Página 1 dos resultados de 752 itens digitais encontrados em 0.002 segundos

Speed, pacing strategy and aerodynamic drafting in Thoroughbred horse racing

Spence, Andrew J.; Thurman, Andrew S.; Maher, Michael J.; Wilson, Alan M.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.085234%
Choice of pacing strategy and the benefit of aerodynamic drafting are thought to be key determinants of racing performance. These effects have largely been analysed without reference to final outcome, in small datasets with low temporal resolution, and a focus on human swimming, cycling and running. Here, we determined the position and speed of 44 803 racehorses, once per second, in 3 357 races ranging in length from 1006 to 4225 m (50.9–292.9 seconds duration) using a validated radio tracking system. We find that aerodynamic drafting has a marked effect on horse performance, and hence racing outcome. Furthermore, we demonstrate that race length-dependent pacing strategies are correlated with the fastest racing times, with some horses reaching a maximum speed in excess of 19 m s−1. The higher speeds seen with certain pacing strategies may arise due to the nature of pack racing itself, or may be a reflection of individual capabilities, that is, corresponding to horses that perform well in roles suited to their ‘front-running’ or ‘chaser’ personality traits.

Analysis of Drafting Effects in Swimming Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Silva, António José; Rouboa, Abel; Moreira, António; Reis, Victor Machado; Alves, Francisco; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Marinho, Daniel Almeida
Fonte: Asist Group Publicador: Asist Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.085234%
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of drafting distance on the drag coefficient in swimming. A k-epsilon turbulent model was implemented in the commercial code Fluent® and applied to the fluid flow around two swimmers in a drafting situation. Numerical simulations were conducted for various distances between swimmers (0.5-8.0 m) and swimming velocities (1.6-2.0 m.s-1). Drag coefficient (Cd) was computed for each one of the distances and velocities. We found that the drag coefficient of the leading swimmer decreased as the flow velocity increased. The relative drag coefficient of the back swimmer was lower (about 56% of the leading swimmer) for the smallest inter-swimmer distance (0.5 m). This value increased progressively until the distance between swimmers reached 6.0 m, where the relative drag coefficient of the back swimmer was about 84% of the leading swimmer. The results indicated that the Cd of the back swimmer was equal to that of the leading swimmer at distances ranging from 6.45 to 8. 90 m. We conclude that these distances allow the swimmers to be in the same hydrodynamic conditions during training and competitions.

International investment agreements and public health: neutralizing a threat through treaty drafting

Mercurio, Bryan
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.085234%
The high profile investment claims filed by Philip Morris challenging Uruguayan and Australian measures that restrict advertising and logos on tobacco packaging awakened the public health community to the existence and potential detrimental impact of international investment agreements (IIAs). More recently, Eli Lilly challenged Canada’s invalidation of a pharmaceutical patent under an IIA. All of the cases claim that the intellectual property rights of the investor were infringed. As a result of these cases, many commentators and activists view IIAs as a threat to public health and have lobbied against their inclusion in ongoing trade negotiations. This article does not argue against IIAs. Instead, it seeks to demonstrate how more sophisticated treaty drafting can neutralize the threat to public health. In this regard, the article seeks to engage members of the public health community as campaigners not against IIAs but as advocates of better treaty drafting to ensure that IIAs do not infringe upon the right of a nation to take non-discriminatory measures for the promotion and protection of the health of their populations.

