We tested the hypothesis that the "self-stimulatory" behaviors exhibited by some individuals may be socially mediated. Four developmentally disabled children who exhibited hand flapping and body rocking participated in a series of three experiments conducted to assess the influence of social variables on stereotyped behavior and to develop a treatment based on the assessment. Experiment 1 used an assessment procedure to determine the relative influences of social attention and task demands on stereotyped behavior. For all four children, hand flapping and body rocking increased when difficult academic tasks were introduced. Experiment 2 involved the use of a procedural time-out and demonstrated that removing task demands contingent on stereotyped behavior resulted in increased rates of hand flapping and body rocking. In Experiment 3, these results were used to develop a communication treatment that consisted of teaching the children to request assistance on the difficult tasks. This treatment resulted in significant reductions in self-stimulatory behavior. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that some forms of repetitive stereotyped behavior may come to serve social functions (e.g., escape from aversive situations). Teaching a functionally equivalent communicative alternative to escape-motivated stereotyped behavior can be an effective form of intervention for this problem.
We evaluated the effects of two procedures for teaching four developmentally disabled children to respond yes/no appropriately. During baseline, tutoring was conducted in which five known items were individually presented with the question, "Is this a ----?", followed either by access to requested items or by remedial prompting contingent on responding. When tutoring did not improve performance, instruction was embedded in the regular classroom activities. In this condition, items requested by students were either presented or withheld on the basis of their response to the question, "Do you want ----?". Increases in correct responding were confirmed by a multiple-baseline design across all four students and were maintained with the introduction of new items. However, generalization to "Is this a ----?" questions did not occur in the tutoring setting until specifically programmed. Subsequently, students also demonstrated appropriate yes/no responding to questions involving actions, possession, and spatial relations.
It is generally agreed that serious misbehavior in children should be replaced with socially appropriate behaviors, but few guidelines exist with respect to choosing replacement behaviors. We address this issue in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we developed an assessment method for identifying situations in which behavior problems, including aggression, tantrums, and self-injury, were most likely to occur. Results demonstrated that both low level of adult attention and high level of task difficulty were discriminative for misbehavior. In Experiment 2, the assessment data were used to select replacements for misbehavior. Specifically, children were taught to solicit attention or assistance or both verbally from adults. This treatment, which involved the differential reinforcement of functional communication, produced replicable suppression of behavior problems across four developmentally disabled children. The results were consistent with an hypothesis stating that some child behavior problems may be viewed as a nonverbal means of communication. According to this hypothesis, behavior problems and verbal communicative acts, though differing in form, may be equivalent in function. Therefore, strengthening the latter should weaken the former.
Motivating developmentally disabled children to participate in educational activities can be very difficult. This is especially true for children diagnosed autistic. Because there is some evidence to suggest that stimulus variation may influence motivation, the present study investigated the effects of constant vs. varied reinforcer presentation on correct responding and on-task behavior. Results from a reversal design showed declining trends in both correct responding and on-task behavior when the same reinforcer was consistently presented, whereas, varying the reinforcers produced significantly improved and stable responding. the results are discussed in relation to the literature on stimulus variation and its effects on responsiveness.
Visual screening, a mildly aversive response suppression procedure, was evaluated across two studies for its effectiveness in reducing topographically similar and dissimilar stereotypic behaviors of four developmentally disabled children. In the first study, a multiple baseline design across subjects and behaviors was used to assess the effectiveness of the procedure as a treatment for reducing the visual and auditory self-stimulatory responses of two 9-yr-old mentally retarded and behaviorally disturbed children. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used in the second study to evaluate the effectiveness of visual screening as a treatment for reducing stereotypic fabric pulling and self-mutilative ear bending, respectively, of two 13-yr-old mentally retarded, autisticlike adolescents. Long-term follow-up data for both studies were reported. The results suggested that visual screening was an easily administered, effective, and exceptionally durable treatment procedure for controlling a variety of stereotypic behaviors commonly associated with the developmentally disabled.
