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"Repensando os commons na comunicação científica"; Rethinking the access to the scientific communication

Pinto, Evelyn Cristina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/05/2006 Português
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Recentemente estudiosos como Benkler, Lessig, Boyle, Hess e Ostrom retomaram o uso do conceito de commons, mas agora relacionado à informação em geral ou à informação científica. Nesse trabalho, nós lançamos mão desse termo para destacar o caráter cooperativo da pesquisa científica, a importância da transparência e neutralidade no acesso ao commons da Ciência e a natureza anti-rival da informação científica. O conceito de commons nos é muito útil para focar todo o conjunto dos artigos científicos já publicados, quer estejam na forma impressa ou na digital. Ainda permite um estudo através de prismas multidisciplinares e, finalmente, enfatiza a dinâmica das comunidades científicos como um todo. Em qualquer commons de informação, quanto maior a distribuição do conhecimento, mais dinâmico e eficiente é o processo de evolução do conhecimento. A tecnologia da imprensa tem desempenhado um papel fundamental na divulgação de informação e o seu surgimento marcou uma revolução no conhecimento e na cultura da nossa civilização. A tecnologia digital tem se mostrado mais eficiente ainda, uma vez que a natureza da sua implementação em bits se aproxima mais da natureza anti-rival das idéias do que qualquer outra tecnologia hoje empregada para preservação e distribuição de informação. Em nosso estudo...

iRepositório: repositório interativo de conteúdos digitais para cursos baseados na Internet; iRepository: Interactive Repository of Digital Contents for Internet based courses.

Nascimento, Mauricio Garcia Franco do
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/05/2014 Português
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A crescente demanda por cursos baseados na World Wide Web (Web) tem imposto uma série de desafios para a área da Tecnologia da Informação e da Comunicação (TIC), em particular quando se considera a Educação apoiada pela Web. Uma das necessidades emergentes da Educação via Web está relacionada com o uso de Objetos de Aprendizagem (OA) dentro de Sistemas Gerenciadores de Curso (SGC). Além de considerar a produção de OA com "qualidade", deve-se providenciar seu armazenamento e disseminação de modo eficaz. Entretanto, algumas dificuldades tem sido reportadas por professores envolvidos com cursos pela Web, tais como: o "custo elevado" para a autoria do OA; a falta de ferramentas para o compartilhamento desses materiais; e experiências práticas negativas no reúso desses conteúdos em um SGC. Uma primeira proposta para mitigar esses problemas tem sido o desenvolvimento de ferramentas de Repositório de Objetos de Aprendizagem (ROA), visando principalmente facilitar a disseminação dos OA. Apesar do progresso já alcançado, ainda existem várias barreiras para a sua adoção pelos professores, como falta de integração simples entre o SGC e o ROA. Em geral as integrações atuais mostram-se difíceis para um usuário típico. Neste cenário...

From legal commons to social commons: Brazil and the cultural industry in the 21st century

Lemos, Ronaldo
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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This article describes some of the current transformations regarding the processes by which information and culture are generated, from the point of view of developing countries. In this brief analysis, the article discusses the role of projects such as Creative Commons for developing countries. It also discusses the idea of legal commons and social commons. While the idea of legal commons can be understood as the voluntary use of licenses such as Creative Commons in order to create a “commons”, the idea of social commons has to do with the tensions between legality and illegality in developing countries. These tensions appear prominently in the so-called global “peripheries”, and in many instances make the legal structure of intellectual property irrelevant, unfamiliar, or unenforceable, for various reasons. With the emergence of digital technology and the Internet, in many places and regions in developing countries (especially in the “peripheries”), technology ended up arriving earlier than the idea of intellectual property. Such a de facto situation propitiated the emergence of cultural industries that were not driven by intellectual property incentives. In these cultural businesses, the idea of “sharing” and of free dissemination of the content is intrinsic to the social circumstances taking place in these peripheries. Also...