Drafting organic Food Regulations: The Case for Incorporating Congressional Intent and Interest Group Commentary

Dungey, Elizabeth A.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.085234%
The scope of the organic food debate has embroiled more constituents than simply consumers and producers of organic food. At each step along the way various interest groups such as small organic farmers, private organic certifiers, politicians, international community members, large agri-business lobbyists, environmental groups, consumers and general taxpayers have all added their voices to the debate. The USDA and other parties instrumental to the ongoing drafting of regulations for the National Organic Program have the formidable task of coming up with a cohesive, prudent, and enforceable regime for the organic industry. The original timetable for the implementation of organic regulations has long since been proven to be unrealistic. Now that we are over nine years into the drafting process, the time has come to finally synthesize the divergent comments into a workable set of regulations. Unfortunately, the momentum of the USDA’s bureaucratic machinery has nearly slowed to a stand-still, and the once polarized constituent groups have become even further polarized and unwilling to compromise. Recognizing the current state of affairs and hoping to add a unique overview approach to the debate, the purpose of my paper is four-fold. First...

Building an electronic drafting table for sketch recognition

Bruening, Oskar Ernst, 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 193 leaves; 9294152 bytes; 9320784 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.085234%
Sketch recognition as developed by the CSAIL Design Rationale Group allows a designer to sketch out and test design ideas without the need for complicated CAD programs. An electronic drafting table is required to capture large designs. The design of the electronic drafting table in this thesis uses linear image sensors located in the corners and triangulation to locate the exact position of the pen. The design of the sensors in the corner and the required electronics are explored in detail. We developed, built and tested electronics, proving the feasibility of the design.; by Oskar Ernst Bruening.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 193).

The role of computer-aided drafting, analysis, and design software in structural engineering practice

De los Reyes, Adrian
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 103 p.; 31815672 bytes; 31815215 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.245637%
Perhaps the greatest innovation in engineering in the last fifty years, computer software has changed the way structural engineers conduct nearly every aspect of their daily business. Computer-aided drafting, analysis, and design software are invaluable tools for any structural engineering firm. Given the growth, extensive competition, and demands of the industry, a firm cannot survive if it does not take advantage of the powers and capabilities that modem computer software offer. Computers have drastically altered the way engineers communicate with co-workers, clients, architects, and construction managers, improving the efficiency of the design delivery system and facilitating the conveying of design changes, issues, and concerns between all entities involved in a project. This software has optimized the structural drafting, analysis, and design processes in ways engineers never could have imagined possible half a century ago. These innovations not only add up to major savings in construction costs and increased profits for all parties involved in a project, but also to more accurate designs, quicker design completions, improved organization and sharing of data, and higher productivity within the engineering office.; (cont.) This thesis examines the applications of computer software in the structural engineering industry...

Elaboração de um plano de gerenciamento integrado de resíduos sólidos no restaurante universitário da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; Elaboração de um plano de gerenciamento integrado de resíduos sólidos no restaurante universitário da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; Drafting a plan for integrate management of solid residues on the universitary restaurant of Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte; Drafting a plan for integrate management of solid residues on the universitary restaurant of Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte

Carneiro, Cláudia Maria de Figueiredo Moreira Leite
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.085234%
The concern about preservation of the environment reaches different layers and sections of global society. The environmental prior quality of our planet can only be reached through changes in the attitudes taken in relation due to the waste generated by society, this also lead involving the education sector, in example of the Superior Education Institutions where the concept of ambiental management needs to gain a growing space.In the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, can be found the Universitary Restaurant as an example of a Food and Nutrition Unit, it is a restaurant destined to provide services to the academic comunity with the production and distribution of meals. In this operational context the work itself aims subsidies and funds to the search of as minimal generation of residues as possible, applying environmentally correct processes and practices. The work was developed in the period of September to October of 2009 in the Universitary Campus of Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, in the Universitary Restaurant of the referred institution. The project involved all the employees of the restaurant and used like method the action survey. The produced waste was characterized, arranged according with it s nature (organic or inorganic) classificated following the NBR ISO 14004...

