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Tensions of colonial punishment: perspectives on recent developments in the study of coercive networks in Asia, Africa and the Caribbean

Sherman, Taylor C.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2009 Português
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The study of penal practices in colonised parts of Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Indian Ocean and the Caribbean has recently witnessed a significant shift. The first generation of research into the coercive measures of colonial states tended to focus rather narrowly on imprisonment. The second generation, which has emerged only in the last five years, has significantly widened their field of vision to incorporate much more than the prison. The most recent literature considers capital and corporal punishment, as well as the larger functioning of police and courts. It also explores in more depth the ways in which indigenous peoples experienced and interpreted their punishments. Finally, this new research is sensitive to the paradoxes and tensions of colonial punishment, which often frustrated its purposes. This article reflects upon these historiographical shifts, and argues that, in light of these developments, a new framework for the study of colonial punishment is now called for. It suggests that an approach which views colonial coercive techniques as part of imperial ‘coercive networks’ encapsulates this new thinking.

Fragile stability: state and society in democratic South Africa

Beall, Jo; Gelb, Stephen; Hassim, Shireen
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
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This article adopts a 'state-in-society' approach in order to take account of the impact of the transition to democracy in South Africa on social groups and their engagement with the state. The article suggests that democratic consolidation involves not only building a new state but also new interfaces between state and society. We use the term 'fragile stability' to characterise the contradictory nature of South Africa's transition a decade after apartheid: society is stable in that the non-racial regime is fully accepted as legitimate, but the immense social problems which were apartheid's legacy remain a threat to social order. The article shows how state authority and capacity have been regenerated from a position of severe weakness at the time of the transition, to a situation today where it has substantial capabilities in exercising basic functions such as policing, border control and taxation. However, we argue that in many other social arenas, both stability and fragility have increased. Drawing on other articles in this special issue, we discuss the different patterns in which the contradictory combination of stability and fragility has evolved. The macro-economic situation has been both stabilising and destabilising, but different policies have been responsible for each. We suggest that single-party dominance of the political arena...

Book Review: Women and power in postconflict Africa by Aili Mari Tripp

Evans, Alice
Fonte: The London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/12/2015 Português
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In Women and Power in Postconflict Africa, Aili Mari Tripp provocatively argues that major conflict can have disruptive, egalitarian effects, catalysing women’s increased legislative representation. She demonstrates how conflict has often pushed women into socially valued domains, where they demonstrate their equal abilities and thereby undermine prevailing gender ideologies. Alice Evans explores the theoretical insights of this important scholarship, arguing that the book sheds light on much broader processes of egalitarian social change common to the Global North and South alike.

Book review: Africa emerges

Elbra, Ainsley
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/07/2013 Português
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"Africa Emerges." Robert I. Rotberg. Polity. April 2013. --- Many countries in Sub–Saharan Africa are now enjoying significant economic growth and political progress. The new Africa has begun to banish the miseries of the past, and appears ready to play an important role in world affairs. Africa Emerges draws on a wealth of empirical data to explore the key challenges Africa must overcome in the coming decades, from peacekeeping to health and disease, from energy needs to education. Ainsley Elbra finds that this book is replete with data at all levels and on a wide variety of measures that should be of interest to any reader keen to develop an understanding of recent changes taking place throughout Africa.

Book review: Justifying interventions in Africa: (de)stabilizing sovereignty in Liberia, Burundi and the Congo

Rauta, Vladamir
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/07/2013 Português
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"Justifying Interventions in Africa: (De)Stabilizing Sovereignty in Liberia, Burundi and the Congo." Nina Wilén. Palgrave Macmillan. February 2012. --- Analyzing the UN interventions in Liberia, Burundi and the Congo, Nina Wilén poses the question of how one can stabilize a state through external intervention without destabilizing sovereignty. She critically examines the justifications for international and regional interventions through a social constructivist framework. Vladimir Rauta finds a clear and detailed book, of use to students of IR and development studies.

More than just talk: the framing of transactional sex and its implications for vulnerability to HIV in Lesotho, Madagascar and South Africa

Stoebenau, Kirsten; Nixon, Stephanie A.; Rubincam, Clara; Willan, Samantha; Zembe, Yanga Z.N.; Tsikoane, Tumelo; Tanga, Pius T.; Bello, Haruna M.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Townsend, Loraine; Rakotoarison, Paul G.; Razafintsalama, Violette
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
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Background 'Transactional sex' was regarded by the mid-1990s as an important determinant of HIV transmission, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Little attention has been paid to what the terms used to denote transactional sex suggest about how it is understood. This study provides a nuanced set of descriptions of the meaning of transactional sex in three settings. Furthermore, we discuss how discourses around transactional sex suggest linkages to processes of globalization and hold implications for vulnerability to HIV. Methods The analysis in this article is based on three case studies conducted as part of a multi-country research project that investigated linkages between economic globalization and HIV. In this analysis, we contextualize and contrast the 'talk' about transactional sex through the following research methods in three study sites: descriptions revealed through semi-structured interviews with garment workers in Lesotho; focus groups with young women and men in Antananarivo, Madagascar; and focus groups and in-depth interviews with young women and men in Mbekweni, South Africa. Results Participants' talk about transactional sex reveals two themes: (1) 'The politics of differentiation' reflects how participants used language to demarcate identities...