Direito autoral e creative commons : a participação do bibliotecário na promoção do acesso aberto à informação

Magnus, Ana Paula Medeiros
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Pesquisa de caráter descritivo, realizada a partir de estudo de casos múltiplos, que aborda o Direito Autoral e as licenças Creative Commons como forma de manter um equilíbrio entre os direitos dos autores e os da sociedade em obter acesso à informação. Possui como objetivo geral analisar a percepção do bibliotecário sobre a importância do uso da licença Creative Commons na comunidade científica e universitária. Arrola um referencial teórico que engloba a Propriedade Intelectual; as vertentes históricas do Direito Autoral no mundo e no Brasil; os aspectos da atual lei de Direito Autoral brasileira; o Direito Autoral relacionado à era digital; o direito à informação relacionado à atuação do bibliotecário e as possíveis soluções para esse entrave social, que vão desde o Open Access, o Open Archives Initiative, a Pasta do Professor, o Fair Use, o Copyleft e o Creative Commons. Relata as etapas da realização da pesquisa, sendo a primeira a exposição de um vídeo sobre o Creative Commons; a segunda a apresentação em PowerPoint de explicações sobre as licenças e a terceira e última a aplicação de um questionário com perguntas abertas e fechadas aos alunos do Curso de Especialização em Gestão de Bibliotecas Universitárias da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul durante aula da disciplina de Serviços de Informação para a Educação a Distância...

Direito autoral e tecnologias de informação e comunicação no contexto da produção, uso e disseminação de informação: um olhar para as Licenças Creative Commons

Mass Araya, Elizabeth Roxana; Vidotti, Silvana Aparecida Borsetti Gregorio
Fonte: Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB) Publicador: Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 39-51
Português
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The development of information and communication technologies, in particular, Internet, and its Web 2.0 information environment has led to significant changes in contemporary society as to the ways of producing informational content. Collaboration and remix, favored by the new services and applications resulting from the development of the Web, are practices which contribute for the exponential growth of information producers. An important part of humanity ceases to be a mere consumer of symbolic goods and becomes a member in a society that sees in the collaboration and remix a new form of creation, use and dissemination of intellectual content. However, as such practices involve the production and use of information intelectual content, and are ruled by a legisltion which determine determines under what conditions the author and the user must produce and use the intellectual work. This legislation established for a context prior to the develompment of the Web has created an imbalance in the context of Web 2.0 which needs to be solved in some way so as to provide the required rebalance for the flow of information. This study explores the collaborative Web environment, the scope of copyright law in Web enviroment and the Creative Commons licenses as an alternative for producers and users of information to create...

The Impact of the Internet in Six Latin American Countries

Prado, Paola, Ph.D.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Access to the Internet has grown exponentially in Latin America over the past decade. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) estimates that in 2009 there were 144.5 million Internet users in South America, 6.4 million in Central America, and 8.2 million in the Caribbean, or a total 159.2 million users in all of Latin America.1 At that time, ITU reported an estimated 31 million Internet users in Mexico, which would bring the overall number of users in Latin America to 190.2 million people. More recent estimates published by Internet World Stats place Internet access currently at an estimated 204.6 million out of a total population of 592.5 million in the region (this figure includes Mexico).2 According to those figures, 34.5 per cent of the Latin American population now enjoys Internet access. In recent years, universal access policies contributed to the vast increase in digital literacy and Internet use in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Costa Rica. Whereas the latter was the first country in the region to adopt a policy of universal access, the most expansive and successful digital inclusion programs in the region have taken hold in Brazil and Chile. These two countries have allocated considerable resources to the promotion of digital literacy and Internet access among low income and poor populations; in both cases...

Digital signal processing implementation for near real-time wavelet transformation system for binary images

Alfonso, Ovidio
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Communication has become an essential function in our civilization. With the increasing demand for communication channels, it is now necessary to find ways to optimize the use of their bandwidth. One way to achieve this is by transforming the information before it is transmitted. This transformation can be performed by several techniques. One of the newest of these techniques is the use of wavelets. Wavelet transformation refers to the act of breaking down a signal into components called details and trends by using small waveforms that have a zero average in the time domain. After this transformation the data can be compressed by discarding the details, transmitting the trends. In the receiving end, the trends are used to reconstruct the image. In this work, the wavelet used for the transformation of an image will be selected from a library of available bases. The accuracy of the reconstruction, after the details are discarded, is dependent on the wavelets chosen from the wavelet basis library. The system developed in this thesis takes a 2-D image and decomposes it using a wavelet bank. A digital signal processor is used to achieve near real-time performance in this transformation task. A contribution of this thesis project is the development of DSP-based test bed for the future development of new real-time wavelet transformation algorithms.