The Electricity Law for Vietnam : Status and Policy Issues

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.085234%
In 1996, the Primer Minister of Vietnam directed the Ministry of Industry (MOI) to establish a program and plan to draft the Electricity Law for Vietnam. After six years of work and consultation the Law is still in its fourteenth draft. The MOI, in consultation with the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), decided it was time to analyze why the progress was so slow and what could be done to overcome this problem. Chapter 1 of the report reviews how the parties agreed that the situation could best be analyzed in a open round-table discussion where participants would be able to express their opinions freely and work towards identifying solutions. It was therefore decided to conduct a facilitated participatory discussion that would revitalize the law-drafting process. Chapter 2 reviews the outcomes of the round-table discussion held on September 26 and 27, 2000. Chapter 3 consists of a power policy guidance document prepared by the World Bank advisory team; and Chapter 4 details a legislative review of the fourteenth draft of the Electricity Law and addresses specific issues that should be considered in the next phase of the drafting process.

Guide to Legislative Drafting in Kurdistan Regional Government

Cuvillier, Emmanuel; Almaroof, Salam; Diab, Razi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.538547%
The development of a regulatory framework which meets international standards is a major concern in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, as it is key not only to fostering economic development but also to ensuring the wellbeing of its citizens. To achieve this goal, it is important to: create a sound institutional structure; employ staff qualified in law drafting; set up efficient procedures for co-ordination and consultation; and ensure that the possible impact of new legal instruments is assessed before adopted. The prime objective of the World Bank in supporting the KRG Shura Council remains an improved guide consistent with international standards that can be used by all relevant parties in charge of drafting all types of legislation in the KRG. In keeping with better regulation principles, the authority and impact of the guide are to be achieved more by the relevance of its contents and the quality of its practical advice than by the strength of the legal instrument that seeks to enforce it. This will help to maximize the benefits of the guide in the KRG. In this context...

The Drafting of the Commonwealth Constitution

Williams, J.
Fonte: Curtin University of Technology Publicador: Curtin University of Technology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.085234%
The drafting of the Australian Constitution was a process that involved the distillation of political compromises into the language of a parliamentary enactment. This article reflects upon the process of drafting the Australian Constitution and highlights a number of significant influences on the final text. The article concludes by noting some of the universal themes and functions that constitutions and constitution-making plays in society.; http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=072322803658084;res=IELHSS; John M. Williams

All Originals: Fiction and reality of multilingual legal drafting in the European Union and Canada

DOCZEKALSKA, Agnieszka
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.57588%
The phenomenon of multilingual law stems from official multilingualism, which usually requires not only that the law should be enacted in all official languages, but also that texts of a single legal instrument expressed in different official languages be treated as equally authentic. Since all authentic language versions are equal, all of them should be taken into consideration and none of them should prevail for interpretation purposes. In order to guarantee this equality, the principle of equal authenticity presumes that all authentic language versions are originals and render the same meaning. However, in practice, multilingual law is often drafted by means of translation. Hence, there is a risk that those language versions prepared by means of translation will be deemed of questionable reliability, and therefore will not be considered when a multilingual legal instrument is interpreted. Contradictions between the presumptions behind the principle of equal authenticity and practice of multilingual legislative drafting draw attention to a paradox which can and has challenged the equality between authentic language versions. The thesis provides strong evidence - through a comparative study of multilingual legislative drafting in the European Union and Canada - that legal presumptions established by the principle of equal authenticity and the practice of legal multilingualism are more congruent than may appear at first glance. In particular...

Rice Institute student at a drafting table, in Electrical Engineering building

Fonte: Rice University Publicador: Rice University
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.085234%
Black and white photograph of a man in the drafting room in the Engineering Building. At the bottom of the photograph is written "Drafting Room Engineering Bldg."

