Over the past decade, Turkey has
experienced significant socioeconomic progress and
demographic changes. The benefit of Early Childhood
Education (ECE) programs is maximized when the interventions
are targeted to children from disadvantaged families. This
report examines the ECE provision in Turkey, and offers
policy options for improving and expanding the ECE system in
the future. The report endorses the goal of the expansion
plan and provides detailed recommendations for achieving
this ambition in an efficient and equitable manner. This
report is divided into following four sections: section one
gives introduction, section two presents an analytical
framework for analyzing early childhood interventions,
section three conducts an in-depth analysis of ECE in Turkey
and identifies key challenges, and section four recommends
and outlines proposals for a dual-program strategy for
expanding quality ECE in Turkey.
Uzbekistan is a lower middle-income country of 29.5 million people, located in Central Asia, with an economy that has been growing by over 8 percent per annum since the mid-2000s. Given international evidence about the high returns that can be realized from investing in pre-primary education ranging from promoting children s school readiness to equalizing opportunities across the income distribution, policymakers are keen to explore ways to expand access and promote the provision of high-quality early childhood education. This report is divided into four sections. Section two presents an analytical framework for analyzing early childhood interventions. Section three conducts an in-depth analysis of Early Childhood Care and Education (or Pre-primary Education), or ECCE in Uzbekistan, with a focus on increasing access and equity, promoting quality, and ensuring adequate and effective financing. Section four makes some recommendations for expanding access to high-quality ECCE in Uzbekistan.
The returns to investments in early
childhood development (ECD) are manifold and can include
improved school readiness, reduced drop-out rates, higher
labor force productivity and greater social cohesion.
Despite these high returns, enrollment in early childhood
education is just 18 percent across Africa, with
disproportionately high enrollment from children in urban
areas and from wealthier families. Interactive Audio
Instruction (IAI) is a distance learning technology that can
deliver low-cost, culturally appropriate education via radio
or mobile audio technology. It is a highly effective tool to
reach children who can be hard to reach through conventional
programs, including the rural poor and children with
disabilities. IAI can also be an effective form of service
delivery in unstable and conflict-affected regions.
This study examined a Pseudoword Phonics Curriculum to determine if this form of instruction would increase students’ decoding skills compared to typical real-word phonics instruction. In typical phonics instruction, children learn to decode familiar words which allow them to draw on their prior knowledge of how to pronounce the word and may detract from learning decoding skills. By using pseudowords during phonics instruction, students may learn more decoding skills because they are unfamiliar with the “words” and therefore cannot draw on memory for how to pronounce the word. It was hypothesized that students who learn phonics with pseudowords will learn more decoding skills and perform higher on a real-word assessment compared to students who learn phonics with real words. ^ Students from two kindergarten classes participated in this study. An author-created word decoding assessment was used to determine the students’ ability to decode words. The study was broken into three phases, each lasting one month. During Phase 1, both groups received phonics instruction using real words, which allowed for the exploration of baseline student growth trajectories and potential teacher effects. During Phase 2, the experimental group received pseudoword phonics instruction while the control group continued real-word phonics instruction. During Phase 3...
Changing demographics impact our schools as children come from more linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds. The various social, cultural, and economic backgrounds of the students affect their early language learning experiences which expose them to the academic language needed to succeed in school. Teachers can help students acquire academic language by introducing words that are within their Zone of Proximal Development and increasing exposure to and use of academic language. This study investigated the effects of increasing structured activities for students to orally interact with informational text on their scientific academic language development and comprehension of expository text.
The Academic Text Talk activities, designed to scaffold verbalization of new words and ideas, included discussion, retelling, games, and sentence walls. This study also evaluated if there were differences in scientific language proficiency and comprehension between boys and girls, and between English language learners and native English speakers.
A quasi-experimental design was used to determine the relationship between increasing students’ oral practice with academic language and their academic language proficiency. Second graders (n = 91) from an urban public school participated in two science units over an 8 week period and were pre and post tested using the Woodcock Muñoz Language Survey-Revised and vocabulary tests from the National Energy Education Project. Analysis of covariance was performed on the pre to post scores by treatment group to determine differences in academic language proficiency for students taught using Academic Text Talk compared to students taught using a text-centered method...
