O presente estudo se propõe a Identificar o número de Instituições de Ensino Superior (IES) que desenvolvem programas relacionados ao tema drogas nas áreas de ensino, prevenção e assistência e descrever o perfil de seus programas, além de conhecer como os alunos percebem a existência de ações de apoio à saúde, informações e ajuda sobre o consumo de drogas. Participaram do estudo 100 Instituições de Ensino Superior, localizadas nas 27 capitais dos estados brasileiros. Os alunos foram selecionados por sorteio sistemático das classes em cada instituição. Como instrumentos de coleta de dados foram utilizados: pesquisa aos sites institucionais, questionário estruturado respondido pelos alunos, questionário semiestruturado respondido pela instituição e analise qualitativa pela técnica de análise de conteúdo dos programas. Apesar da maioria dos estudantes saber da existência de serviços atendimento de saúde direcionados aos alunos, poucos utilizam o serviço, enquanto 71% dos alunos referem não ter recebido informações referentes ao uso de drogas e seu impacto na saúde em sua escola, no último ano. Das 100 IES, 82 instituições responderam ao questionário e destas, 32,9% (27 instituições) informam a existência de programas de prevenção...
Taveira, Maria do Céu, ed. lit.; Pinto, Joana Carneiro, ed. lit.; Silva, Ana Daniela, ed. lit.
Fonte: APDC - Associação Portuguesa para o Desenvolvimento da Carreira.Publicador: APDC - Associação Portuguesa para o Desenvolvimento da Carreira.
Publicado em 01/01/2013Português
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Chapter 1- Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling in the Schools: Career-life Planning For All
University of Calgary, Canada Young people today are facing a very different world than their teachers and parents faced as adolescents. Technology is doubling every two years. The top 10 jobs in de¬mand in 2010 did not exist in 2004. We are preparing students for jobs that don’t yet exist, using technologies that have not yet been invented, in order to solve problems that we don’t even know are problems yet. To succeed at this task, schools (and par¬ents) need to address the whole-person needs of students and not restrict themselves to only focusing on academic learning. This is best accomplished when career guid¬ance and personal development are infused into all school subjects, and when guid¬ance practitioners and counsellors are able to demonstrate the added value that a whole-person approach can offer.
Chapter 2 - Learning, Achievement and Career of Institutionalized Youths: Portraits of the Portuguese and Brazilian realities
Ana Daniela Silva & Marcelo Afonso Ribeiro
School of Psychology, University of Minho, Portugal & Institute of Psychology...
Too many young people are not on meaningful college or career pathways at a time when the workforce increasingly demands a higher level of education and skills. While a lack of education is a major barrier to employment, there are not enough alternatives to the one-size-fits-all high school to college trajectory that leaves 60% of Americans without any kind of college degree (U.S. Census Bureau, 2013). It is extremely difficult to get back on that pathway after leaving school, with the major barriers being finances, a lack of relevance/un-engaging coursework, and poor or nonexistent advising. The Innovation College Network was created to address these issues, developing a new higher education model that blends workforce development, education, and employment with intensive mentoring and support for young people between the ages of 16 and 26.
This capstone describes a pilot of the Innovation College Network, which included nine young people ranging in age from 18 to 30 who were not in school at the start of their engagement with the program. They received ongoing one-on-one mentoring focused on helping them identify and pursue educational and career goals. All nine showed some movement toward their goals, with three reenrolling in school...
This project report is a design of an online security investigation from the perspective of professors and students, to provide information to higher educational institutions that would help them prepare professors and students to work securely online. Therefore the project has the secondary purpose of creating a safer online learning environment for students and professors.
Post-secondary educational institutions are responding increasingly to demands for online distance education, demands fuelled by the exponential growth of the Internet and associated information and communications technology (ICT) (Fan, 2011; Homeland Security Digital Library (HSDL), 2009; Kingkade, 2013; Rudestam & Shoenholtz-Read, 2010). As institutions increase their dependence on the Internet to deliver courses to students online, they encounter rapid growth in malicious online activity, which happens literally everyday (European Commission, 2013; Johnson, 2005; Orrey, 2010; Shaeffer, 2009). Literature on the security of online education has acknowledged this fact (Adams & Bradford, 2003), but offers little guidance for protection.
