Página 1 dos resultados de 18 itens digitais encontrados em 0.048 segundos

Prevenção da obesidade em crianças e adolescentes por meio da atividade física e educação nutrocional: meta-análise de ensaios randomizados desenvolvidos em ambiente escolar"; Obesity prevention in children and teenagers through physical activity and nutrition education: Meta-analysis of randomized trials in the school environment

Guerra, Paulo Henrique de Araujo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.1163%
INTRODUÇÃO: A alta prevalência da obesidade infantil em diferentes partes do planeta a posiciona como um dos principais focos de atenção da saúde pública, conhecida a associação dos seus agravos às doenças cardiovasculares e à morte prematura. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as intervenções escolares que se utilizam das práticas em atividade física e educação nutricional na antropometria e na pressão arterial de crianças e adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Os artigos foram recuperados por buscas sistemáticas em quatorze bases de dados eletrônicas e por busca manual em listas de referências, com atualização até 30 de setembro de 2012. Dois revisores independentes avaliaram os trabalhos e extraíram os dados. Os trabalhos deveriam atender adequadamente aos seguintes critérios de elegibilidade: população dos 6 aos 18 anos de idade; intervenções comunitárias randomizadas no ambiente escolar, fundamentadas nas práticas em atividade física ou educação nutricional, ou nas duas formas combinadas; presença de grupo controle em paralelo, com seguimento concomitante; descrição de pelo menos um dos desfechos: índice de massa corporal, peso corporal e pressão arterial. A meta-análise foi desenvolvida pelo modelo de efeito randômico...

Promoção da saúde: a relação entre aptidão física e fatores de risco biológico das doenças cardiovasculares em escolares

Silva, Marcelo Faria
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.647449%
Para Czeresnia (1999), a promoção da saúde representa um conjunto de idéias capazes de redirecionar as práticas em saúde pública. Entre elas, é de se destacar, o instituto recente no espaço da educação formal do conceito de escolas promotoras de saúde. Implícitos neste conceito estão às práticas pedagógicas e ações efetivas com o intuito do desenvolvimento de princípios, valores, atitudes e condutas frente à melhoria da qualidade de vida e ao aprimoramento das bases para hábitos de vida mais ativos. Neste cenário, emergem as preocupações do professor de educação física com o desenvolvimento da aptidão cardiorrespiratória desde a fase escolar no que se refere a menor probabilidade do surgimento de doenças cardiovasculares na idade adulta. A partir disto, os objetivos desta tese são: a) apresentar alguns aspectos históricos relacionados à promoção da saúde no âmbito internacional e nacional e, conseqüentemente, salientar a importância desse quadro teórico na fundamentação das escolas promotoras de saúde e, especificamente, na perspectiva de ações inerentes à prática pedagógica relacionada à educação física escolar e disciplinas afins; b) propor pontos de corte para o teste de corrida e caminhada de 9 minutos considerando sua associação com marcadores biológicos de riscos cardiovasculares e c) identificar a probabilidade de escolares com razão de chances aumentada de fatores de risco cardiovascular a partir do teste de 9 minutos categorizados pelo índice de massa corporal (IMC) e sexo com os marcadores de triglicerídeos (TG)...

Associação entre estado nutricional, limitação funcional e incapacidade física em idosos do sul do Brasil