Few nonverbal developmentally disabled children ever receive adequate vision assessment because of their limited language skills. The present study details a simultaneous discrimination procedure for measuring subjective visual acuity in such children. A stimulus fading procedure was used to train a discrimination between Snellen Es differing in orientation, and a psychophysical tracking method was used to determine acuity thresholds. The procedure was tested with 11 nonverbal autistic and schizophrenic children and validated with four nonpsychotic children. Eight of the psychotic children were successfully examined in one to three sessions. Two of these children were identified as having significant acuity losses. The validity assessment showed that the experimental procedure resulted in thresholds equal to or slightly lower than those obtained with the Illiterate E chart.
A total of 400 children with neurological disorders were studied to ascertain whether they had been immunised against pertussis, the reasons for non-immunisation, and the "validity" of these reasons, as judged by interpretation of the recommendations of the Department of Health and Social Security. The results for this group were compared with those for a group of 400 aged matched controls. The study group had a significantly lower rate of immunisation than controls (p less than 0.01); rates for both groups fell sharply after 1975. A total of 192 study patients and 186 controls were not immunised. Those children with cerebral palsy had the lowest rate of immunisation (19%) and the highest number of valid reasons for non-immunisation (63%). Paediatricians apparently advised against immunisation in 61 (32%) of the index group but in only four (2%) of the controls. The risk of serious neurological handicap after pertussis immunisation is small and there is little evidence to support the view that underlying neurological disease predisposes a child to increased risk. The advice currently given by paediatricians may need to be reconsidered.
This study is a replication of Sundberg and Sundberg (1990) that compared topography-based verbal behavior with selection-based verbal behavior in terms of acquisition, accuracy, and testing for the emergence of a new verbal relation. Participants were three typical children and three developmentally disabled persons with autism. The study sought to determine which paradigm (topography-based or selection-based) resulted in more rapid acquisition of tacts and intraverbals, which was associated with the fewest errors, and which paradigm resulted in the emergence of the highest number of new verbal relations. The results of the study showed that the six participants performed quite differently from one another. Most importantly, the results from the person with autism contradicted previous findings favoring selection-based verbal behavior over topography-based approaches for teaching verbal behavior to low-functioning individuals.
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a genetic syndrome associated with multiple congenital malformations, mental retardation, and autism spectrum behaviors. This clinical protocol was part of a larger study investigating the effects of a cholesterol-lowering medication for SLOS patients. Behavioral therapists were consulted to facilitate participants’ cooperation with an overnight electroencephalogram (EEG). Seventeen children participated in one 1-hour training session of a mock EEG. Behavioral methods included task analysis, differential reinforcement, and escape extinction. Descriptive data reveal low cognitive and adaptive functioning. Fifty three percent of children tolerated all steps of the training procedure and 88% of participants tolerated all of the actual EEG procedure. Behavioral methods of training children may be an effective preparation for EEG procedures for children with SLOS. This study indicates that sedation, anesthesia, or restraints are not necessary to accomplish EEG testing of children with SLOS. Results may generalize to children with a range of disabilities.
Objectives: This article reviews the present literature on the issues encountered while coping with children with autistic spectrum disorder from the dental perspective. The autistic patient profile and external factors affecting the oral health status of this patient population are discussed upon the existing body of evidence.
Material and Methods: The MEDLINE database was searched using the terms ‘Autistic Disorder’, ‘Behaviour Control/methods’, ‘Child’, ‘Dental care for disabled’, ‘Education’, ‘Oral Health’, and ‘Pediatric Dentistry’ to locate related articles published up to January 2013.
Results: Most of the relevant studies indicate poor oral hygiene whereas they are inconclusive regarding the caries incidence in autistic individuals. Undergraduate dental education appears to determine the competence of dental professionals to treat developmentally disabled children and account partly for compromised access to dental care. Dental management of an autistic child requires in-depth understanding of the background of the autism and available behavioural guidance theories. The dental professional should be flexible to modify the treatment approach according to the individual patient needs.
