Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Educação Matemática - IGCE; The intention of this research is to develop an understanding, through the narratives of teachers who teach mathematics, about school inclusion and the process of teaching and learning of mathematics students with disabilities, pervasive developmental disorders, high skills and giftedness. To produce the narratives we use the assumptions of Oral History routinely used by the group of História Oral e Educação Matemática (Ghoem). Interviews have been made and we used official data from Campinas, city where the research was made, in order to contextualize the location of this research. Our subject were nine teachers who teach mathematics wherein seven of them are graduated mathematics teachers and the other two are graduated in special education. In this sense we did an analysis of convergence/divergence were we highlight three themes that provide the tailpiece of our work. The first category was nominated At first look, we discussed the feeling of teachers entering the first time in your classroom and realize that there are student with disabilities in it; Here we also understand that we must consider the feelings of the teachers of special education when having to teach mathematic and others; Formation is the second topic addressed where we discussed the formation of mathematic teachers in relation to the special education...
Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.
Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9–10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported.
Converging evidence indicates that developmental problems in oral language and mathematics can predate or co-occur with developmental dyslexia (DD). Substantial genetic correlations have been found between language, mathematics and reading traits, independent of the method of sampling. We tested for association of variants of two DD susceptibility genes, DCDC2 and DYX1C1, in nuclear families ascertained through a proband with DD using concurrent measurements of language and mathematics in both probands and siblings by the Quantitative Transmission Disequilibrium Test. Evidence for significant associations was found between DCDC2 and ‘Numerical Facts’ (p value = 0.02, with 85 informative families, genetic effect = 0.57) and between ‘Mental Calculation’ and DYX1C1 markers −3GA (p value = 0.05, with 40 informative families, genetic effect = −0.67) and 1249GT (p value = 0.02, with 49 informative families, genetic effect = −0.65). No statistically significant associations were found between DCDC2 or DYX1C1 and language phenotypes. Both DCDC2 and DYX1C1 DD susceptibility genes appear to have a pleiotropic role on mathematics but not language phenotypes.
ADHD is associated with academic underachievement, but it remains unclear what mechanism accounts for this association. Semantic language is an underexplored mechanism that provides a developmental explanation for this association. The present study will examine whether semantic language deficits explain the association between ADHD and reading and mathematics underachievement, taking into account alternative explanations for associations, including verbal working memory (WM) impairments, as well as specificity of effects to inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptom domains. Participants in this cross-sectional study were 546 children (54% male) ages six to twelve (M=9.77, SD=1.49). ADHD symptoms were measured via maternal and teacher report during structured interviews and on standardized rating forms. Children completed standardized semantic language, verbal WM, and academic testing. Semantic language fully mediated the ADHD-reading achievement association and partially mediated the ADHD-mathematics achievement association. Verbal WM also partially mediated the ADHD-mathematics association but did not mediate the ADHD-reading achievement association. Results generalized across inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptom domains. Semantic language explained the association between ADHD and reading underachievement and partially explained the association between ADHD and mathematics underachievement. Together...
It is acknowledged that some obesity trajectories are set early in life, and that rapid weight gain in infancy is a risk factor for later development of obesity. Identifying modifiable factors associated with early rapid weight gain is a prerequisite for curtailing the growing worldwide obesity epidemic. Recently, much attention has been given to findings indicating that gut microbiota may play a role in obesity development. We aim at identifying how the development of early gut microbiota is associated with expected infant growth. We developed a novel procedure that allows for the identification of longitudinal gut microbiota patterns (corresponding to the gut ecosystem developing), which are associated with an outcome of interest, while appropriately controlling for the false discovery rate. Our method identified developmental pathways of Staphylococcus species and Escherichia coli that were associated with expected growth, and traditional methods indicated that the detection of Bacteroides species at day 30 was associated with growth. Our method should have wide future applicability for studying gut microbiota, and is particularly important for translational considerations, as it is critical to understand the timing of microbiome transitions prior to attempting to manipulate gut microbiota in early life.