Danielewicz, Ana Lúcia
Fonte: Florianópolis Publicador: Florianópolis
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 139 p.| tabs.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.577488%
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição; Objetivo: Verificar a associação do estado nutricional (EN) com a limitação funcional e a incapacidade física em idosos de zona rural do sul do Brasil, assim como examinar outros fatores intervenientes nessa associação. Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico, transversal, de base populacional e domiciliar, realizado com 477 idosos de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 60 e 100 anos. O EN foi verificado por meio do índice de massa corporal (IMC): baixo peso (IMC < 22 Kg/m²), peso adequado (IMC ? 22 e ? 27 kg/m²) e excesso de peso (IMC > 27 Kg/m²). A limitação funcional foi avaliada por meio do somatório do escore (valores entre 0 e 5) obtido em três testes: "sentar e levantar" e "agachar e pegar um lápis" (avaliados por tempo), e teste de equilíbrio, composto por quatro medidas estáticas. A incapacidade física foi avaliada pela dificuldade em realizar uma ou mais tarefas auto referidas, relacionadas às atividades básicas da vida diária (AVDs) e às atividades instrumentais da vida diária (AIVDs). As variáveis de ajuste incluídas nas análises foram sexo, idade, escolaridade, arranjo familiar...

Urinary incontinence in community-dwelling older Mexican American and European American women

Markland, Alayne D.; Gerety, Meghan B.; Goode, Patricia S.; Kraus, Stephen R.; Cornell, John; Hazuda, Helen P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.809495%
The aim was to measure prevalence and correlates of urinary incontinence in community-dwelling Mexican American (MA) and European American (EA) women from a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort. Participants were MA and EA women, aged 65 years and older, in the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA), of whom 421 (97.4%) responded to the question “How often do you have difficulty holding your urine until you can get to a toilet.” Measurements included sociodemographic, functional, cognitive, psychosocial, and clinical status variables derived from bilingual interviews and performance-based tests. Urinary incontinence prevalence was 36.6% (n=154). MA women reported less incontinence than did EAs (29% versus 45%, p=0.001). In multivariable analyses in MA women, urinary incontinence correlated with the presence of fecal incontinence (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.1 – 14.0) and more dependency in Activities of Daily Living (1.4, 1.1–1.8) after controlling for significant sociodemographic factors. In EA women, only age >75 (4.2, 1.4–12.4) was associated with urinary incontinence. MA women were less likely to report incontinence compared to EAs, despite MAs having increased number of children, less education...

Relationship of dementia screening tests with biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease

Galvin, James E.; Fagan, Anne M.; Holtzman, David M.; Mintun, Mark A.; Morris, John C.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.00428%
Screening tests for Alzheimer’s disease lack sensitivity and specificity. We developed the AD8, a brief dementia screening interview validated against clinical and cognitive evaluations, as an improvement over current screening methods. Because insufficient follow-up has occurred to validate the AD8 against the neuropathologic findings of Alzheimer’s disease, we investigated whether AD8 scores correspond to impairment in episodic memory testing and changes in biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (cerebrospinal fluid and amyloid imaging with Pittsburgh compound B) characteristic of symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease. We also compared informant-based assessments with brief performance-based dementia screening measurements such as the Mini Mental State Exam. The sample (n = 257) had a mean age of 75.4 years with 15.1 years of education; 88.7% were Caucasian and 45.5% were male. The sample was divided into two groups based on their AD8 scores: those with a negative dementia screening test (AD8 score 0 or 1, n = 137) and those with a positive dementia screening test (AD8 score ≥2, n = 120). Individuals with positive AD8 scores had abnormal Pittsburgh compound B binding (P < 0.001) and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (P < 0.001) compared with individuals with negative AD8 scores. Individuals with positive AD8 tests and positive biomarkers scored in the impaired range on the Wechsler Logical Memory Story A (mean score 7.0 ± 4.5 for Pittsburgh compound B; mean score 7.6 ± 5.3 for cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta protein 1–42). The AD8 area under the curve for Pittsburgh compound B was 0.737 (95% confidence interval: 0.64–0.83) and for cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta protein 1–42 was 0.685 (95% confidence interval: 0.60–0.77) suggesting good discrimination. The AD8 had superior sensitivity in detecting early stages of dementia compared with the Mini Mental State Examination. The AD8 had a likelihood ratio of a positive test of 5.8 (95% confidence interval: 5.4–6.3) and likelihood ratio of a negative test of 0.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.03–0.06)...