From a sociocultural perspective, individuals learn best from contextualized experiences. In preservice teacher education, contextualized experiences include authentic literacy experiences, which include a real reader and writer and replicate real life communication. To be prepared to teach well, preservice teachers need to gain literacy content knowledge and possess reading maturity.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of authentic literacy experiences as Book Buddies with Hispanic fourth graders on preservice teachers’ literacy content knowledge and reading maturity.
The study was a pretest/posttest design conducted over 12 weeks. Preservice teacher participants, the focus of the study, were elementary education majors taking the third of four required reading courses in non-probabilistic convenience groups, 43 (n = 33 experimental, n = 10 comparison) Elementary Education majors. The Survey of Preservice Teachers’ Knowledge of Teaching and Technology (SPTKTT), specifically designed for preservice teachers majoring in elementary or early childhood education and the Reading Maturity Survey (RMS) were used in this study. Preservice teachers chose either the experimental or comparison group based on the opportunity to earn extra credit points (experimental = 30 points...
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between teacher beliefs and actual classroom practice in early literacy instruction. Conjoint analysis was used to measure teachers' beliefs on four early literacy factors—phonological awareness, print awareness, graphophonic awareness, and structural awareness. A collective case study format was then used to measure the correspondence of teachers' beliefs with their actual classroom practice. ^ Ninety Project READS participants were given twelve cards in an orthogonal experimental design describing students that either met or did not meet criteria on the four early literacy factors. Conjoint measurements of whether the student is an efficient reader were taken. These measurements provided relative importance scores for each respondent. Based on the relative important scores, four teachers were chosen to participate in a collective case study. ^ The conjoint results enabled the clustering of teachers into four distinct groups, each aligned with one of the four early literacy factors. K-means cluster analysis of the relative importance measurements showed commonalities among the ninety respondents' beliefs. The collective case study results were mixed. Implications for researchers and practitioners include the use of conjoint analysis in measuring teacher beliefs on the four early literacy factors. Further...
The purpose of this research was to determine whether initial developmental delay, site of intervention, frequency of intervention, age of the child, socio-economic status (SES), gender and ethnicity significantly predict developmental gains in a group of children enrolled in an early intervention setting. The records of 134 children enrolled in an inner-city program in Miami, Florida were reviewed for inclusion in this study. ^ Demographic variables, site placement and treatment frequencies were collected during a retrospective chart review. Level of delay was expressed using the developmental quotient and developmental gain was calculated using the mean gain on age equivalent scores or developmental tests. A multiple regression analysis was performed to determine which of the above variables significantly predicted developmental gains. Multivariate analysis compared developmental gains for all the developmental domains based on intervention site (center versus home-based) while controlling for developmental delay. ^ Children made greater developmental gains if they had higher developmental quotients and if they were younger at the time services were initiated. Frequency of intervention significantly improved developmental outcomes in children attending center-based programs. Children attending center-based programs also made significantly greater gains in gross motor skills compared to children attending home-based programs. ^ These findings emphasize the importance of early screening and referral of children with developmental delay and adjusting intervention for the child's developmental quotient. Children should receive intense treatment to maximize results. Decisions regarding program placement should be individualized according to the child's unique developmental pattern. Policy and program decisions affecting the curriculum of a child in early intervention need to reflect these multivariate considerations. ^
Historical accuracy is only one of the components of a scholarly college textbook used to teach the history of jazz music. Textbooks in this field should include accurate ethnic representation of the most important musical figures as jazz is considered the only original American art form. As college and universities celebrate diversity, it is important that jazz history be accurate and complete. ^ The purpose of this study was to examine the content of the most commonly used jazz history textbooks currently used at American colleges and universities. This qualitative study utilized grounded and textual analysis to explore the existence of ethnic representation in these texts. The methods used were modeled after the work of Kane and Selden each of whom conducted a content analysis focused on a limited field of study. This study is focused on key jazz artists and composers whose work was created in the periods of early jazz (1915-1930), swing (1930-1945) and modern jazz (1945-1960). ^ This study considered jazz notables within the texts in terms of ethnic representation, authors' use of language, contributions to the jazz canon, and place in the standard jazz repertoire. Appropriate historical sections of the selected texts were reviewed and coded using predetermined rubrics. Data were then aggregated into categories and then analyzed according to the character assigned to the key jazz personalities noted in the text as well as the comparative standing afforded each personality. ^ The results of this study demonstrate that particular key African-American jazz artists and composers occupy a significant place in these texts while other significant individuals representing other ethnic groups are consistently overlooked. This finding suggests that while America and the world celebrates the quality of the product of American jazz as great musically and significant socially...