Governance of Online Creation Communities: Provision of infrastructure for the building of digital commons

FUSTER MORELL, Mayo
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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This doctoral research is framed by the notion of a transition in which distinct commons organizational forms are gaining in importance at a time when the institutional principles of the nation state are in a state of profound crisis, and those of the private market are undergoing dramatic change. Additionally, the transformation of industrial society into a knowledge-based one is raising the importance of knowledge management, regulation and creation. This doctoral research addresses collective action for knowledge-making in the digital era from a double perspective of organizational and political conflict through the case of global online creation communities. From the organizational perspective, it provides an empirically grounded description of the organizational characteristics of emerging collective action. The research challenges previous literature by questioning the neutrality of infrastructure for collective action and demonstrating that infrastructure governance shapes collective action. Importantly, the research provides an empirical explanation of the organizational strategies most likely to succeed in creating large-scale collective action in terms of the size of participation and complexity of collaboration. From the political conflict perspective...

Update on Research Now: Cross-Training for Digital Scholarship

Courtney, Angela; Dalmau, Michelle
Fonte: Indiana University Digital Collections Services Publicador: Indiana University Digital Collections Services
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
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In preparation for the opening of the Indiana University Libraries??? Scholars??? Commons, staff from across the libraries including, Collection Development & Scholarly Communication, Library Technologies, Reference Services, and Arts & Humanities, will engage in an extended, hands-on learning project known as Research Now: Cross Training for Digital Scholarship. Our project team will develop a digital archive tentatively called The History of the Indiana University Libraries, which is conceived as a comprehensive, multimedia, and perpetual digital archive documenting the earliest days of the Indiana University (IU) Libraries through present times. The archive will serve as an engaged learning opportunity for first-year, front line Scholars??? Commons staff as we retool our skills and knowledge in preparation for the opening of the Scholars??? Commons. The project aims to: consolidate two parallel web sites that cover the history of the IU Libraries by migrating the existing content into services such as Archives Online, Image Collections Online, and other services for long-term digital preservation and access digitize and describe existing content (35 mm slides, photographs, manuscripts, newspaper clippings and other ephemeral materials and objects) held by Lou Malcomb...

Digital Library Migration at Florida International University

Rogers, Jamie
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.868975%

Stories from the Digital Humanities & Libraries THATCamp

Dalmau, Michelle
Fonte: Indiana University Libraries Publicador: Indiana University Libraries
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
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On November 2, 2012, colleagues from Indiana University, New York University, Temple University, Ohio State University, University of Houston, the Digital Library Federation, and THATCamp hosted a Digital Humanities & Libraries THATCamp as a pre-conference to the Digital Library Federation Forum held in Denver, Colorado with just over seventy participants. The organizers were largely inspired by the fact that academic libraries- their staff, content, and services- have a long history of supporting digital humanities (DH) initiatives. Often these initiatives are concerned with digital representation of content, discovery, preservation, and analysis activities that are essential to a library's mission. We felt that the DH and Libraries THATCamp would provide a venue to further explore on-going conversations about strategic partnerships and services libraries are uniquely situated to offer to the digital humanities arena, moving away from a support model to a truly collaborative framework in which librarians foster and contribute to DH as experts and scholars in their own right. The outcome of these vibrant discussions resulted in what we, as organizers, hope would equip us with ways through anecdotes, new collaborations and partnerships...