Early-Stage Primary School Children Attending a School in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) Have Better Reversal Learning and Lean Muscle Mass Growth Than Those Attending a Non-SFP School12

Nkhoma, Owen W. W.; Duffy, Maresa E.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Davidson, Philip W.; McSorley, Emeir M.; Strain, J. J.; O’Brien, Gerard M.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.581636%
In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6–8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9...

Le redoublement, la réussite scolaire et l’objectif de la Scolarisation Primaire Universelle (SPU) d’ici à 2015 dans le cadre de l’Éducation Pour Tous (EPT) : cas du Sénégal à partir des données longitudinales du PASEC

Labé, A. Olivier
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.201406%
L’Éducation Pour Tous mobilise la communauté internationale et les gouvernements depuis 1990. Cet engagement global renouvelé en 2000 sous l’auspice de l’UNESCO puis des Nations-Unies, porte notamment sur un objectif de base : l’universalisation de la scolarisation primaire complète pour tous les enfants d’âge scolaire à l’horizon de 2015. Plusieurs études sur la réalisation de cet objectif montrent que les pays en développement sont les plus à risque et que les progrès accomplis dans la plupart de ces pays, pourraient être plus importants si la pratique du redoublement faisait davantage l’objet de régulation et de contrôle. Cela contribuerait à améliorer la réussite scolaire et accroître la rétention des élèves au sein des systèmes éducatifs. La pratique du redoublement est en effet une tradition dans plusieurs systèmes éducatifs. Elle est particulièrement prépondérante dans certains groupes de pays ou régions, notamment en Afrique francophone au sud du Sahara. Dans ces pays, le PASEC - Programme d’Analyse des Systèmes Éducatifs de la CONFEMEN (Conférence des Ministres de l’Éducation Nationale des pays ayant le français en partage) - œuvre à améliorer l’accès à une éducation de qualité pour tous...

An investigation into the comparable effectiveness of two tests of writing administered to college-level English as a Second Language students: The Computerized Placement Test and holistically scored essay exams

Schuemann, Cynthia M
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
50.10307%
This dissertation describes the findings and implications of a correlational analysis. Scores earned on the Computerized Placement Test (CPT), sentence skills, were compared to essay scores of advanced English as a Second Language (ESL) students. As the CPT is designed for native speakers of English, it was hypothesized that it could be an invalid or unreliable instrument for non-native speakers. Florida community college students are mandated to take the CPT to determine preparedness, as are students at many other U.S. and Canadian colleges. If incoming students score low on the CPT, they may be required to take up to three semesters of remedial coursework. It is essential that scores earned by non-native speakers of English accurately reflect their ability level. They constitute a large and growing body of non-traditional students enrolled at community colleges.^ The study was conducted at Miami-Dade Community College, Wolfson Campus, fall 1997. Participants included 106 advanced ESL students who took both the CPT sentence skills test and wrote final essay exams. The essay exams were holistically scored by trained readers. Also, the participants took the Placement Articulation Software Service (PASS) exam, an alternative form of the CPT. Scores on the CPT and essays were compared by means of a Pearson product-moment correlation to validate the CPT. Scores on the CPT and the PASS exam were compared in the same manner to verify reliability. A percentage of appropriate placements was determined by comparing essay scores to CPT cutoff score ranges. Finally...

A study of the implementation of junior college *evaluation system in Taiwan

Wang, An-Ji
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
99.20259%
Since the establishment of the evaluation system in 1975, the junior colleges in the Republic of China (Taiwan), have gone through six formal evaluations. We know that evaluation in schooling, like quality control in businesses, should be a systematic, formal, and a continual process. It can doubtless serve as a strategy to refine the quality of education. The purpose of this research is to explore the current practice of junior college evaluation in Taiwan. This provides insight into the development of and quality of the current evaluation system. Moreover, this study also identified the source of problems with the current evaluation system and provided suggestion for improvements.^ In order to attain the above purposes, this research was undertaken in both theoretical and practical ways. First, theoretically, on the basis of a literature review, the theories of educational evaluation and, according to the course and principles of development, a view of the current practice in Taiwan. Secondly, in practice, by means of questionnaires, an analysis of the views of evaluation committeemen, junior college presidents, and administrators were obtained on evaluation models, methods, contents, organization, functions, criteria, grades reports...