The purpose of this research study was to examine specific factors believed to be related to academic achievement in deaf children. More specifically, this research sought to determine whether there was a significant difference in achievement between those students whose parents use oral communication only and those whose parents use some type of sign language. An additional purpose of this research was to determine if there was a significant difference in academic achievement with those deaf students who used amplification devices early in life. This study also sought to determine whether providing early intervention program which emphasizes and enables parents to develop a language rich environment had a significant impact on the academic achievement of deaf children and whether the age at which initial services are received influence deaf student's subsequent academic achievement. This study examined the relationship, if any, between intellectual ability and academic achievement among deaf children. Finally, this study sought to investigate the relationship between the degree of hearing loss and academic achievement. ^ Purposive sampling was used to select subjects for this study. All 228 eligible Deaf/Hard of Hearing (DHH) students enrolled in a Broward County Public School were included in the original sample. Sixty-one students actually participated in this study. A correlational method of statistical analysis as well as a cross classification (crosstabs) was used to analyze the data. ^ The results show that academic achievement in the areas of reading and mathematics was significantly related to parental mode of communication and the mode of communication used in school. Academic achievement...
The current study examined the impact of an early summer literacy program and the mediating effects of the home literacy environment on the language and literacy outcomes of a group of children at-risk for long-term developmental and academic delays. Participating children (n=54) were exposed to an intensive book-reading intervention each summer (June through mid August) over a 3-year period. ^ The current study implemented an ex post facto, quasi-experimental design. This nonequivalent group design involved a pretest and posttest over three time points for a non-randomized treatment group and a matched non-treatment comparison group. ^ Results indicated that literacy scores did improve for the children over the 3-year period; however, language scores did not experience the same rate of change over time. Receptive language was significantly impacted by attendance, and race/ethnicity. Expressive language was impacted significantly by gestational age and attendance. Results also indicated that language outcomes for young children who are exposed to a literacy program were higher than those who did not participate; however, only receptive language yielded significance at the p<.05 level. These study results also found that activities in the home that support literacy and learning do indeed impact language and literacy outcomes for these children...
This quasi-experimental Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) study explored whether the vocabulary and reading comprehension mean scores of Hispanic Kindergarten ELs whose teachers were trained to utilize Dialogic Reading (DR) discourse were higher than the mean scores of Hispanic ELs in kindergarten whose teachers were not trained to utilize DR discourse strategies. Sixty-three self-identified Hispanic, English Language Kindergarten students and four teachers participated in the study. The teachers were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (DR trained) or control group by drawing names from a hat. Student assignment to experimental versus comparison group was based on the teacher’s assignment to either the experimental or comparison group. Thirty-one were assigned to the control group and 32 to the experimental group.
The teachers were instructed to read the story to a group of six students (maximum) at a time, utilizing the DR discourse strategies they had been trained to implement. Subjects were read a story each week during the 8-week duration of the study. Teachers in the experimental group collaboratively selected 10 words each week from the Read Together Talk Together (RTTT) instructional stories that were utilized for vocabulary instruction.
A test of homogeneity was conducted to evaluate whether the variance among the dependent variables was the same across the groups. An Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to analyze students’ vocabulary and comprehension mean scores in the experimental group and the comparison group. The results of the study demonstrated a significant increase in the vocabulary and reading comprehension mean scores for the students whose teachers had been trained in DR discourse strategies. When comparing the two groups...
