Trata-se de estudo sobre o fenômeno da literatura de autoajuda que consta entre as práticas de leitura de autoformação de professoras que atuam nos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Toma como ponto de partida o atual cenário profissional da educação, caracterizado simultaneamente pelos imperativos da constante atualização e pela desvalorização dos professores. Neste contexto encontra-se em circulação uma farta literatura baseada no modelo da autoajuda (WERNECK, 1996; CHALITA, 2001; TIBA, 2002; CURY, 2003), dirigida aos professores (e a quem interessar ou “julgar-se” educador), com o fim de proporcionar receitas para a obtenção do sucesso pessoal e profissional, além de apresentar-se como alternativa de leitura que visa amenizar frustrações e insatisfações. A primeira hipótese desta pesquisa refere-se à afirmação de que o livro Pais Brilhantes, Professores Fascinantes (CURY, 2003) vem sendo um dentre aqueles mais lidos ou conhecidos entre as professoras que atuam nos anos iniciais do ensino fundamental, ou seja, formadas em cursos de Pedagogia. O estudo não intenta opor-se a essa leitura de livros de autoajuda pelas professoras, mas objetiva compreender suas razões, indagar em que medida esta literatura é percebida como apoio pedagógico ao invés de um apoio de reflexão. Inspirando-se nos pressupostos teóricos e conceitos da história cultural relativamente à cultura escrita...
Academic discussion deepens learning when students share multiple perspectives, challenge propositions, and build on each other’s ideas to develop their own understanding (Michaels, O’Connor, & Resnick, 2008; Cazden, 1988). But academic discussion is rare in practice, suggesting that teachers are not implementing effective ‘talk moves,’ or discussion-based strategies to foster genuine dialogues (Applebee, Langer, Nystrand, & Gamoran, 2003). How do teachers learn to respond to students effectively in academic discussion?
This dissertation aims to describe the process by which teachers learn to teach using discussion in their own classrooms after professional development. It follows six teachers implementing a new curriculum, Word Generation, that uses discussion and debate to deepen students’ reading comprehension. Teachers were filmed conducting classroom discussions with their own students and then interviewed about their experiences, particularly how they made decisions on what to do and say in response to student contributions or events that emerged in the discussion. While developing the craft of dialogic teaching (Boyd and Markarian, 2011), teachers also encountered surprises and dilemmas, two types of teaching uncertainties that tested and influenced their professional growth.
Findings showed that teachers mastered more effective discussion teaching skills when they learned to manage or resolve their uncertainties. In fact...
Expanding and improving basic education
in developing countries requires, at a minimum, teachers who
are present in the classroom and motivated to teach, but
this essential input is often missing. This paper describes
the findings of a series of recent World Bank and other
studies on teacher absence and incentives for performance.
Surprise school visits reveal that teachers are absent at
high rates in countries such as India, Indonesia, Uganda,
Ecuador, and Zambia, reducing the quality of schooling for
children, especially in rural, remote, and poor areas. More
broadly, poor teacher management and low levels of teacher
accountability afflict many developing-country education
systems. The paper presents evidence on these shortcomings,
but also on the types of incentives, management, and support
structures that can improve motivation and performance and
reduce avoidable absenteeism. It concludes with policy
options for developing countries to explore as they work to
meet Education for All goals and improve quality.
Within this context, there are
significant opportunities to harness Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) and Open and Distance
Learning (ODL) in teacher education, especially to deliver
pre-service teacher education. Consequently, the Government
of Bihar requested the World Bank to provide support in
development of distance education curriculum, related
syllabi, content, effective delivery mechanisms, appropriate
student support systems, and assessment strategies to meet
the needs of its untrained teachers. Many other states and
countries are facing similar problems, and will need to
prepare comprehensive time-bound plans for untrained
teachers to acquire the prescribed qualifications (both
academic and professional). Thus, experiences in Bihar might
provide models for developing an ICT-based teacher education
system that can be used as a useful reference point by
others facing similar problems. This report outlines these
experiences and shares lessons learned through the process
This study uses a randomized experiment
to evaluate the impacts of the training and internship
program piloted in Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu counties by
the Kenya Private Sector Alliance and the Government of
Kenya with support from the World Bank’s Kenya Youth
Empowerment Project. The program provided three months of
classroom-based technical training coupled with three months
of internships in private firms to vulnerable youths between
ages 15 and 29 years, with vulnerable being defined as those
out of school and/or with no permanent job. The analysis in
this paper is based on survey data collected before the
program started (July 2012) and 15 months after the program
ended (July 2014). The results of the impact evaluation show
that the program has been successful in placing youths in
paid jobs and has contributed to an increase of 15 percent
in current employment among male participants. The
evaluation also found that the program has had positive
effects on wage earnings, especially those of females and
among older males...