The positive and negative effects of testing in lifelong learning

Meyer, Ashely N. D.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.590303%
Formal classroom learning is a lifelong pursuit. Many older adults return to school to advance their careers, learn new skills, or simply for personal fulfillment. As such, methods for improving learning should be considered in relation to both younger and older learners in order to properly assess their ultimate usefulness. A technique that has been demonstrably effective at improving learning and memory in younger students is testing. Testing improves memory more than mere exposure to material (e.g., restudying), a benefit known as the positive testing effect. However, recognition tests, where learners are exposed to correct and incorrect information (e.g., multiple-choice tests), also introduce false information to test-takers. While evidence shows that testing improves memory for tested material, this can include the incorrect material presented on recognition tests manifested as increased reproduction of incorrect answers (lures), a phenomenon known as the negative testing effect. These effects of testing, however, have only been studied in younger learners. Older learners, on the other hand, may show decreased positive testing effects and increased negative testing effects because of poorer long-term episodic and source memory...

Development and validation of an instrument to predict online student success using faculty perceptions

Hernandez, Roberto Jaime
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.65182%
Distance learning is growing and transforming educational institutions. The increasing use of distance learning by higher education institutions and particularly community colleges coupled with the higher level of student attrition in online courses than in traditional classrooms suggests that increased attention should be paid to factors that affect online student course completion. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate an instrument to predict community college online student course completion based on faculty perceptions, yielding a prediction model of online course completion rates. Social Presence and Media Richness theories were used to develop a theoretically-driven measure of online course completion. ^ This research study involved surveying 311 community college faculty who taught at least one online course in the past 2 years. Email addresses of participating faculty were provided by two south Florida community colleges. Each participant was contacted through email, and a link to an Internet survey was given. The survey response rate was 63% (192 out of 303 available questionnaires). ^ Data were analyzed through factor analysis, alpha reliability, and multiple regression. The exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis with varimax rotation yielded a four-factor solution that accounted for 48.8% of the variance. Consistent with Social Presence theory...

The impact of the Florida state -mandated Basic Skills Exit Tests at Miami -Dade Community College

Bashford, Joanne
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.914795%
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the Florida State-mandated Basic Skills Exit Tests (BSET) on the effectiveness of remedial instruction programs to adequately serve the academically underprepared student population. The primary research question concerned whether the introduction of the BSET has resulted in remedial completers who are better prepared for college-level coursework. ^ This study consisted of an ex post facto research design to examine the impact of the BSET on student readiness for subsequent college-level coursework at Miami-Dade Community College. Two way analysis of variance was used to compare the performance of remedial and college-ready students before and after the introduction of the BSET requirement. Chi-square analysis was used to explore changes in the proportion of students completing and passing remedial courses. Finally, correlation analysis was used to explore the utility of the BSET in predicting subsequent college-level course performance. Differences based on subject area and race/ethnicity were explored. ^ The introduction of the BSET did not improve the performance of remedial completers in subsequent college-level courses in any of the subject areas. The BSET did have a negative impact on the success rate of students in remedial reading and mathematics courses. There was a significant decrease in minority students' likelihood of passing remedial reading and mathematics courses after the BSET was introduced. The reliability of the BSET is unacceptably low for all subject areas...