Exit, voice and tradition: loyalty to chieftainship and democracy in metropolitan Durban, South Africa

Beall, Jo
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2005 Português
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Strains on democratic governance in many parts of Africa have led to a resurgence of the salience of traditional authority. Traditional mechanisms of accountability are being evoked at a time when across the continent the accountability of modern institutions has increasingly come under question. In the wake of these trends two broad view points have prevailed: the first is that chieftaincy is integral to sub-Saharan Africa's problems, operating as a brake on democratisation; the second is that traditional authorities have a stabilising influence under conditions of social and political turmoil or stress. In this broad climate, in South Africa democratisation was accompanied by moves to guarantee traditional leaders a role in governance, especially at the local level and most particularly in rural areas and small towns where under apartheid no other form of local government existed for black South Africans. This was not the case in cities where Black Local Authorities (BLAs) administered African townships. They were seen as stooges of the apartheid regime, and they and the services they oversaw became a central site of struggle in urban areas. Among South Africa's metropolitan municipalities, Greater Durban is something of an anomaly as an urban centre of over three million people embracing fifteen traditional authority areas. On the basis of historical research...

The absence of common values and failure of common security in Southern Africa, 1992-2003

Nathan, Laurie
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2004 Português
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This paper seeks to contribute to an inquiry into the factors that affect the viability and efficacy of regional organisations in Africa as peacemaking and security forums. The main aim of the paper is to explain the Southern African Development Community’s limited success in peacemaking and in its efforts to establish a common security regime. Three major problems are discussed: the absence of common values among member states, which inhibits the development of trust, institutional cohesion, common policies and unified responses to crises; the reluctance of states to surrender sovereignty to a security regime that encompasses binding rules and decision-making; and the economic and administrative weakness of states. These are all national problems that cannot be solved at the regional level. Paradoxically, the challenge of common security in Southern Africa is less a regional than a national challenge.

Traditional authority, institutional multiplicity and political transition in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Beall, Jo; Mkhize, Sibongiseni; Vawda, Shahid
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2004 Português
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Adherents of tradition argue that customary institutions in Africa and the traditional leaders that uphold them have a stabilizing influence, particularly given the inadequacies of many post-colonial African states. It is suggested that this remains the case for South Africa as well and that chieftaincy, though tainted by its association with segregation and apartheid, has nevertheless provided continuity of governance, particularly in rural areas where there were scant alternative structures. Opponents see the return to tradition as a regressive step that undermines progress towards democratic consolidation in Africa generally and in South Africa more particularly. In many respects these concerns are not new and reflect careful historical debate in South Africa that remains relevant in informing and understanding the contemporary period. With this in mind this paper explores the institution of ubukhosi, or chieftainship, in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), where resurgent tradition is particularly vociferous, but also part of a longer history exhibiting both continuities and discontinuities. Against this background it considers whether the recognition of traditional authorities and the powers and functions accorded to them in South Africa, and more particularly KZN...

Rethinking militarism in post-apartheid South Africa

Cock, Jacklyn
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2004 Português
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This paper argues that contemporary South Africa is marked by a co-existence of both old and new forms of militarism. It tries to move beyond the statist conception of militarism in much of the scholarly literature in order to examine social relations more broadly, and the appropriation of the means and instruments of violence by non-state groups. The paper argues that a shallow and uneven process of state demilitarisation was underway in South Africa from 1990 in the form of reductions in military expenditure, weapons holdings, force levels, demobilisation, employment in arms production and base closures. However, this has had contradictory consequences. The failure to provide for the effective social integration of ex-combatants throughout the Southern African region, as well as ineffective disarmament in post-conflict peace building, has provided an impetus to a 'privatised militarism'. This is evident in three related processes: new forms of violence, the commoditisation of security, through the growth of private security firms and, most importantly, the proliferation of small arms. It is argued that small arms are highly racialised and linked to a militarised conception of citizenship. This feeds into a militarist nationalism...

Crisis states: South Africa in Southern Africa

Crisis States Research Centre,
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2001 Português
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This paper provides full details of the Crisis States Programme in Southern Africa.