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a writing process approach for the instruction of language arts with learning disabled elementary students. A nonequivalent control group design was used. The sample included 24 students with learning disabilities who were in second and third grade. All students were instructed in resource room settings for ninety minutes per day in language arts.^ The students in the treatment group received instruction using the writing process steps to create complete meaningful compositions on self-chosen topics. A literature-based reading program accompanied instruction in writing to provide examples of good writing and to provide a basis for topic selection.^ The students in the control group received instruction through the use of the county-adopted textbooks and accompanying worksheets. The teacher followed basic textbook and curriculum guide suggestions which consisted mainly of fill in the blank and matching type exercises.^ The treatment group consisted of 12 students: five second-graders and seven third-graders. The control group consisted of 12 students: four second-graders and eight third-graders.^ All students were pretested and posttested using the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-Revised (WJ-R ACH) for writing samples and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT) for reading achievement.^ T-tests were also done to investigate the gain from pre to post for each reading or writing variable for each group separately. The results showed a highly significant difference from pretest to posttest for all writing and reading variables for both groups. Analysis of Covariance showed that the population mean posttest achievement scores for all variables adjusted for the pretest were higher for the treatment group than those for the control group. ^
Beginning teachers in the field of English Language Arts and Reading are responsible for providing literacy instruction to students. Teachers need a broad background in teaching reading, writing, listening, speaking, and viewing, as well as critical thinking. In secondary schools in particular, beginning English Language Arts and Reading teachers are also faced with the challenge of preparing students to be proficient enough readers and writers to meet required State standards. Beginning teachers must navigate compelling challenges that exist during the first years of teaching. The school support systems available to new teachers are an integral part of their educational development. ^ This qualitative study was conceptualized as an in-depth examination of the experiences and perceptions of eight beginning teachers. They represented different racial/ethnic groups, attended different teacher preparation programs, and taught in different school cultures. The data were collected through formal and informal interviews and classroom observations. A qualitative system of data analysis was used to examine the patterns relating to the interrelationship between teacher preparation programs and school support systems. ^ The experiences of the beginning teachers in this study indicated that teacher education programs should provide preservice teachers with a critical knowledge base for teaching literature...
Early childhood research beginning in the 1960s has focused on the literacy experiences of preschool children in the home and the contribution of those experiences to later school success. Decades of research since then have investigated learning experiences of preschool children as they interacted with caregivers, siblings or peers prior to formal schooling (Durkin, 1966; Heath, 1983). ^ In this qualitative investigation into early literacy events that occur between disadvantaged Irish mothers and their children, four research questions were investigated. (1) How do disadvantaged Irish mothers engage their preschool children in literacy events such as storybook reading and jigsaw puzzle building? (2) How does the mother's previous school experience affect her role as the child's first teacher? (3) How does the culture of the neighborhood affect the child's developing literacy? (4) What risk factors inhibit literacy development in these Irish children? ^ This study examined the conversational exchanges between three disadvantaged Irish mothers and their preschool children living near Dublin, Ireland, as the mothers read a storybook to their children and assisted them in jigsaw puzzle building. Conversations were recorded, transcribed and analyzed into reading skill and teaching strategy categories for the purpose of determining the mothers' literacy intent during her turn. Journal notes...
Career Academy instructors' technical literacy is vital to the academic success of students. This nonexperimental ex post facto study examined the relationships between the level of technical literacy of instructors in career academies and student academic performance. It was also undertaken to explore the relationship between the pedagogical training of instructors and the academic performance of students. ^ Out of a heterogeneous population of 564 teachers in six targeted schools, 136 teachers (26.0 %) responded to an online survey. The survey was designed to gather demographic and teaching experience data. Each demographic item was linked by researchers to teachers' technology use in the classroom. Student achievement was measured by student learning gains as assessed by the reading section of the FCAT from the previous to the present school year. ^ Linear and hierarchical regressions were conducted to examine the research questions. To clarify the possibility of teacher gender and teacher race/ethnic group differences by research variable, a series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted. As revealed by the ANOVA results, there were not statistically significant group differences in any of the research variables by teacher gender or teacher race/ethnicity. Greater student learning gains were associated with greater teacher technical expertise integrating computers and technology into the classroom...