Changing demographics impact our schools as children come from more linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds. The various social, cultural, and economic backgrounds of the students affect their early language learning experiences which expose them to the academic language needed to succeed in school. Teachers can help students acquire academic language by introducing words that are within their Zone of Proximal Development and increasing exposure to and use of academic language. This study investigated the effects of increasing structured activities for students to orally interact with informational text on their scientific academic language development and comprehension of expository text. ^ The Academic Text Talk activities, designed to scaffold verbalization of new words and ideas, included discussion, retelling, games, and sentence walls. This study also evaluated if there were differences in scientific language proficiency and comprehension between boys and girls, and between English language learners and native English speakers. ^ A quasi-experimental design was used to determine the relationship between increasing students' oral practice with academic language and their academic language proficiency. Second graders (n = 91) from an urban public school participated in two science units over an 8 week period and were pre and post tested using the Woodcock Muñoz Language Survey-Revised and vocabulary tests from the National Energy Education Project. Analysis of covariance was performed on the pre to post scores by treatment group to determine differences in academic language proficiency for students taught using Academic Text Talk compared to students taught using a text-centered method...
It has been reported that the cultural-historical experiences of ethnic group members can play a role in the literacy beliefs of those members. Socioeconomic conditions can also influence the belief system of the groups' constituents. This study investigated parents' and children's beliefs pertaining to early literacy acquisition as related to the ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) of the participants. The objectives were to determine (a) the differential patterns regarding emergent literacy and traditional skills approaches as they interact with ethnicity and SES and (b) the correspondence between parents and children's beliefs about literacy acquisition. ^ The study was conducted with 152 parents (38 low-income Hispanic, 38 middle-income Hispanic, 38 low-income African-American, and 38 middle-income African-American) and 36 of their 3-, 4-, or 5-year-old children (18 male and 18 female). ^ The parents were asked to check those items with which they agreed on a survey that consisted of an equal number of items from the traditional skills-based and emergent literacy orientations. These responses were used to determine the differences and interaction by ethnicity and SES. The children responded to open-ended questions related to the instruction of reading and writing skills. The parents' responses and children's answers were compared to ascertain the matching parent-child dyads by ethnicity and SES. ^ An item analysis was conducted to strengthen the internal reliability consistency coefficient of the traditional skills-based and emergent literacy scales as measured by the Cronbach Alpha. ^ A two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed a significant difference in traditional skill-based beliefs for the low-income African-American and Hispanic parents. There were no significant findings for the parents' traditional skill based or emergent literacy beliefs based on ethnicity...
Yunnan is a medium-sized and relatively
poor Chinese province on the southwestern border of China.
In 2012, the Yunnan department of education formally
requested Bank support in conducting a review of early
childhood education policies and programs in order to gain
an in-depth and evidence-based understanding of the
challenges the province faces in expanding early childhood
education-in particular to rural and mountainous regions.
The Bank's China education team embarked on raising
funds, designing and implementing a rather elaborate
research agenda around early childhood education. The goal
was to investigate key challenges, and to propose policy
interventions for expanding the Early Child Development
(ECD) coverage in rural Yunnan. This report presents the
findings from the background studies, and draws potential
policy implications for improving the access to and quality
of preschool education in Yunnan province. China has now
almost achieved universal 9-year basic education. Over the
last decade, the country has devoted increasing attention to
policy development in early childhood education. Even though
China does not yet have a specific early childhood education
Indonesia is the world's fourth
most populous country, with more than 238 million people
living in an archipelago comprising over 17,000 islands.
Over the past decade the Indonesian economy has experienced
positive economic growth, reduced poverty, and made
continued progress towards many of the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs). For example, Indonesia has already
met and surpassed projected reductions in the number of
underweight children under five years old to below 18
percent and is on track to meeting its targets for reducing
overall child mortality and the targets for achieving
universal basic education. While clear progress has been
made on reducing poverty rates, inequality has persisted,
with the result that many children and families have not
shared in these gains. Over 30 million Indonesians live
below the poverty line (US $2 per day) and half of all
households are clustered around the poverty line. Of the
poor, 65 percent currently live in rural areas. For these
families, national economic improvements have brought only
modest gains in health and education...