From Clinical Trials to Clinical Practice: An International Survey of Oncologists on Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes

Rouette, JULIE
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.574792%
Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes have been increasingly used in phase III randomized controlled trials to characterize the benefits or risks of a cancer treatment. HRQL outcomes from clinical trials can also inform clinical practice in oncology settings. Previous qualitative research suggests that oncologists value HRQL outcomes but challenges to their clinical application exist. Little quantitative research has been conducted to examine these barriers. This study describes the opinions of oncologists toward HRQL outcomes, the ways in which HRQL outcomes can be presented, and the importance of suggested reporting standards for HRQL outcomes in clinical trials. It further examines the association between attitudinal and demographic factors associated with the self-reported current use and achievable use of HRQL outcomes in clinical practice. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional survey of oncologists. A web-based questionnaire was disseminated in Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia/New Zealand. The study included oncologist members of the NCIC Clinical Trials Group, the NCRI Clinical Studies Groups, and the Australasian Cancer Clinical Trials Groups. Respondents were asked to report their opinions toward HRQL outcomes and the factors associated with the use of these outcomes in clinical practice. Demographic characteristics were also collected. Chi-square tests were used to compare the proportion of responses between countries. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the use of HRQL outcomes in clinical practice. Results: A total of 344 oncologists completed the survey. Most oncologists (65.9%) reported having a good knowledge of HRQL outcomes and 72% perceived HRQL outcomes to be useful. High current use of HRQL outcomes in clinical practice was associated with more medical practice experience; perceiving HRQL outcomes to be useful; perceiving HRQL measurements to be reliable; and reporting lack of understanding to rarely be a barrier to using HRQL outcomes. High achievable use of HRQL outcomes in clinical practice was associated with being a male oncologist...

L’engagement professionnel chez les nouveaux enseignants et la satisfaction des gestionnaires d’école à l’égard du travail effectué par les enseignants novices

Barroso da Costa, Carla
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.040073%
Le monde actuel, marqué par une augmentation incessante des exigences professionnelles, requiert des enseignants une adaptation constante aux changements sociaux, culturels et économiques. Si, pour les enseignants expérimentés, l’accommodation à ces transformations est accompagnée de plusieurs défis, pour les nouveaux enseignants qui ne maîtrisent pas complètement tous les aspects de la profession, l’intégration au milieu scolaire peut être extrêmement difficile ou même insupportable, au point où certains quittent le métier. Néanmoins, à force de persévérance, un certain nombre des nouveaux enseignants franchissent les obstacles imposés par la profession. Dans leur cas, la satisfaction et l’engagement professionnel peuvent être des caractéristiques importantes qui les incitent à continuer à exercer leurs activités d’enseignement. Dans ce contexte, l’étude vise l’analyse des éléments liés à la construction de l’identité professionnelle des enseignants lors de leur insertion dans le métier, à partir des perceptions des nouveaux enseignants et de celles des gestionnaires des écoles primaires et secondaires. L’harmonie entre la perception de ces deux groupes d’acteurs scolaires peut constituer un important facteur du rendement des professionnels dans leur métier et de l’efficacité des institutions d’enseignement. Ainsi...

Ferramentas computacionais para robos moveis autonomos

Douglas Machado Tavares
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/03/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.583186%
Robôs móveis autônomos são plataformas com poder de processamento embarcado, capazes de tomar decisões de forma independente frente a situações diversas impostas pelo ambiente sobre o qual operam. Têm sido muito usados em pesquisa e ensino, permitindo o desenvolvimento de aplicativos, experimentos e aprimoramento de conhecimentos. Programar um robô para que ele haja de forma autônoma, geralmente envolve a definição de estados de predicado, a partir dos quais ele possa inferir alguma ação dentro das suas possibilidades e limitações, que responda de melhor forma à situação que o ambiente lhe proporcionou. O desenvolvimento de ferramentas para comunicação, controle e navegação (esta, incluindo posicionamento, orientação e deslocamentos no ambiente), torna-se essencial para que um robô possa realizar, de forma autônoma, missões em ambientes adversos, geralmente hostis, onde mobilidade seja uma necessidade inerente. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho discute e propõe ferramentas computacionais para robôs móveis autônomos, que podem ser utilizadas, principalmente, no contexto multi-robôs, incluindo detalhes das implementações e uma série de experimentos e testes. São apresentados os conceitos e a arquitetura da plataforma LEGO...