This study examines the effects of looping (staying with the same teacher for two grade levels) on the reading achievement of fourth graders within a large, urban, multicultural school. Looping was expected to have a positive effect on reading achievement and reading qualities. Additional benefits, such as its effect on anxiety levels and self-concept were also assumed to accrue from looping. ^ A causal-comparative design was employed. Four existing classrooms consisting of eighty-one fourth grade students comprised the treatment and comparison groups. The two “looping” treatment groups consisted of students who had the same teacher for their third and fourth grade school years. The remaining two classes comprised the comparison groups. Pre- and post-tests for reading achievement total scores and subscores for main idea and comparisons were obtained using the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). Assessments were also obtained from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, modified to reflect reading, and the Self-Perception Profile for Children. The difference in pre- and post-test FCAT scores were analyzed via a four group simple ANOVA to examine the effects of the looping model on reading achievement and reading qualities. Similar simple ANOVAs were performed to investigate the relationship of looping to anxiety and self-concept. ^ The findings led to the conclusion that looping was significantly related to improvement in reading achievement and reading qualities. In addition...
The purpose of this study was to aid in understanding the relationship between current Reading report card grading practices and standards-based state standardized testing results in Reading and factors associated with the alignment of this relationship. Report card and Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FLAT) data for 2004 were collected for 1064 third grade students in nine schools of one feeder pattern in Florida's Miami-Dade County Public Schools. A Third Grade Teacher Questionnaire was administered to 48 Reading teachers. The questionnaire contained items relating to teachers' education, teaching experience, grading practices, and beliefs about the FCAT, instructional Reading activities, methods, and materials. ^ Findings of this study support a strong relationship between report card grades and FCAT Reading achievement levels. However, individual school correlational analysis showed significant differences among schools' alignment measures. Higher teacher alignment between grades and FCAT levels was associated with teachers spending more time on individualized methods of Reading instruction and to teachers feeling there was not enough time to teach and help individual students. Lower teacher alignment of grades and achievement levels was associated with teachers taking homework into account in the final Reading grade. Teacher alignment of grades and achievement levels was not associated with teacher beliefs concerning the FCAT...
This Education Sector Study (ESS) is the World Bank's response to the need for a comprehensive study of Turkey's education system, in light of the dramatic changes that are sure to alter the country's social and economic landscape over the next decade. The study was prepared in association with the Education Reform Initiative of the Istanbul Policy Center on the basis of research and dialogue with a wide array of education stakeholders and actors. The overall objective of the ESS is to provide an assessment of current challenges to the education system in Turkey and identify policy options that can complement the country's existing pre-tertiary education strategy. Volume one provides a complete description of challenges, conclusions, and policy options for the reform of pre-school, primary, and secondary education. It includes an Annex that summarizes the research studies and policy notes commissioned to inform the report. Volume II is a collection of the complete research studies and policy notes commissioned for the ESS report.
This Education Sector Study (ESS) is the
World Bank's response to the need for a comprehensive
study of Turkey's education system, in light of the
dramatic changes that are sure to alter the country's
social and economic landscape over the next decade. The
study was prepared in association with the Education Reform
Initiative of the Istanbul Policy Center on the basis of
research and dialogue with a wide array of education
stakeholders and actors. The overall objective of the ESS is
to provide an assessment of current challenges to the
education system in Turkey and identify policy options that
can complement the country's existing pre-tertiary
education strategy. Volume one provides a complete
description of challenges, conclusions, and policy options
for the reform of pre-school, primary, and secondary
education. It includes an Annex that summarizes the research
studies and policy notes commissioned to inform the report.
Volume II is a collection of the complete research studies
and policy notes commissioned for the ESS report.
Eritrea is one of the poorest countries
in the world, with an average annual per capita income of
US$ 200 in 2006, and ranks 157th out of 177 countries in the
2005 human development index. Rain-fed agriculture, the
predominant economic activity for more than half the
population, is a very risky enterprise and food security
remains one of the government's main concerns. Given
the security situation the government is concerned about
fiscal transparency for national security reasons, but has
provided access to fiscal data for a review of the education
and health sectors. There have been significant improvements
in access to education since independence, and improving the
skills of the labor force remains critical for
Eritrea's long term development. Eritrea's public
resource allocation to education has increased rapidly and
at 6.7 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2005 is
slightly higher than many countries in the Africa Region.
There has been a rapid expansion in tertiary education
following investments in 2005 to provide an additional five
colleges. The general health status of Eritrea has greatly
improved since independence.
World Bank lending in education has
taken place through a unique working relationship in line
with India's principle of self-sufficiency and domestic
development. Until the late 1980s, the government of India
strongly resisted external funding for education programs.