Neuroscience and longitudinal studies of
early childhood development and education (ECDE) found that
prenatal care and experiences from birth to the first six
years (0-6), affect physical and brain development of
children, and thereby the cognitive and socio-emotional
development in subsequent stages of their lives. Lack of
access to nutrition and health care, insufficient
stimulating human interaction, and non-enrollment in
pre-primary education are associated with lower educational
attainment and achievement, which, in turn, reduce life-time
earnings and potentially contribute to disruptive behavior
to society. Investing in ECDE yields the highest economic
returns because early learning and formation of good habits
and social skills are far more productive than later,
remedial education and training. The internal rates of
return of rigorously evaluated ECDE programs range from 7
percent to 18 percent, which are higher than the rates of
return to financial capital. Investments in ECDE are one of
the most cost-effective strategies to break the
inter-generational transmission of poverty...
Happiness should be a fundamental aim of education. This philosophical assertion raises the practical question of how teachers generate happiness in their classroom programs while operating under the current paradigm of educational accountability. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the perspectives of early primary teachers, students, and parents on what makes a happy classroom. Data were collected through interviews of 12 teachers from public, independent, Waldorf, Froebel, and Montessori schools; over 72 hours of observation in eight early primary classrooms; interviews with 23 students (ages 3 to 8), drawing and photography with 64 students (ages 3 to 8); 66 parent surveys, and eight teacher exit interviews. Four cycles of analysis, including descriptive and conceptual approaches, resulted in the identification of five core conditions of happy classrooms: (a) relational pedagogy, (b) embodied learning, (c) pedagogical thoughtfulness (d) an ethos of happiness, and (e) an ethos of possibility. These five conditions were supported by 17 facets, which describe practical and conceptual ways to support pedagogical thinking and decision-making about children’s happiness in the complex worlds of busy classrooms. Five of the facets are spotlighted: (a) kids need to play...
The harmony and the unity among truth, good, and beauty is the ideal realm for humans to hope for. Our human being’s highest life purpose in the present is to lead a truthful, good, and beautiful life. Our humankind’s preeminent educational aim is the exploration of and the search for truth, good, and beauty. The Confucian philosophy is the base of the constitution of China’s educational ideals. During an extensive period of experimentation, the Confucian philosophy contributes to the education system comprising educational aim, curriculum, and instruction. The Confucian primary educational aim centers on the concept of jen (benevolent), which is to cultivate the person of jen or exemplary person (human quality of truth, good, and beauty); Its curriculum consists of teaching the Six Arts including li or rites (good), yue or music (beauty), she or archery (truth), yu or charioteering (truth), shu or reading (truth), and *shu or mathematics (truth). The Confucian pedagogy focuses on three major instructions such as connecting knowing and acting, teaching students according to their aptitude, and skillful directing. The Confucian educational aim, curriculum, and methods reflect the characteristics of the educational system in ancient China. John Dewey’s pragmatic philosophy and his educational ideals represent the value system of the Western modern society. Built upon pragmatism...
The objective of this report is to
analyze the state of early childhood education (ECE1)
provision and the policy framework for delivering ECE in Sri
Lanka, and suggest policy options for the future. The report
is intended to serve several purposes. First, drawing upon
the international literature in the field of early childhood
development, it provides the rationale for investing in
early childhood education in Sri Lanka. Second, it provides
an understanding of the current policy framework and
delivery system for ECE in the country. This policy analysis
specifically looks at the extent to which there is an
enabling environment for ECE, what provisions exist for
monitoring and quality assurance, and how widely the policy
is being implemented. Third, it presents a situation
analysis of ECE provision in Sri Lanka, discussing the
issues of access, equity, and quality in the delivery of ECE
services. The discussion on equity focuses mainly on
understanding disparities in access, and the analysis of
quality looks at the quality of inputs...