Perfil da Aptidão Física de crianças participantes do Programa de Ginástica Artística no CECOPAM

Duarte, Douglas Brandão
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.573047%
A Ginástica Artística nas escolas continua sendo uma prática muito pouco trabalhada no Brasil. Toda a bagagem motora que está atividade traz para as crianças é muito importante para a formação das valências físicas; força, resistência, flexibilidade e velocidade. A falta dessas contribuições para a cultura corporal de crianças e jovens reflete em um pobre amadurecimento motor, alem de influir nas questões de aptidão física e saúde. Como conteúdo da educação física escolar a prática sistematizada e orientada de um programa de exercícios físicos e gimnicos promove a aptidão tanto relacionada ao desempenho motor como a saúde do individuo. O objetivo deste estudo de caso é relatar os resultados e o perfil de aptidão física de escolares entre 6 e 12 anos que frequentam o Programa Ginástica Artística da Secretária Municipal de Esportes (SME) do Centro de Comunidade Parque Madepinho (CECOPAM). Participaram da amostra 18 sujeitos, do sexo feminino, que realizam a prática nos turnos da manhã ou da tarde. Para a coleta de dados deste estudo de caso foi utilizado a bateria de testes do PROESP-Br, www.proesp.ufgrs.br força-resistência abdominal, flexibilidade, força explosiva de membros inferiores, força explosiva de membros superiores...

Hybrid optimization method with general switching strategy for parameter estimation

Balsa-Canto, Eva; Peifer, Martin; Banga, Julio R.; Timmer, Jens; Fleck, Christian
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 326865 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.568281%
This article is available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1752-0509/2/26; [Background] Modeling and simulation of cellular signaling and metabolic pathways as networks of biochemical reactions yields sets of non-linear ordinary differential equations. These models usually depend on several parameters and initial conditions. If these parameters are unknown, results from simulation studies can be misleading. Such a scenario can be avoided by fitting the model to experimental data before analyzing the system. This involves parameter estimation which is usually performed by minimizing a cost function which quantifies the difference between model predictions and measurements. Mathematically, this is formulated as a non-linear optimization problem which often results to be multi-modal (non-convex), rendering local optimization methods detrimental.; [Results] In this work we propose a new hybrid global method, based on the combination of an evolutionary search strategy with a local multiple-shooting approach, which offers a reliable and efficient alternative for the solution of large scale parameter estimation problems.; [Conclusion] The presented new hybrid strategy offers two main advantages over previous approaches: First...

Community pharmacy-based intervention to improve self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patien

Müller,Uta; Hämmerlein,Andrea; Casper,Annette; Schulz,Martin
Fonte: Pharmacy Practice (Granada) Publicador: Pharmacy Practice (Granada)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.001426%
Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is clearly correlated with increased life expectancy and quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients. Objective: The objective of our study was to record and assess the errors patients make in preparing, performing, and processing self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Furthermore, the study aimed to determine to what extent a single standardized SMBG instruction session in a community pharmacy might reduce the number of patients making errors or the number of errors per patient. Methods: Between May and October 2005, SMBG of 462 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes was monitored in 32 pharmacies specialized in diabetes care. The patients performed blood glucose self-tests using their own blood glucose meters. Self-testing was monitored using a standardized documentation sheet on which any error made during the performance of the test was recorded. If necessary, patients were instructed in the accurate operation of their meter and the use of the necessary equipment. Additionally, patients obtained written instructions. Six weeks later, assessment of the quality of patient’s SMBG was repeated. Results: During the first observation, 383 patients (83%) made at least one mistake performing SMBG. By the time of the second observation...