El lenguaje jurídico no sexista, principio fundamental del lenguaje jurídico modernizado del siglo XXI

Bengoechea Bartolomé, Mercedes
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Servicio de Publicaciones Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Servicio de Publicaciones
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.085234%
I. INTRODUCCIÓN. II. EL LENGUAJE JURÍDICO NO SEXISTA EN EL SIGLO XXI. UNA CUESTIÓN DE PRECISIÓN. III. EL LENGUAJE JURÍDICO NO SEXISTA EN EL SIGLO XXI. UNA CUESTIÓN DE IGUALDAD. IV. EL LENGUAJE JURÍDICO NO SEXISTA EN EL SIGLO XXI. UN IMPERATIVO LEGAL. V. EL LENGUAJE NO SEXISTA, PARTE DEL PROCESO DE MODERNIZACIÓN DEL LENGUAJE JURÍDICO. VI. BIBLIOGRAFÍA. VII. ANEXO: PROPUESTAS PARA LOGRAR UN LENGUAJE JURÍDICO NO SEXISTA.; En la mayoría de intentos de modernización del lenguaje jurídico realizados en diversos países se ha tenido en cuenta la utilización de lenguaje no sexista como principio fundamental e irrenunciable del nuevo lenguaje del siglo XXI. Según la autora del artículo, que forma parte de la Comisión de Modernización del Lenguaje Jurídico del Ministerio de Justicia de España, también debería recogerse así en los intentos de modernización del lenguaje jurídico español. Existen tres motivos para ello: la precisión, el principio de igualdad y el imperativo legal. Por otra parte, el lenguaje no sexista de la redacción jurídica no puede quedarse al margen del resto de los principios rectores de un lenguaje modernizado: claridad, sencillez y transparencia.; Most attempts of modernization of legal language carried out in different countries have incorporated the use of non-sexist writing...

Support Emergence of Home-Grown Policies by Putting Local Partners in the Drafting Seat

Norman, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.085234%
In September 2007, the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) requested that the Board of Investment draft an economic zones policy (EZ Policy). The policy was to cover the entire zone regime of Bangladesh, including export processing zones, industrial estates, and special economic zones, both public and private. Export processing zones had long been a key tool in Bangladesh for creating jobs and increasing exports. In addition, there were 67 industrial estates - at least one in each of Bangladesh's 64 districts - which catered primarily to the domestic market. Both the eight export processing zones and the industrial estates had mixed success. When the GoB commissioned the EZ Policy, the IFC Bangladesh Investment Climate Fund (BICF) agreed to fund the drafting of the policy. In doing this, IFC BICF could have contracted an international consulting company with world-wide expertise in drafting EZ Policies in multiple countries to draft the ideal policy that would have incorporated the best international practices available...

Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.085234%
The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of legal professionals is minimal and is poorly supervised. The general public has little access to legal information. Legal aid is embryonic and restricted to criminal matters. This assessment of the legal and judicial sector offers recommendations in the areas of case law dissemination, capacity building of the law-making institutions, development of a legal toolkit for judges, redesign of legal studies, training of legal professionals to improve quality, supervision of translators and experts, redirecting the activities of lawyers towards legal advice, expanding the notaries, redesigning court operations, expanding judicial participation on the High Council for the Judiciary and ensuring greater judicial independence...

View of drafting room and architecture students working at tables

Fonte: Universidade da Flórida Publicador: Universidade da Flórida
Tipo: still image Formato: 5x7 polyester
Publicado em //1920's Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.085234%
View of drafting room and students working at tables. The room is probably in Peabody Hall.; (Funding) Digitized with funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services as part of the Ephemeral Cities grant project.

Knowledge-Based Schematics Drafting: Aesthetic Configuration as a Design Task

Valdes-Perez, Raul E.
Fonte: MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Publicador: MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.085234%
Depicting an electrical circuit by a schematic is a tedious task that is a good candidate for automation. Programs that draft schematics with the usual algorithmic approach do not fully exploit knowledge of circuit function, relying mainly on the circuit topology. The extra-topological circuit characteristics are what an engineer uses to understand a schematic; human drafters take these characteristics into account when drawing a schematic. This document presents a knowledge base and an architecture for drafting arithmetic digital circuits having a single theme. The relevance and limitations of this architecture and knowledge base for other types of circuit are explored. It is argued that the task of schematics drafting is one of aesthetic design. The affect of aesthetic criteria on the program architecture is discussed. The circuit layout constraint language, the program's search regimen, and the backtracking scheme are highlighted and explained in detail.; MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