Every online education stakeholder has responsibility to ensure safety online. Administrators depend on ICT professionals to meet most of their security needs...
This qualitative, phenomenological study investigated first generation students’ perceptions of the challenges they experienced in the process of accessing higher education and the type of school-based support that was received. Particular emphasis was placed on the impact of parental education level on access to postsecondary education (PSE) and how differences in support at the primary and secondary levels of schooling influenced access. Purposeful, homogenous sampling was used to select 6 first generation students attending a postsecondary institution located in Ontario. Analysis of the data revealed that several interrelated factors impact first generation students’ access to postsecondary education. These include familial experiences and expectations, school streaming practices, secondary school teachers’ and guidance counselors’ representations of postsecondary education, and the nature of school-based support that participants received. The implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed and recommendations for enhancing school-based support to ensure equitable access to postsecondary education for first generation students are provided.
This paper analyzes the evolution in
socio-economic and ethnic disparities in tertiary education
attainment, participation, and completion and labor market
outcomes in the six countries of Central America. There is
evidence of differential progress, with Costa Rica, a
middle-income country, and Nicaragua, a low-income country,
having improved participation of low-income students in
tertiary education, while this continues to be negligible in
Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras. Wide differentials in
salaries linked to socio-economic background can signal
differences in the quality of tertiary education or prior
educational experiences. The analysis distinguishes between
long-term and short-term constraints and the key transitions
in the education cycle that impede access to tertiary
education. The main obstacle to accessing tertiary education
for poor students is the failure to either start or complete
secondary education, suggesting different priorities for
different countries in addressing long-term constraints.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in a retention program designed to promote academic and social integration and the persistence rates of first generation, low-income college students at an urban, public multiethnic university. Archival data were collected from the university’s Office of Institutional Research and the retention program office and included SAT/ACT scores, GPA, gender, ethnicity, and program participation data. A total of 292 first-generation, low-income students who were admitted to the university in the summer of 1999 were identified for the study. A group of 166 students were selected for the comparison group because they had not participated in the retention program; 126 students had participated in the retention program. ^ Three major research questions guided this study: (a) Are there differences in persistence rates and other academic characteristics of underprepared, low-income, first generation college students who participate and do not participate in the retention program?; (b) Does involvement in the retention program predict student persistence of first generation low-income, underprepared students?, and (c) Can predictors of GPA be identified for students in the retention program using program and descriptive variables? ^ A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between various retention services and the persistence and graduation rates of participants. The results showed that there were statistically significant relationships between participation and non-participation in the retention program and having higher GPAs and higher graduation and persistence rates. Of the four program features...
This study investigated group processes as potential mediators or moderators of positive development outcome and negative reduction intervention response by evaluating the utility of a group measure modified from a widely known measure of group impact found in the group therapy research literature. Four group processes were of primary interest, (1) Group Impact; (2) Facilitator Impact; (3) Skills Impact; and (4) Exploration Impact as assessed by the Session Evaluation Form (SEF). Outcome measures included the Personally Expressive Activities Questionnaire (PEAQ), Erikson Psycho-Social Index (EPSI) and the Zill Behavior Items, Behavior Problem Index (ZBI (BPI)). The sample consisted of 121 multi-ethnic participants drawn from four alternative high schools from the Miami-Dade County Public School system. Utilizing a Latent Growth Curve Modeling approach with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) statistics, preliminary analyses were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the SEF and its role in the mediation or moderation of intervention outcome. Preliminary results revealed evidence of a single higher order factor representing a "General" global reaction, which was hypothesized to be a "Positive Group Climate" construct to the program as opposed to the four distinct group processes that were initially hypothesized to affect outcomes. The results of the evaluation of the mediation or moderation role of intervention outcome of the single "General" global latent factor ("Positive Group Climate" construct) did not significantly predict treatment response on any of the outcome variables. Nevertheless...