Indigenous institutions, traditional leaders and elite coalitions for development: the case of Greater Durban, South Africa

Beall, Jo; Ngonyama, Mduduzi
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
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South Africa was not atypical in having to accommodate indigenous institutions in its new political order when the country made its transition from minority rule to a non-racial democracy in 1994. In many parts of the world, and especially post-colonial states, customary forms of governance remain salient, being deeply rooted in local institutions. Indigenous institutions are not immutable and have connected with, and been engaged by, colonial powers and western states in a range of ways and to varying effect over many decades. Yet it is increasingly recognised that institutional multiplicity and competing claims to social and political legitimacy need to be taken seriously within hybrid political orders. State making and peace building in post-apartheid South Africa was made possible by the creation of an administrative machinery that could contain customary authority structures within a broader polity, political structures and processes that channelled the ambitions and grievances of traditional leaders, and a system of local government that drew on the presence and experience of chieftaincies to bring development to hard-to-reach areas. This was a contested process that is by no means over and it has had mixed results. Yet pockets of success have emerged out of the transitional period...

Book review: The horn of Africa by Kidane Mengisteab

Beloff, Jonathan
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/01/2014 Português
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"The Horn of Africa." Kidane Mengisteab. Polity Press. October 2013. --- The Horn of Africa is a deeply troubled region engulfed in multiple, interlocking crises. In this book Kidane Mengisteab aims to explore the key drivers of instability in the region, suggesting structural and institutional changes that – if implemented – could help lift the region out of crisis. Jonathan R. Beloff writes that the author successfully introduces topics that are often forgotten when examining the region.

Burial sites, informal rights and lost kingdoms: the contesting of land claims in Mpumalanga, South Africa

James, Deborah
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2009 Português
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In the new South Africa, the promise of land restitution raised millennial-style expectations amongst dispossessed and dispersed former landholders. Partly prompted by emerging policy discourses, iconic tropes of localised cultural experience such as grave sites, initiation lodges and cattle byres have acquired new significance: they became verifiable evidence of effective possession of – because proving what the Land Claims Commission calls ‘informal rights’ in – land. They thus became grounds on the basis of which to claim the restoration of such land. The meaning of land, the nature of ownership, and the legitimacy of its restoration, were all matters contested between claimants and policy makers/human rights lawyers. They were also contested by those at different levels in the hierarchical social order of the new South Africa. Members of the African nationalist political elite, in dialogue with lawyers, cherished one set of understandings while ordinary migrant/country-dwellers tended to hold to another. Both, however, were mediated through the new discourse on informal rights. It is neither purely through the activities of cosmopolitan elites with their ‘political demand for land’ nor through the unmediated localist experience of less sophisticated country-dwellers with more practical orientations that the significance of land becomes evident...

Book review: Sexuality and social justice in Africa: rethinking homophobia and forging resistance

Lee, Jia Hui
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/09/2013 Português
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"Sexuality and Social Justice in Africa: Rethinking Homophobia and Forging Resistance." Marc Epprecht. Zed Books. July 2013. --- The persecution of people in Africa on the basis of their homosexual orientation has recently received considerable coverage in the media. However, much of the analysis thus far has been highly critical of African leadership and culture without considering local nuances, historical factors and external influences that are contributing to the problem. In this book, based on pioneering research on the history of homosexualities and engagement with current LGBTI activism, Marc Epprecht aims to provide a sympathetic overview of the issues at play. Clearly written and richly annotated, the book will prove to be a useful guide for academics, social workers, and activists, writes Jia Hui Lee.

Book review: Democratic trajectories in Africa: unravelling the impact of foreign aid, edited by Danielle Resnick and Nicolas van de Walle

Beloff, Jonathan
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/03/2014 Português
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"Democratic Trajectories in Africa: Unravelling the Impact of Foreign Aid." Edited by Danielle Resnick and Nicolas van de Walle. Oxford University Press. October 2013. --- Despite impressive economic growth rates over the last decade, foreign aid still plays a significant role in Africa’s political economies. This book asks when, why, and how foreign aid has facilitated, or hindered, democratization in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors use a combination of cross-country quantitative analyses and in-depth case studies of Benin, Ghana, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia based on recent interviews with donors, government officials, and civil society organizations. Researchers interested in the effects of foreign aid to the establishment and orchestration of democratic institutions will find this book useful in their studies, writes Jonathan R. Beloff.

