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Bone quality and osteoporosis therapy; Qualidade óssea e tratamento da osteoporose

MARTIN, Regina Matsunaga; CORREA, Pedro Henrique S.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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17.163331%
Although BMD measured by DXA is a useful clinical tool for osteoporosis diagnosis, changes resulting from osteoporosis treatment only partially explain the observed reduction in fractures. Several other bone properties that influence its resistance to fractures and explain this discrepancy have been defined as "bone quality". Bone quality is determined by its structural and material properties and orchestrated by bone turnover, a continuous process of renewal through which old or damaged bone is replaced by a mechanically healthy bone and calcium homeostasis is maintained. Bone structural properties include its geometry (size and shape) and microarchitecture (trabecular architecture and cortical porosity), while bone material properties include its mineral and collagen composition as well as microdamage and its repair. This review aims to update concepts surrounding bone quality and how drugs employed to treat osteoporosis might influence them.; Embora a DMO, medida por DEXA, seja um recurso clínico útil para o diagnóstico da osteoporose, mudanças resultantes do tratamento da osteoporose explicam apenas parcialmente a redução de fraturas. As demais propriedades ósseas que influenciam sua resistência a fraturas, que não se referem à massa óssea e explicam a discrepância entre os valores de DMO e o risco de fratura...

Low bone mass in children and adolescents

Borges,João Lindolfo C.; Brandão,Cynthia M.A.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2006 Português
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17.163331%
Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and micro architectural alterations of bone tissue leading to enhanced bone fragility and increased fracture risk. Although research in osteoporosis has focused mainly on the role of bone loss in the elderly population, it is becoming increasingly clear that the amount of bone that is gained during growth is also an important determinant of future resistance to fractures. Thus, considerable interest is being placed on defining preventive strategies that optimize the gain of bone mass during childhood and adolescence. Knowledge of the determinants accounting for the physiologic and genetic variations in bone accumulation in children will provide the best means toward the early diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. This article reviews the techniques available for bone mass measurements in children and the major determinants and diseases influencing bone accretion during childhood and adolescence.

Bone quality and osteoporosis therapy

Martin,Regina Matsunaga; Correa,Pedro Henrique S.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.163331%
Although BMD measured by DXA is a useful clinical tool for osteoporosis diagnosis, changes resulting from osteoporosis treatment only partially explain the observed reduction in fractures. Several other bone properties that influence its resistance to fractures and explain this discrepancy have been defined as "bone quality". Bone quality is determined by its structural and material properties and orchestrated by bone turnover, a continuous process of renewal through which old or damaged bone is replaced by a mechanically healthy bone and calcium homeostasis is maintained. Bone structural properties include its geometry (size and shape) and microarchitecture (trabecular architecture and cortical porosity), while bone material properties include its mineral and collagen composition as well as microdamage and its repair. This review aims to update concepts surrounding bone quality and how drugs employed to treat osteoporosis might influence them.

Cohort Profile Update: 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Body composition, mental health and genetic assessment at the 6 years follow-up

Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio JD; Matijasevich, Alicia; Zanini, Roberta; Chrestani Cesar, Maria Aurora; Camargo-Figuera, Fabio Alberto; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.490767%
This is an update of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort profile, originally published in 2011. In view of the high prevalence of overweight and mental health problems among Brazilian children, together with the availability of state-of-the-art equipment to assess body composition and diagnostic tests for mental health in childhood, the main outcomes measured in the fifth follow-up (mean age 6.8 years) included child body composition, mental health and cognitive ability. A total of 3722 (90.2%) of the original mothers/carers were interviewed and their children examined in a clinic where they underwent whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography and a 3D photonic scan. Saliva samples for DNA were obtained. Clinical psychologists applied the Development and Well-Being Assessment questionnaire and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to all children. Results are being compared with those of the two earlier cohorts to assess the health effects of economic growth and full implementation of public policies aimed at reducing social inequalities in the past 30 years. For further information visit the programme website at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/coorte_2004/questionarios.php]. Applications to use the data should be made by contacting 2004 cohort researchers and filling in the application form available at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/estudos/formularios.php].

Revised Proposal for the Prevention of Low Bone Mass in Patients with Classic Galactosemia

van Erven, Britt; Römers, Myrna M. M.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/08/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.163331%
Decreased bone mass is frequently encountered in classic galactosemia, an inborn error of galactose metabolism. This decrease is most prominent in adults, but is already seen in prepubertal children with increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures later in life. Therefore, bone health in patients with classic galactosemia is increasingly monitored. Although the pathophysiological mechanism is still not fully understood, several factors could negatively affect bone metabolism in this disease. Patients are at risk of nutritional deficiencies due to the galactose-restricted diet. Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in female patients also contributes to decreased bone mass. Furthermore, patients with classic galactosemia might be less physically active due to motor or neurological impairments. A disease-specific intrinsic abnormality has been suggested as well. This revised proposal is an update of the 2007 recommendations. In this current approach, we advise comprehensive dietary evaluation, optimization of calcium intake if needed, monitoring and if necessary supplementation of vitamin D, hormonal status evaluation and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) consideration, as well as a regular exercise and assessment of skeletal deformities and clinically significant fractures. We propose bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by serial DXA scans of the lumbar spine...

Bone density testing in clinical practice

Lewiecki,E. Michael; Borges,João Lindolfo C.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.900574%
The diagnosis of osteoporosis and monitoring of treatment is a challenge for physicians due to the large number of available tests and complexities of interpretation. Bone mineral density (BMD) testing is a non-invasive measurement to assess skeletal health. The "gold-standard" technology for diagnosis and monitoring is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the spine, hip, or forearm. Fracture risk can be predicted using DXA and other technologies at many skeletal sites. Despite guidelines for selecting patients for BMD testing and identifying those most likely to benefit from treatment, many patients are not being tested or receiving therapy. Even patients with very high risk of fracture, such as those on long-term glucocorticoid therapy or with prevalent fragility fractures, are often not managed appropriately. The optimal testing strategy varies according to local availability and affordability of BMD testing. The role of BMD testing to monitor therapy is still being defined, and interpretation of serial studies requires special attention to instrument calibration, acquisition technique, analysis, and precision assessment. BMD is usually reported as a T-score, the standard deviation variance of the patient's BMD compared to a normal young-adult reference population. BMD in postmenopausal women is classified as normal...