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of participating in an existing study skills course, developed for use with a general college population, on the study strategies and attitudes of college students with learning disabilities. This study further investigated whether there would be differential effectiveness for segregated and mainstreamed sections of the course.^ The sample consisted of 42 students with learning disabilities attending a southeastern university. Students were randomly assigned to either a segregated or mainstreamed section of the study skills course. In addition, a control group consisted of students with learning disabilities who received no study skills instruction.^ All subjects completed the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) before and after the study skills course. The subjects in the segregated group showed significant improvement on six of the 10 scales of the LASSI: Time Management, Concentration, Information Processing, Selecting Main Ideas, Study Aids, and Self Testing. Subjects in the mainstreamed section showed significant improvement on five scales: Anxiety, Selecting Main Ideas, Study Aids, Self Testing, and Test Strategies. The subjects in the control group did not significantly improve on any of the scales.^ This study showed that college students with learning disabilities improved their study strategies and attitudes by participating in a study skills course designed for a general student population. Further...
A presente Tese teve como objetivos gerais discutir a questão da crise do aluno com o curso superior na realidade brasileira contemporânea, bem como oferecer subsídios para os atendimentos em orientação profissional e de carreira com foco na crise com o curso universitário. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento do perfil do aluno USP de graduação que procurou o Núcleo de Orientação Profissional da USP para atendimento em OP ou Planejamento de Carreira de 2007 a 2012. Foi realizada: a) a partir dos dados contidos em 115 fichas de inscrição uma análise quantitativa dos alunos triados; e (b) uma análise qualitativa de 58 relatórios de triagem que, como materiais clínicos, foram interpretados de acordo com o referencial teórico e metodológico psicanalítico. 37 motivos de procura pelo NOP-USP foram identificados e classificados em: (A) Motivos relacionados ao processo de escolha inicial; (B) Questões emocionais; (C) Motivos ligados ao curso; (D) Motivos ligados à profissionalização; (E) Motivos ligados ao processo de adaptação do aluno ao curso, à cidade e/ou à rotina universitária; (F) Motivos ligados ao vínculo com a USP; (G) Planejamento de carreira; (H) Razões financeiras; e (I) Não foi possível fechar diagnóstico. A intenção inicial era atribuir um motivo por relatório...
The purpose of this study was to delineate which demographic and school variables were important for predicting the achievement of 10th grade African-American students. The sample population was divided into two groups: high-achievers, students with GPAs of 3.5 or higher, and low-achievers, students with GPAs of 1.5 or lower. Variables examined in the study included: gender; birth place; student's native language; exceptionality (ESE); history of English proficiency (LEP); SES (lunch status) in elementary and high school; the percentage of the Black student population in high school; and suspensions, absences, tardies, and the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) scores in reading comprehension, mathematics computation, and mathematics applications in elementary and middle school. Two separate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine which variables were influential in predicting achievement.^ Analysis 1 (N = 366), which included all the variables, except the SAT percentile scores, correctly classified 87% of the students as high-achievers or low-achievers. The results from Analysis 1 revealed that students who--were female; spoke a language other than English as their first language; did not apply for free or reduced lunch in elementary school; were in the gifted program; had no absences or tardies in elementary school; had no suspensions or tardies in middle school; and attended a high school with a lower percentage of Black students--were more likely to be high-achieving than low-achieving.^ Analysis 2 (N = 274) included all the variables and resulted in 94% of the students being correctly classified. It was found that students who--were female; were currently or previously classified as Limited English Proficient (LEP); did not apply for free or reduced lunch in elementary school; had no suspensions or tardies in middle school; and had higher percentile scores in reading comprehension and mathematics computation on the SAT in middle school--were more likely to high-achieving than low-achieving.^ The quantitative analyses were coupled with interviews from a purposeful sample of the population (N = 12) to gain additional insight about why some African-American students are succeeding in our schools and others are not. This study provides a viable means for assessing African-American students' achievement patterns in our schools. ^
As the population of the United States becomes more diverse and the immigrant Hispanic, limited English proficient (LEP) school age population continues to grow, understanding and addressing the needs of these students becomes a pressing question. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of group counseling, by a bilingual counselor, on the self-esteem, attendance and counselor utilization of Hispanic LEP high school students. The design for this study was a quasi-experimental design. The experimental and control groups consisted of one class from each of the four levels of English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL), I-IV. The counseling intervention, the independent variable, was delivered by a bilingual counselor once a week, for fifteen weeks.^ A total of 112 immigrant Hispanic LEP students selected from the total ESOL student population participated in the study. The experimental and control groups were administered the Culture Free Self Esteem Inventory (CFSEI) Form AD as a pretest and posttest. The Background Information Questionnaire (BIQ) was utilized to gather information on counselor utilization and demographic data. Attendance data were obtained from the students' computer records. At the conclusion of the study the differences between the experimental and control groups on the three dependent variables were compared.^ Statistical analyses of the data were done using SPSS statistical software. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was utilized to determine if there were significant differences in the self-esteem scores...