Continuity of moral policy: a reconsideration of British motives for the partition of East Africa in light of anti-slave trade policy and imperial agency, 1878-96

Gjersø, Jonas Fossli
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: text
Publicado em /05/2015 Português
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In the century and a half since the days of the ‘scramble for Africa’ a vast body of literature has emerged attempting to disentangle the complexities of the ‘New Imperialism’. One of the most prominent and enduring theories was proposed by Ronald Robinson and John Gallagher in Africa and the Victorians, which linked the partition of East Africa with geo-strategic concerns connected to Egypt and India. Building upon John Darwin’s initial critique, this thesis will re-examine the partition of East Africa in an attempt at offering a comprehensive refutation of the Egypto-centric interpretation. The explanatory model will be exposed as a post-hoc fallacy, neither grounded in documentary evidence nor consistent with the sequence of events and policy-decisions. An alternative understanding will be proposed in which the partition of East Africa in successive stages from 1884 to 1895 formed part of a British policy continuum in the region, wherein protection of commercial interests and suppression of the slave trade were the principal determinants. By tracing the chronology of the partition it will be contended that its ultimate geographical scope was substantially determined at the very beginning of the colonisation process; whilst imperial agency were decisive in expanding the British sphere of influence to comprise Uganda in 1890 and similarly...

Alternative beliefs about HIV/AIDS: re‐examining distrust among young adults in Cape Town, South Africa

Rubincam, Clara
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2013 Português
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Alternative beliefs about HIV – such as the man‐made origins of the virus or the secret existence of a cure ‐ can undermine trust in, and engagement with HIV prevention and treatment initiatives. These effects make understanding such beliefs an important component of responding to HIV/AIDS in South Africa. Echoing Robins’ observation that the current era allows for “the possibility of critical reflection on the ways in which contestations over scientific truth unfold under particular historical conditions” (2009a), this thesis seeks to reconsider dominant explanations for alternative beliefs about HIV/AIDS in South Africa. Previous studies maintain that the experiences of apartheid, the transition to democracy, and the early years of the new government have had permanent implications for the public’s trust in biomedical claims. In this thesis I argue that in addition to these explanations, individuals express distrust about HIV science because certain aspects of these scientific explanations do not ‘add‐up’, particularly when considered in light of their everyday observations and experiences. These disjunctures in information do not simply reflect a lack of HIV knowledge or rejection of scientific principles. Rather...

The social origins of property and contract: a study of East Africa before 1918

Lyall, Andrew Bremner
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1980 Português
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The thesis examines the social basis of the property and contractual relations of social groups in German East Africa. Chapter 1 oonsiders property relations arising principally from the labour of the producer. Social groups characterised by a communal mode of production are subdivided into shifting and stable sub-forms. In the first form, production units comprise production communities and family work-teams. In contrast to Meillassoux's study of the Guro, property relations are realised atthe level of the work-team. Land tenure in the two sub-forms differs, reflecting distinct practices in agriculture and labour organisation. Chapter 2 examines property relations arising from the direct appropriation of surplus labour by non-producers. Tributary and feudal modes of production are distinguished. Forms of tribute are examined. The 'bundle of rights' concept and Honore's theory of ownership are criticised. Chapter 3 concerns the social dissolution of the two previous forms of property due to the growth of commodity relations. Forms of sale, lease and mortgage are examined. The notion of 'absolute title' is analysed and comparisons with English Law made. Chapter 4 is a theoretical study of forms of exchange and corresponding legal relations. Chapter 5 applies aspects of the theory to contracts in East Africa. Contracts were generally not enforced. The significant point in the emergence of a law of contract was in debt relations. Generally loans were made without interest. In this case there is no distinction between restitution and enforcement of a promise. Instances of charging of interest are found where trade was developed. The Islamic rule against usury was found on the coast...

Nationalism and secession in the Horn of Africa: a critique of the ethnic interpretation

Jacquin-Berdal, Dominique
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 Português
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This thesis seeks to assess the relevance of existing theories about the origins of nationalism and investigate more specifically the claim that nationalism is rooted in ethnicity. It does so by examining the cases of Eritrea and Somaliland, which proclaimed their independence in May 1991 after seceding from the states to which they were formerly united. Having explained in the introduction why International Relations needs to take a closer look at the causes of nationalism, the second chapter proceeds to review some of the main theories about the origins of nationalism. It retraces the history of the primordialist-modernist debate, discusses the main contentions of the ethnonationalist approach and presents some of the factors singled-out by recent scholarship as propitious for the emergence of nationalism. Given that most of the theories about the origins of nationalism presented in chapter two centre on Europe, chapter three surveys the literature on the rise of nationalism in Africa i_n order to determine whether any additional factors need to be considered before analysing Eritrea and Somaliland. Chapter three also includes a discussion of the anthropological literature on ethnicity in Africa and questions the ethnonationalist claim that ethnic groups are pre-modern. Using as a framework the factors identified previously...