According to Venezia, Kirst, and Antonio (2003) and Barth’s 2002 Thinking K16 Ticket to Nowhere report, the disconnect between K-12 and postsecondary education was a contributing factor to high attrition rates. Since mathematics emerged as a primary concern for college readiness, Barth (2002) called for improving student transitions from K-12 to postsecondary institutions through the use of state or local data. The purpose of the present study was to analyze mathematics course-taking patterns of secondary students in a local context and to evaluate high school characteristics in order to explore their relationships with Associate degree attainment or continuous enrollment at an urban community college. Also, this study extended a national study conducted by Clifford Adelman (The Toolbox Revisited, 2006) as it specifically focused on community college students that were not included his study. Furthermore, this study used the theoretical framework that human capital, social capital, and cultural capital influence habitus - an individual’s or a group’s learned inclination to behave within the parameters of the imposed prevailing culture and norms. Specifically, the school embedded culture as it relates to tracking worked as a reproduction tool of ultimate benefit for the privileged group (Oakes...
During the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase by postsecondary institutions in providing academic programs and course offerings in a multitude of formats and venues (Biemiller, 2009; Kucsera & Zimmaro, 2010; Lang, 2009; Mangan, 2008). Strategies pertaining to reapportionment of course-delivery seat time have been a major facet of these institutional initiatives; most notably, within many open-door 2-year colleges. Often, these enrollment-management decisions are driven by the desire to increase market-share, optimize the usage of finite facility capacity, and contain costs, especially during these economically turbulent times. So, while enrollments have surged to the point where nearly one in three 18-to-24 year-old U.S. undergraduates are community college students (Pew Research Center, 2009), graduation rates, on average, still remain distressingly low (Complete College America, 2011). Among the learning-theory constructs related to seat-time reapportionment efforts is the cognitive phenomenon commonly referred to as the spacing effect, the degree to which learning is enhanced by a series of shorter, separated sessions as opposed to fewer, more massed episodes.
This ex post facto study explored whether seat time in a postsecondary developmental-level algebra course is significantly related to: course success; course-enrollment persistence; and...
Many students are entering colleges and universities in the United States underprepared in mathematics. National statistics indicate that only approximately one-third of students in developmental mathematics courses pass. When underprepared students repeatedly enroll in courses that do not count toward their degree, it costs them money and delays graduation. This study investigated a possible solution to this problem: Whether using a particular computer assisted learning strategy combined with using mastery learning techniques improved the overall performance of students in a developmental mathematics course. Participants received one of three teaching strategies: (a) group A was taught using traditional instruction with mastery learning supplemented with computer assisted instruction, (b) group B was taught using traditional instruction supplemented with computer assisted instruction in the absence of mastery learning and, (c) group C was taught using traditional instruction without mastery learning or computer assisted instruction. Participants were students in MAT1033, a developmental mathematics course at a large public 4-year college. An analysis of covariance using participants’ pretest scores as the covariate tested the null hypothesis that there was no significant difference in the adjusted mean final examination scores among the three groups. Group A participants had significantly higher adjusted mean posttest score than did group C participants. A chi-square test tested the null hypothesis that there were no significant differences in the proportions of students who passed MAT1033 among the treatment groups. It was found that there was a significant difference in the proportion of students who passed among all three groups...
Presentamos una guía –matemática, evolutiva
y didáctica– para estudiar el juego de
construcción en la Educación Infantil y
reflexionar sobre las posibilidades que ofrece
para el aprendizaje de las matemáticas. Para
ello, describimos un material que favorece la
actividad matemática, explicamos qué tipo de
construcciones realizan los niños de 2 a 6
años, y qué evolución se observa en la
construcción en estas edades. Después,
ofrecemos orientaciones didácticas para
implementar el juego de construcción y
promover el aprendizaje de las matemáticas.
Finalizamos reflexionando sobre condiciones
suficientes que deben darse en el juego para
«asegurar» que se produce un aprendizaje
matemático.; We present a mathematical, developmental,
and educational guide to study block play in
Early Childhood Education and to reflect on the
possibilities that block play offers for the
learning of mathematics. To this end, we
describe a building material that promotes
mathematical activity; we explain what kind of
construction is performed by children from 2 to
6 years, and what development can be
observed in block play in this age group. Then,
we offer educational orientations to implement
block play and to promote the learning of
mathematics. We conclude by reflecting on
sufficient conditions for block play to «ensure»
that mathematical learning really takes place.
This study examined standards-based mathematics reform initiatives to determine if they would improve student achievement on the part of low-performing students. New curricula, the Carnegie Learning Cognitive Tutor®, were provided for algebra and geometry students. The new instructional strategy relied on both the teacher-led instruction and the use of computers to differentiate instruction for individual students. Mathematics teachers received ongoing professional development to help them implement the new curricula. In addition, teachers were provided with ongoing support to assist them with the transformation of the learning environments for students using standards-based practices. This quasi-experimental (nonrandomized) study involved teachers in two matched urban high schools. ^ Analyses (ANCOVAs) revealed that the experimental group with an appropriately implemented program had significantly higher learning gains than the comparison group as determined by the students' 2007 mathematics Developmental Scale Score (DSS). In addition, the experimental group's adjusted mean for the second interim mathematics assessment was significantly higher than the comparison group's mean. The findings support the idea that if the traditional curriculum is replaced with standards-based curriculum...
