tune the population of the two spin states, allowing observation of exotic spin-polarized superfluids, such as the Fulde Ferrell Larkin Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase. A wide array of powerful characterization tools, which often have direct condensed matter analogues, are available to the experimenter. In this Chapter, we present a general review of the status of these Fermi gases with the aim of communicating the excitement and great potential of the field.; Comment: 34 pages, 15 figures. To appear as a chapter in "Contemporary Concepts of Condensed Matter Science", Elsevier

Microscopic theory of non-adiabatic response in real and imaginary time

De Grandi, C.; Polkovnikov, A.; Sandvik, A. W.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We present a general approach to describe slowly driven quantum systems both in real and imaginary time. We highlight many similarities, qualitative and quantitative, between real and imaginary time evolution. We discuss how the metric tensor and the Berry curvature can be extracted from both real and imaginary time simulations as a response of physical observables. For quenches ending at or near the quantum critical point, we show the utility of the scaling theory for detecting the location of the quantum critical point by comparing sweeps at different velocities. We briefly discuss the universal relaxation to equilibrium of systems after a quench. We finally review recent developments of quantum Monte Carlo methods for studying imaginary-time evolution. We illustrate our findings with explicit calculations using the transverse field Ising model in one dimension.; Comment: 22 pages, 10 figures, revised version, contribution to the special issue of J. Phys. Condensed Matter: "Condensed matter analogues of cosmology", edited by T. Kibble and Ajit Srivastava

Planetary Atmospheres as Non-Equilibrium Condensed Matter

Marston, J. B.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Planetary atmospheres, and models of them, are discussed from the viewpoint of condensed matter physics. Atmospheres are a form of condensed matter, and many interesting phenomena of condensed matter systems are realized by them. The essential physics of the general circulation is illustrated with idealized 2-layer and 1-layer models of the atmosphere. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics are used to directly ascertain the statistics of these models.; Comment: 23 pages, 10 figures, to appear in Annual Reviews of Condensed Matter Physics (2012). Rhines scale (Eq. 25) corrected, one reference moved, and updates to other citations

Causality and non-equilibrium second-order phase transitions in inhomogeneous systems

del Campo, A.; Kibble, T. W. B.; Zurek, W. H.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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When a second-order phase transition is crossed at fine rate, the evolution of the system stops being adiabatic as a result of the critical slowing down in the neighborhood of the critical point. In systems with a topologically nontrivial vacuum manifold, disparate local choices of the ground state lead to the formation of topological defects. The universality class of the transition imprints a signature on the resulting density of topological defects: It obeys a power law in the quench rate, with an exponent dictated by a combination of the critical exponents of the transition. In inhomogeneous systems the situation is more complicated, as the spontaneous symmetry breaking competes with bias caused by the influence of the nearby regions that already chose the new vacuum. As a result, the choice of the broken symmetry vacuum may be inherited from the neighboring regions that have already entered the new phase. This competition between the inherited and spontaneous symmetry breaking enhances the role of causality, as the defect formation is restricted to a fraction of the system where the front velocity surpasses the relevant sound velocity and phase transition remains effectively homogeneous. As a consequence, the overall number of topological defects can be substantially suppressed. When the fraction of the system is small...