This study explored the perceptions of family environment, body image and self esteem of women who suffer from anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and depression. Using a nonequivalent control group design, one hundred and fifty women with anorexia nervosa (n = 50), bulimia nervosa (n = 50), and depression (n = 50) were given the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). The objectives of this study were to: (1) study how women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa perceive their family environment as measured by the FES; (2) compare and contrast perceptions of family environment of women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa with the control group; (3) compare and contrast perceived levels of self esteem and body image as measured by the EDI-2 of women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa with the control group; and (4) examine the perceived family environments of eating disordered and non-eating disordered women with regard to body image and self esteem. Results suggested, women who suffered from anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa scored significantly lower (p $<$.021) on the Expressiveness, Intellectual-Cultural Orientation, and Active-Recreational subscales of the FES. The results also indicated that women who suffered from bulimia nervosa scored significantly higher (p $<$.015) than women who suffered from anorexia nervosa on the Conflict and Independence subscales of the FES. The results of studying these three populations reflected that women who suffered from anorexia nervosa scored significantly different (p $<$.000) than women who suffered from bulimia nervosa on many of the subscales of the EDI-2. The findings of the study confirmed that women who suffered from anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa scored significantly different (p $<$.000) on the subscales of the EDI-2 compared to women who suffered from depression. It was also confirmed that a relationship does exist between perceptions of body image and self esteem and perceptions of family environment amongst women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as compared to depressed women. The findings of the study indicated that women who suffered from anorexia nervosa tended to: be less expressive and independent; handle conflict less openly; have a greater drive for thinness; have greater body dissatisfaction; be more perfectionistic; and struggle more intensely with fears around maturity and social insecurity than did women who suffered from bulimia nervosa or depression. In addition...
Despite increased Federal, state, and local efforts in the United States to improve outcomes among young adults who emancipate from foster care, low educational achievement and attainment continue to characterize this vulnerable subpopulation. Approximately 50% of foster children do not obtain a high school diploma or a general equivalency diploma (GED). Only about 20% of former foster children enroll in college, compared to 60% of youth not in foster care. The purpose of this study was to explore, describe and explain the perceptions of college students who had lived in foster care regarding the external and internal influences that impacted their academic achievement and attainment.^ Interviews with a purposefully selected sample of 24 Florida college students were conducted; transcripts were coded and analyzed thematically. Findings included that participants experienced a particular set of external and internal influences at school, in foster care settings, and in the community. External influences include interactions with (a) multiple non-relative guardians and case workers, (b) relatives, especially siblings, (c) mentors, (d) teachers and school administrators, and (e) school counselors. Internal influences include the barriers of anger and bad behavior and a newly identified set of internal characteristics...
The purpose of this study was to describe and explain working adult undergraduate students' perspectives on persistence in college in order to address the applicability of retention theory to a specific group of college students. Retention of college students is a major concern in higher education where persistence rates have continued to decline for the last 16 years and changing student demographics have influenced enrollment patterns. ^ A qualitative research design was used. Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews with nine working adult undergraduate students. The participants were selected to include diversity in age, race/ethnicity, family roles, career/work levels, college majors, and educational histories. ^ Triangulation was performed on data from the interviews, participant data forms, and a research journal. Open and axial coding were used to generate emerging themes. Member checking was used to verify the interpretation of the participants' perspectives. A peer reviewer corroborated the data analysis. Three major themes emerged from the data which explained how the students stayed motivated, engaged in learning, and managed the institutional aspects of college. ^ Five conclusions were drawn from the findings of this study. First...