This study examined the effectiveness of intelligent tutoring system instruction, grounded in John Anderson's ACT theory of cognition, on the achievement and attitude of developmental mathematics students in the community college setting. The quasi-experimental research used a pretest-posttest control group design. The dependent variables were problem solving achievement, overall achievement, and attitude towards mathematics. The independent variable was instructional method.
Four intact classes and two instructors participated in the study for one semester. Two classes (n = 35) served as experimental groups; they received six lessons with real-world problems using intelligent tutoring system instruction. The other two classes (n = 24) served as control groups; they received six lessons with real-world problems using traditional instruction including graphing calculator support. It was hypothesized that students taught problem solving using the intelligent tutoring system would achieve more on the dependent variables than students taught without the intelligent tutoring system.
Posttest mean scores for one teacher produced a significant difference in overall achievement for the experimental group. The same teacher had higher means...
This study examined the effectiveness of intelligent tutoring system instruction, grounded in John Anderson's ACT theory of cognition, on the achievement and attitude of developmental mathematics students in the community college setting. The quasi-experimental research used a pretest-posttest control group design. The dependent variables were problem solving achievement, overall achievement, and attitude towards mathematics. The independent variable was instructional method.^ Four intact classes and two instructors participated in the study for one semester. Two classes (n = 35) served as experimental groups; they received six lessons with real-world problems using intelligent tutoring system instruction. The other two classes (n = 24) served as control groups; they received six lessons with real-world problems using traditional instruction including graphing calculator support. It was hypothesized that students taught problem solving using the intelligent tutoring system would achieve more on the dependent variables than students taught without the intelligent tutoring system.^ Posttest mean scores for one teacher produced a significant difference in overall achievement for the experimental group. The same teacher had higher means...
This study examined the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) 1 hour per week for 18 weeks on changes in computational scores and attitudes of developmental mathematics students at schools with predominantly Black enrollment. Comparisons were made between students using CAI with differing software--PLATO, CSR or both together--and students using traditional instruction (TI) only.^ This study was conducted in the Dade County Public School System from February through June 1991, at two senior high schools. The dependent variables, the State Student Assessment Test (SSAT), and the School Subjects Attitude Scales (SSAS), measured students' computational scores and attitudes toward mathematics in 3 categories: interest, usefulness, and difficulty, respectively.^ Univariate analyses of variance were performed on the least squares mean differences from pretest to posttest for testing main effects and interactions. A t-test measured significant main effects and interactions. Results were interpreted at the.01 level of significance.^ Null hypotheses 1, 2, and 3 compared versions of CAI with the control group, for changes in mathematical computation scores measured with the SSAT. It could not be concluded that changes in standardized mathematics test scores of students using CAI with differing software 1 hour per week for 18 class hours combined with TI were significantly higher than changes in test scores for students receiving TI only.^ Null hypotheses 4...
Many students are entering colleges and universities in the United States underprepared in mathematics. National statistics indicate that only approximately one-third of students in developmental mathematics courses pass. When underprepared students repeatedly enroll in courses that do not count toward their degree, it costs them money and delays graduation. This study investigated a possible solution to this problem: Whether using a particular computer assisted learning strategy combined with using mastery learning techniques improved the overall performance of students in a developmental mathematics course. Participants received one of three teaching strategies: (a) group A was taught using traditional instruction with mastery learning supplemented with computer assisted instruction, (b) group B was taught using traditional instruction supplemented with computer assisted instruction in the absence of mastery learning and, (c) group C was taught using traditional instruction without mastery learning or computer assisted instruction. Participants were students in MAT1033, a developmental mathematics course at a large public 4-year college. An analysis of covariance using participants' pretest scores as the covariate tested the null hypothesis that there was no significant difference in the adjusted mean final examination scores among the three groups. Group A participants had significantly higher adjusted mean posttest score than did group C participants. A chi-square test tested the null hypothesis that there were no significant differences in the proportions of students who passed MAT1033 among the treatment groups. It was found that there was a significant difference in the proportion of students who passed among all three groups...