Fonte: Springer New YorkPublicador: Springer New York
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2014Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
Infants and children may suffer from a wide variety of inherited, congenital, and acquired conditions that can result in significant physical and mental disabilities. Although there is a certain degree of overlap in the issues that are encountered with developmentally normal children, the recurrent problems that are encountered in this group of special children warrants separate consideration. Both the underlying disorder and the associated manifestations may lead to complications that require careful forensic assessment. Questions may also arise concerning the quality of care or the adequacy of medical diagnosis and treatment. In this chapter, an approach to children either with a history of developmental abnormalities or with dysmorphic features first identified at autopsy that may be linked to mental and physical delay will be outlined. In addition, some of the particular features of specific conditions will be reviewed.; Roger W. Byard and Kim A. Collins
Public Law 102-119 (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1991), mandates that family members, if they wish, participate in developing a plan of treatment for their child. Traditionally, therapist have not relied on parental assessments based upon the assumption that parents overestimate their child's abilities. The present study compared parental perceptions about the developmental status of their child's fine motor abilities to the therapist's interpretation of a standardized assessment using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale (Fine Motor). Thirty seven children, enrolled in an early intervention program, and their parents were recruited for the study. The results indicated that the parents and the therapist estimates were highly correlated and showed no significant differences when paired t-tests were computed for developmental ages and scaled scores. However, analyses of variances were significantly correlated for gender and number of siblings.
The goal of this study was to examine the change, over a two year period, in mothers' reports of
children's challenging behaviour and family conflict as they relate to change in parenting hassles
(stress) among families who have preschool children with and without communication delays.
Forty-four parent-child dyads participated in this Family Resource Project study that was funded
by the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network. Thirty-one ofthese families had
preschool children with communication delays and 13 children were identified as not having
communication delays. Child behaviour was evaluated using the Oppositional Subscale and
ADHD Index of the Conners Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-R:S), the Conflict Subscale ofthe
Family Environment Scale was used to examine family conflict, and the Parent Hassles Scale
was used to examine parental stress. Results showed that change in mothers' daily hassles was
influenced by change in their preschool children's ADHD behaviour and change in family
conflict. Change in child oppositional behaviour did not predict change in mothers' hassles
The main objective of the present investigation was to continue the research initiated by
Hay and colleagues (2004) in examining the efficacy of the Children's Self-Perceptions
of Adequacy in and Predilection for Physical Activity (CSAPPA) scale as a proxy for the
short form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP-SF) in
screening for Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in children. To better
appreciate DCD knowledge outside Canada, the measurements of this investigation were
expanded in Greece. A translated Greek CSAPP A scale and the BOTMP-SF were
administered for the first time in Greek children. A second objective was to investigate
the relationship between DCD and various risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD)
in Canadian and Greek children. A sample of 591 (Ms=322; Fs=269) Canadian and 392
(Ms=211; Fs=181) Greek children, aged 9 to 13 years, consented to the BOTMP-SF,
CSAPP A Scale, participation in physical activity questionnaire, Leger 20-meter
Multistage Shuttle Run test, and body fat using bioelectric impedance. Prevalence of
DCD in Canada and Greece was 8% and 19%, respectively. Significant agreement
Once thought to be rare, pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) are now recognized
as the most common neurological disorders affecting children and one of the most
common developmental disabilities (DD) in Canada (Autism Society of Canada, 2006).
Recent reports indicate that PDDs currently affect 1 in 150 children (Centre for Disease
Control and Prevention, 2007). The purpose of this research was to provide an
understanding of medical resident and practicing physicians' basic knowledge regarding
With a population of children with PDDs who present with varying symptoms,
the ability for medical professionals to provide general information, diagnosis,
appropriate referrals, and medical care can be quite complex. A basic knowledge of the
disorder is only a first step in providing adequate medical care to individuals with autism
and their families.
An updated version of Stone's (1987) Autism survey was administered to medical
residents at four medical schools in Canada and currently practicing physicians at three
medical schools and one community health network. As well, a group of professionals
specializing in the field ofPDDs, participating in research and clinical practice, were
surveyed as an 'expert' group to act as a control measure. Expert responses were
consistent with current research in the field.