Subsequently, the goal of universal elementary education
resulted in demand for additional resources, leading the
department of education (DOE) to review its policy on
external funding in education. The Bank's continued
efforts towards a dialogue with DOE aimed at confidence
building also contributed to this change in policy. Since
1980, the Bank s investments in education in India have
grown from an almost negligible amount to 2 billion dollars.
The Bank has approved four vocational and technical
education and training (TVET) projects and six basic
education projects. Overall, their capacity increased more
than 50 percent, by roughly 100,000 student places, and
expansion often exceeded targets. The operations evaluation
department (OED) has rated project performance as
satisfactory or highly satisfactory...
With prevention models, such as Response to Intervention (RtI), becoming increasingly implemented by schools, it is important to examine special and general elementary education teachers' acceptability of reading curriculum-based measurement (R-CBM). A national sample of 26 elementary education teachers (23 general education, 3 special education) completed an online survey regarding R-CBM. The survey examined teacher acceptability, knowledge, training, resources, and belief that R-CBM is a valid general outcome measure of reading. Results indicated that special education teachers' reported knowledge of R-CBM was statistically greater than general education teachers'. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between overall knowledge and acceptability of R-CBM. Teachers' belief regarding both resources and that R-CBM is a valid general outcome measure of reading had a significant positive correlation with overall acceptability. Lastly, there was a significant positive correlation between low acceptability of R-CBM and both resources and belief that it is a general outcome measure of reading. Implications for practice and further research are discussed.
In 2003, to improve the reading achievement of its kindergarten to third grade children, Delaware launched a five year, federally funded initiative called Delaware Reading First (DERF). A central component of the multi-faceted project was teacher training and professional development in Scientifically Based Reading Research (SBRR) practices. Program resources were directed each year toward teacher improvement goals, beginning with mandatory summer training institutes prior to Years 1 and 2 for all kindergarten to third grade general education, special education, and instructional support teachers in schools receiving DERF funding.
As part of a five-year DERF program evaluation, this technical report examines teachers’ changes in literacy-related content knowledge, their sense of self-efficacy as reading teachers, and their perceptions and beliefs about early literacy instruction.
Findings presented here are based on the analysis of two data sets. The first is a baseline set of 175 surveys from summer 2003 and the second includes 202 surveys of DERF k-3 grade teachers from fall 2007. In addition, a subset of 48 teachers’ with both baseline (summer 2003) surveys and year 5 (2007) responses was used for pre-post analysis.
This study presents evidence from a
randomized control trial (RCT) in Mongolia on the impact of
in-service teacher training and books, both as separate
educational inputs and as a package. The study tests for the
complementarity of inputs and non-linearity of returns from
investment in education as measured by students test scores
in five subjects. It takes advantage of a national-scale RCT
conducted under the Rural Education and Development project.
The results suggest that the provision of books, in addition
to teacher training, raises student achievement
substantially. However, teacher training and books weakly
improve test scores when provided individually. Students
whose teachers have received training and whose classrooms
have acquired books improved their cumulative score (totaled
across five tests) by 34.9 percent of a standard deviation,
relative to a control group. Students treated only with
books improved their total score by 20.6 percent of a
standard deviation relative to a control group of students.
On the other hand...
I report on teacher change in the context of a reading strategy instruction intervention. Reading Strategy Instruction (RSI) was implemented by three teachers, new to the concept, over a period of 15 weeks. Observations of these teachers showed that a multitude of factors affect the uptake of RSI as part of everyday teaching practice, and that teachers seem to move through distinct phases in their uptake of RSI. The article focuses on teachers' reaction to RSI and highlights a number of issues that are important to the implementation of RSI, not the least of which is that a clear need exists for changes to in-service teacher training and support and pre-service teacher training. In an effort to address these training issues the article contains specific recommendations for pre-service teacher training in particular.
Comprehension is a critical part of the reading process, and yet learners continue to struggle with it and teachers continue to neglect it in their teaching. Many reasons exist for the lack of focus on reading comprehension instruction, but for the most part, teachers simply do not seem to view comprehension as part of the reading process, are not able to teach the concept, and are seemingly not taught to do so during their teacher training years. In addition to this, comprehension continues to be viewed as part of 'language teaching', and is therefore viewed as the so-called 'language teacher's' domain. In support of effective comprehension instruction in the unique, multilingual South African education environment, this article proposes a framework for reading strategy instruction, aimed specifically at teachers. The framework was developed from a research study, and refined through subsequent application in a university course as well as a further study. The framework acknowledges that reading is a multifaceted and complex process, and accordingly, provides sufficient structure for teachers. It further addresses the issue of comprehension instruction through the use of selected reading strategies, designed to be applied by all teachers in all subjects in a flexible and easy manner.