Este trabalho teve como objetivo reconhecer a dinâmica do processo de desenvolvimento de conceitos numéricos iniciais, na interação entre adultos e crianças de 2 a 5 anos de idade, em dois ambientes escolares distintos. A fundamentação teórica apresentou o modelo PPCT (Processo – Pessoa - Contexto - Tempo) de Urie Bronfenbrenner, como norte da investigação, o que permitiu visualizar a relevância da complexidade das práticas sociais, históricas e culturais para o desenvolvimento humano. Foram selecionadas duas instituições de Educação Infantil para a execução da pesquisa: o Núcleo de Desenvolvimento Infantil (NDI), pertencente ao sistema público federal de ensino da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, no município de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil e a Scuola Comunale XXV Aprile, pertencente ao sistema público municipal de ensino, na cidade de Reggio Emilia, Itália. Sendo uma investigação etnográfica, os procedimentos para coleta de informações foram realizados em observações e entrevistas, no período de março/2006 a dezembro/2007 na escola brasileira que teve, como participantes, um grupo composto por setenta e seis crianças, além de vinte e seis pessoas envolvidas direta ou indiretamente na pesquisa. Na escola italiana...
We present DevStaR, an automated computer vision and machine learning system that provides rapid, accurate, and quantitative measurements of C. elegans embryonic viability in high-throughput (HTP) applications. A leading genetic model organism for the study of animal development and behavior, C. elegans is particularly amenable to HTP functional genomic analysis due to its small size and ease of cultivation, but the lack of efficient and quantitative methods to score phenotypes has become a major bottleneck. DevStaR addresses this challenge using a novel hierarchical object recognition machine that rapidly segments, classifies, and counts animals at each developmental stage in images of mixed-stage populations of C. elegans. Here, we describe the algorithmic design of the DevStaR system and demonstrate its performance in scoring image data acquired in HTP screens.; Fil: White, Amelia G.. Rutgers University. Department of Computational Biology and Molecular Biophysics; Estados Unidos de América; New York University. Department of Biology. Center for Genomics and Systems Biology; Estados Unidos de América;; Fil: Lees, Brandon. New York University. Department of Biology. Center for Genomics and Systems Biology; Estados Unidos de América;; Fil: Kao...
In this paper, we introduce the concept of Developmental Partial Differential
Equation (DPDE), which consists of a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) on a
time-varying manifold with complete coupling between the PDE and the manifold's
evolution. In other words, the manifold's evolution depends on the solution to
the PDE, and vice versa the differential operator of the PDE depends on the
manifold's geometry. DPDE is used to study a diffusion equation with source on
a growing surface whose growth depends on the intensity of the diffused
quantity. The surface may, for instance, represent the membrane of an egg
chamber and the diffused quantity a protein activating a signaling pathway
leading to growth. Our main objective is to show controllability of the surface
shape using a fixed source with variable intensity for the diffusion. More
specifically, we look for a control driving a symmetric manifold shape to any
other symmetric shape in a given time interval. For the diffusion we take
directly the Laplace-Beltrami operator of the surface, while the surface growth
is assumed to be equal to the value of the diffused quantity. We introduce a
theoretical framework, provide approximate controllability and show numerical
results. Future applications include a specific model for the oogenesis of
Drosophila melanogaster.; Comment: 7 pages. Paper submitted for CDC 2015
In this brief note, certain illustrated methods for generating developmental
paradigms (event sequences) are formalized and compared to previous methods.; Comment: Plain Tex, 15 pages. All refinements made since 20 Sept. 2010 are
included in this version
Morris, Anne B.; The emporium model has recently been adopted by several colleges throughout the country in order to improve their math programs, and literature reports that these colleges experienced an increase in learning and a decrease in costs. As a result, Delaware Technical Community College decided to redesign its developmental mathematics courses based on this model in the hopes that their students will benefit. The purpose of this study is to determine the success of Delaware Tech's emporium program, the effectiveness of particular program features, and the patterns withdrawal (WU) students exhibit in order to provide recommendations for improvement. The main research questions for this study are: 1. How successful is the emporium program as compared to the pre-emporium program? 2. What do emporium students identify as program features that promote or hinder their progress through their developmental math courses? 3. What patterns do WU students exhibit in the emporium program? To answer the first question, pass rates of emporium and pre-emporium students were calculated and a chi-square analysis was performed. The results showed that emporium students had significantly lower pass rates than pre-emporium students for developmental courses. For the second question on program features...