General findings indicated few differences in overall knowledge between
residents and physicians...
This paper describes the development and main results over the last 30 years from the treatment-research project with developmentally disabled (autistic) children in the Psychology Department at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Three important dimensions in treatment research are addressed. The first pertains to the role of serendipity or accidental discoveries, the second to the importance of pursuing inductive rather than theory-driven research, and the third to the importance of adding in a cumulative and step-wise manner to improve treatment adequacy. Data from various areas of treatment research have been used to illustrate new directions for the project. These illustrations center on early and successful attempts to isolate experimentally the environmental variables that control self-injury, failure to observe response and stimulus generalization with subsequent loss of treatment gains, and the main results of intensive and early behavioral intervention in the child's natural environment. Effective treatment for severe behavioral disorders is seen to require early intervention carried out during all or most of the child's waking hours, addressing all significant behaviors in all of the child's environments, by all significant persons...
The role of sensory reinforcement was examined in programming multiple treatment gains in self-stimulation and spontaneous play for developmentally disabled children. Two phases were planned. First, we attempted to identify reinforcers maintaining self-stimulation. Sensory Extinction procedures were implemented in which auditory, proprioceptive, or visual sensory consequences of self-stimulatory behavior were systematically removed and reintroduced in a reversal design. When self-stimulation was decreased or eliminated as a result of removing one of these sensory consequences, the functional sensory consequence was designated as a child's preferred sensory reinforcer. In Phase 2, we assessed whether children would play selectively with toys producing the preferred kind of sensory stimulation. The results showed the following. (1) Self-stimulatory behavior was found to be maintained by sensory reinforcement. When the sensory reinforcer was removed, self-stimulation extinguished. (2) The sensory reinforcers identified for self-stimulatory behavior also served as reinforcers for new, appropriate toy play. (3) The multiple treatment gains observed appeared to be relatively durable in the absence of external reinforcers for play or restraints on self-stimulation. These results illustrate one instance in which multiple behavior change may be programmed in a predictable...
This study examined the adjustment of nondisabled siblings of children with a disability.
Factors such as family income and characteristics of the nondisabled child as they relate to
psychological, behavioral, and academic functioning, and parents' perceptions regarding
the needs of nondisabled siblings were explored. Specific attention was given to
determining parents' interest in sibling support groups. Study participants consisted of 65
parents who had at least one child between the ages of 5 and 21 with a disability and at
least one nondisabled child between. the ages of 5 and 18. The primary caregiver was
asked to complete a 22 question Sibling Needs Assessment Survey as well as the rate the
behavior of the nondisabled sibling on the Behavior Evaluation Scale-2 Home Version.
Significant main effects were found for age and sex of the nondisabled sibling with respect
to academic difficulties. More academic difficulties were reported when the nondisabled
sibling was older than the child with a disability. In addition, males were rated as having
significantly higher problems with school performance than, females. Family income was
not found to have a significant effect on the psychological, behavioral, or academic
functioning of the nondisabled siblings.
Eisenman, Laura T.; This qualitative study explored how parents of young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) perceived their roles and how they might have changed over time, focusing especially on what they perceived their roles to be in their children???s postsecondary years. Data were collected from eight parents of young adults with ID through semi-structured interviews. Topics explored in the interviews were: description of past and present roles, supports they may or may not provide, and what, if any, information/education they had received about the role of a parent post-school. Data were analyzed through constant comparative methods and cross-case displays in search of patterns and themes. The findings suggested parents in the study saw themselves as having the roles of advocates, protectors, providers, and encouragers. These roles were evident across the major life areas of their young adults. Parents expressed their roles and level of advocacy had changed over time in response to their perceptions of the significance of their child???s disability and growth in independence. Parents indicated they had received limited preparation for their postsecondary roles from educators and professionals and relied instead on applying their own knowledge of the adult world in a ???trial and error??? fashion. Implications for further research and professional practices that better prepare and support parents of young adults with ID during postsecondary transition are discussed.; University of Delaware...