Concept of drafting detection system in Ironmans

Fister, Iztok; Fister Jr, Iztok
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.085234%
One of the biggest challenges for the Computer Science of today can be summed up by the paradigm "access to information from $everywhere$ at $anytime$". This is especially true for pervasive computing. With the growth of mobile devices (e.g., smart-phones), on the one hand, and the quick development of the Internet (this has become the really pervasive network of today), on the other hand, the development of real-time pervasive applications has broadened. This paper focuses on the problem of drafting detection in the Ironman triathlons which causes serious problems for the majority of organizers regarding such competitions. A concept of drafting detection system in Ironman is based on the paradigm of pervasive computing. Results of performing a test system show that this concept can along with further development of computer technologies become a reality in the near future.

Role of engineers in the creation of engineering drawings - past, present and future

Castro-Cedeno, Mario
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 85149 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.538547%
A change in technology can redefine roles in society. Skills that were previously considered specialties and/or optional can become required for the general population. Some recent examples include typing and drafting. Neither skill was expected from engineers before the widespread availability of personal computers. Secretaries performed the overwhelming majority of typing, and drafting technicians were available in sufficient numbers to do the drafting. Both were considered necessary support personnel in all engineering organizations. Recently, however, the adoption of personal computers has made typing and drafting expected and necessary skills for every engineer. The reason is that the number of typists and designers have decreased steadily during the last 20 years as engineering organizations reaped the benefits of the investment in personal computers that increased workforce efficiency. Some of the reduction in support personnel can be explained by increased efficiency but, in addition, today most engineering organizations expect engineers to perform tasks previously assigned to support personnel. One implication of decreasing numbers of drafting technicians is that, increasingly, recent engineering graduates are expected to perform in such a role without the benefit of lengthy on-the-job training...

Reflexões sobre o processo de elaboração da Política de Preservação e Gestão de Acervos Culturais das Ciências e da Saúde da Casa de Oswaldo Cruz – Fiocruz; Considerations on the drafting work of the Preservation and Management Policy for Cultural Collections in Science and Health of Casa de Oswaldo Cruz – Fiocruz

Pinheiro, Marcos José de Araújo; Coelho, Carla Maria Teixeira; Wegner, Liene
Fonte: Centro de Preservação Cultural. Pró-Reitoria de Cultura e Extensão - USP. Publicador: Centro de Preservação Cultural. Pró-Reitoria de Cultura e Extensão - USP.
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Avaliado pelos pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.085234%
A Casa de Oswaldo Cruz (COC) é a unidade técnico-científica da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz) responsável pela preservação e valorização da memória da instituição em seus campos de atuação. A equipe técnica da COC desenvolve ações de preservação de edifícios históricos, sítios urbanos, acervos arquivísticos, bibliográficos e museológicos que representam importante fonte de conhecimento. Como resultado da experiência e do amadurecimento da COC no que tange aos seus processos de trabalho e instrumentos de gestão e de planejamento institucional foi identificada a necessidade de elaboração de uma Política de Preservação e Gestão de Acervos. O processo de elaboração desse documento teve início no começo de 2012, com a criação de um grupo de trabalho composto por integrantes dos diferentes departamentos e coordenado pela Vice-Diretoria de Informação e Patrimônio Cultural. O documento base elaborado tem como objetivo definir princípios, diretrizes e orientações que devem reger as atividades de gestão e preservação dos acervos culturais das ciências e da saúde sob a guarda da COC.O processo de construção coletiva do documento contempla sua avaliação por consultores externos ad hoc, um período de consulta interna e sua submissão ao Conselho Deliberativo da unidade para aprovação...