Student retention is a primary goal in all higher education institutions. Students who are more adjusted to college life are more likely to persist. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of an outdoor experiential team-building program on the college adjustment of first-semester freshmen in learning communities at a diverse, urban university. The participants in this quasi-experimental study were first-semester freshmen enrolled in learning communities. A total of 123 students participated, with 61 students in the experimental group and 62 students in the comparison group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in relation to age, gender, or ethnicity. The students in the experimental group participated in the team-building program, which consisted of three events spaced three and four weeks apart. At the end of the semester, students in both the experimental and comparison groups completed the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ), a 67-item self-report survey. ^ Independent samples t-test of the SACQ scores (for attachment to the institution, social adjustment, and overall adaptation to college) between groups was done, and the analyses revealed no statistically significant differences. Chi-square analyses revealed no significant difference in the enrollment pattern between the two groups over a four-year period. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that from the first semester of enrollment to the second semester there was a significant drop in GPA for students from the comparison group and no such drop in GPA for students from the experimental group who had participated in at least two of the team building activities. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the first year by semester and ethnicity. No ethnic differences were found...
The high concentration of underprepared students in community colleges presents a challenge to educators, policy-makers, and researchers. All have pointed to low completion rates and caution that institutional practices and policy ought to focus on improving retention and graduation rates. However, a multitude of inhibiting factors limits the educational opportunities of underprepared community college students. ^ Using Tinto's (1993) and Astin's (1999) models of student departure as the primary theoretical framework, as well as faculty mentoring as a strategy to impact student performance and retention, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a mentoring program designed to promote greater student-faculty interactions with underprepared community college students is predictive of higher retention for such students. While many studies have documented the positive effects of faculty mentoring with 4-year university students, very few have examined faculty mentoring with underprepared community college students (Campbell and Campbell, 1997; Nora & Crisp, 2007). ^ In this study, the content of student-faculty interactions captured during the mentoring experience was operationalized into eight domains. Faculty members used a log to record their interactions with students. During interactions they tried to help students develop study skills...
This report assesses and analyzes the
current state of the Malaysian university system and makes
recommendations on ways to further strengthen existing
higher education institutions. It looks in particular at the
policy framework needed to support the growth and
development of the higher education system which include the
legal framework, quality assurance systems, incentives for
investment, R&D policies, financing mechanisms that help
low income students access education, and public financing
programs that direct subsidies to strategically important
institutions or fields of study. This report aims to
identify key challenges and appropriate solutions which
could constitute relevant policy advice for the Government
of Malaysia. It concentrates on the higher education sector,
including both public and private universities.
Notwithstanding the overall focus on the university sector,
the study makes occasional reference to the wider concept of
tertiary education system as needed. It also makes reference
to the broader concept of a national innovation system
The shortage of skills sought by key
export-oriented and import competing industries in Bosnia
and Herzegovina (henceforth, 'BH') is substantial
and if left unaddressed, threatens to constrain future
economic growth of the country. Prior to the onset of the
global economic crisis, BH enjoyed strong rates of economic
growth based to a significant degree on the growth of
exports. On average, exports grew at an impressive 34
percent per year between 1995 and 2008. Our analysis
however confirms that the growth of exporting, as well as
import-competing industries is increasingly becoming
constrained by the shortage of skills in the labor force.
In this report we seek to identify these shortages and their
likely causes and recommend reforms and policies which can
prevent the plummeting of economic growth due to lack of
adequate skills. Firm-level evidence confirms that the
shortage of qualified workers is becoming a serious obstacle
to growth of BH exporting companies. This report
investigates what types of skills firms are looking for and
are not finding in the marketplace. The policy
recommendation section of this study seeks to provide ideas
and direction for the BH government to address these labor
What factors make a difference in whether low socioeconomic status youth attend college, and how do some youth succeed despite lacking many advantages? In general, in both the U.S. and India youth who benefit from supportive relationships and information on higher education options develop clear aspirations and successfully enroll in higher education. However, India lacks official guidance and information, therefore making youth rely more on their social networks. Youth in both nations would benefit from more effective official guidance, more accessible and ubiquitous information, and a better use of existing networks to disseminate information on higher education opportunities.; Honors Thesis