The New Digital Library of the Commons

Kowalczyk, Stacy; Castle, Emily
Fonte: Indiana University Digital Library Program Publicador: Indiana University Digital Library Program
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
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Since 2001, the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis and the Indiana University Digital Library Program have partnered to create the Digital Library of the Commons (DLC) - a gateway to the international literature on the commons. The DLC provides free and open access to full-text articles, papers, and dissertations. In this talk, we will discuss the new infrastructure that has been developed to preserve and make available the world's only dedicated collection on the study of the commons.

A method for enhancing digital information displayed to computer users with visual refractive errors via spatial and spectral processing

Alonso, Miguel, Jr.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.868975%
This research pursued the conceptualization, implementation, and verification of a system that enhances digital information displayed on an LCD panel to users with visual refractive errors. The target user groups for this system are individuals who have moderate to severe visual aberrations for which conventional means of compensation, such as glasses or contact lenses, does not improve their vision. This research is based on a priori knowledge of the user's visual aberration, as measured by a wavefront analyzer. With this information it is possible to generate images that, when displayed to this user, will counteract his/her visual aberration. The method described in this dissertation advances the development of techniques for providing such compensation by integrating spatial information in the image as a means to eliminate some of the shortcomings inherent in using display devices such as monitors or LCD panels. Additionally, physiological considerations are discussed and integrated into the method for providing said compensation. In order to provide a realistic sense of the performance of the methods described, they were tested by mathematical simulation in software, as well as by using a single-lens high resolution CCD camera that models an aberrated eye...

A method for enhancing digital information displayed to computer users with visual refractive errors via spatial and spectral processing

Alonso, Miguel
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.868975%
This research pursued the conceptualization, implementation, and verification of a system that enhances digital information displayed on an LCD panel to users with visual refractive errors. The target user groups for this system are individuals who have moderate to severe visual aberrations for which conventional means of compensation, such as glasses or contact lenses, does not improve their vision. ^ This research is based on a priori knowledge of the user's visual aberration, as measured by a wavefront analyzer. With this information it is possible to generate images that, when displayed to this user, will counteract his/her visual aberration. The method described in this dissertation advances the development of techniques for providing such compensation by integrating spatial information in the image as a means to eliminate some of the shortcomings inherent in using display devices such as monitors or LCD panels. Additionally, physiological considerations are discussed and integrated into the method for providing said compensation. ^ In order to provide a realistic sense of the performance of the methods described, they were tested by mathematical simulation in software, as well as by using a single-lens high resolution CCD camera that models an aberrated eye...

Online distribution of digital cultural products : are legal distributors strong enough against piracy?

Saumard, Mélodie
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 21/06/2013 Português
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In 2012, the music industry is showing positive growth for the first time in fifteen years. The same year, Game of Thrones is declared the most pirated TV series with an average of 4.28 million illegal downloads for each episode. Ever since the creation of Napster in 1998, online piracy became a common practice which is weakly reprehended socially-speaking. The starting point for our work was Gabe Newell's idea that piracy is not a matter of price but a problem of service rendered to customers. Such an opinion orientates our work towards finding a solution against piracy thanks business. To find this possible solution we started with the evolution of open source software because the concept and its history brings us to the notion of copyleft and the creation of the Creative Commons. These ideas translate to new ways of sharing intellectual property. But to understand these notions correctly we need to explain how cultural works are protected by the law. Which is why we introduce author rights and copyrights in several countries. When we know how the law works and the tools that have been developed to simplify them, we can start giving examples of businesses which are distributing digital cultural products legally. But a comparison between both legal and illegal offers is necessary to explain why customers choose piracy. Thus...

Discovery & Born-Digital Archiving: Open Source Systems for Preservation and Access

Cooper, L. Bryan; Perez Martinez, Margarita
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation
Português
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The Everglades Explorer (EE) portal at http://ee.fiu.edu continues to evolve with the addition of the Internet Archive's Archive-It, and future planned alignment with the Digital Public Library of America (DPLA). The reasons for the development of the portal continue to exist, as originally perceived four years ago. Adaptations to ongoing change and system testing continues, and the use of Archive-It has broad institutional potential beyond EE. Cross-walking skills continue to grown, and will benefit future syndication and discovery system integration. The metadata normalization and harmonization will help save time for the end-user. Preservation and access to learning and research resources for the Greater Everglades Watershed -- stretching from the Kissimmee River Basin to the Florida Keys -- can continue to expand.

Creative Commons e o direito à cultura livre: as licenças criativas frente às limitações do direito autoral na internet

de Araújo, Honácio Braga; Universidade Federal do Piauí
Fonte: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Publicador: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/10/2011 Português
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Na internet a barreira protetora da lei brasileira de direito autoral gera obstáculos ao desenvolvimento livre da cultura e ao direito coletivo de acesso ao conhecimento e à informação. Este trabalho visa a esclarecer a relação entre licenças Creative Commons e licenças legais para a utilização das obras intelectuais disponibilizadas em meio digital.

As licenças Creative Commons e suas potencialidades para a circulação do jornalismo digital

Santos, Marcelo de Franceschi; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Pesquisa bibliográfica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/04/2012 Português
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-6924.2012v9n1p196Descrever o desenvolvimento das licenças Creative Commons e algumas de suas utilizações na circulação do jornalismo digital é o objetivo deste trabalho. Para isso, é feita uma delimitação dos direitos autorais compreendidos pela legislação brasileira, junto a um breve histórico do surgimento das leis de copyright. Depois, menciona os movimentos de contestação dos abusos promovidos pelo aumento da duração e da abrangência dos direitos autorais. Dentre os movimentos, destacam-se a cultura livre (LESSIG, 2005), o copyleft (STALLMAN, 2002), e o Creative Commons (VERCELLI, 2009). Por fim, são citados exemplos da utilização das licenças livres por sites jornalísticos, apontando para uma relativização dos direitos autorais do jornalismo digital.

Employing digital crowdsourced information resources: managing the emerging information commons

Mansell, Robin
Fonte: International Association for the Study of the Commons (IASC) Publicador: International Association for the Study of the Commons (IASC)
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
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This paper examines the potential for collaborations between formal science professionals and loosely connected online groups that employ crowdsourcing within the information commons. It considers the differences between scientists and other online groups’ preferred modes of managing information production, circulation and application, distinguishing between ‘constituted’ and ‘adaptive’ authority and examining the extent to which these groups are engaged in curating the information they generate for the purposes of social problem solving. A small sample of crowdsourcing initiatives, drawn from the fields of astronomy and environmental science and crisis and emergency response, is examined based on desk research to illustrate the potential for boundary crossing between the domains of formal science and increasingly active loosely connected online groups which are engaged in activities giving rise to big data sets that may be ephemeral or may become constituted as ‘useful knowledge’. The conclusion suggests several measures that would strengthen the foundations for collaboration and indicates avenues for further empirical research.

Employing digital crowdsourced information resources: managing the emerging information commons

Mansell, Robin
Fonte: International Association for the Study of the Commons (IASC) Publicador: International Association for the Study of the Commons (IASC)
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
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This paper examines the ways loosely connected online groups and formal science professionals are responding to the potential for collaboration using digital technology platforms and crowdsourcing as a means of generating data in the digital information commons. The preferred approaches of each of these groups to managing information production, circulation and application are examined in the light of the increasingly vast amounts of data that are being generated by participants in the commons. Crowdsourcing projects initiated by both groups in the fields of astronomy, environmental science and crisis and emergency response are used to illustrate some of barriers and opportunities for greater collaboration in the management of data sets initially generated for quite different purposes. The paper responds to claims in the literature about the incommensurability of emerging approaches to open information management as practiced by formal science and many loosely connected online groups, especially with respect to authority and the curation of data. Yet, in the wake of technological innovation and diverse applications of crowdsourced data, there are numerous opportunities for collaboration. This paper draws on examples employing different social technologies of authority to generate and manage data in the commons. It suggests several measures that could provide incentives for greater collaboration in the future. It also emphasises the need for a research agenda to examine whether and how changes in social technologies might foster collaboration in the interests of reaping the benefits of increasingly large data resources for both shorter term analysis and longer term accumulation of useful knowledge.