This study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent reading intervention implemented with middle school students with severe reading difficulties, all of whom had received remedial and/or special education for several years with minimal response to intervention. Participants were 38 students in grades 6–8 who had severe deficits in word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Most were Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) with identified disabilities. Nearly all demonstrated severely limited oral vocabularies in English and, for ELLs, in both English and Spanish. Students were randomly assigned to receive the research intervention (n = 20) or typical instruction provided in their school’s remedial reading or special education classes (n = 18). Students in the treatment group received daily explicit and systematic small-group intervention for 40 minutes over 13 weeks, consisting of a modified version of a phonics-based remedial program augmented with English as a Second Language practices and instruction in vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension strategies. Results indicated that treatment students did not demonstrate significantly higher outcomes in word recognition, comprehension, or fluency than students who received the school’s typical instruction and that neither group demonstrated significant growth over the course of the study. Significant correlations were found between scores on teachers’ ratings of students’ social skills and problem behaviors and posttest decoding and spelling scores...
This book examines the scope of the
infrastructure challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa and the
constraints to scaling up at an affordable cost. It assesses
the experiences of African countries with school planning,
school facility designs, construction technologies, and
construction management over the past thirty years, and
draws lessons on promising approaches to enable African
countries to scale up the facilities required to achieve the
Education for All (EFA) goals and Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs) of complete quality primary education for all
children at the lowest marginal cost. The book is organized
along the following lines. Chapter one reviews the nature
and scope of the primary school infrastructure challenges.
Chapter two reviews the experience of African countries with
school planning and resource allocation norms and how they
have affected the volume, functionality, and distribution of
primary school facilities. Chapters three, four, and five
examine the impact of construction technology and approaches
to construction management on the cost of school
infrastructure and the ability to scale up. Chapter six
delves more deeply into how to set up one of the most cost-
effective approaches to school provision the community-based
approach. Chapter seven looks at maintenance issues. Chapter
eight deals with corruption and chapter nine with donors.
Chapter ten provides an estimate of the infrastructure cost
of the EFA challenge and recommendation for countries and
donors to improve the efficiency of the resources spent for
This report focuses on the economic
rather than the social and cultural dimensions of education.
Its approach in answering the questions raised is analytical
and comparative in nature. Education outcomes in the region
are compared with education outcomes in other developing
countries. The development impact of investment in education
is considered in the context of the large body of literature
on the subject. The education reform strategies in Middle
East and North Africa (MENA) are assessed on the basis of a
new analytical framework. Labor market outcomes are
evaluated on the basis of how well these markets function,
given past reform efforts. The feature of the report is that
it covers all levels of instruction, not just basic,
secondary, or higher education. Although the primary focus
of the report is education, it was important to pay special
attention to domestic labor markets and migration. After
all, this is where the returns to education are determined
and its impact on development made.
The purpose of this study, educations
for all has led to a significant increase in the number of
students completing primary education in Sub-Saharan Africa
(SSA). It has also created tremendous demand for secondary
education. This paper discusses the processes that support
upward and downward accountability in the secondary
education system and processes designed to ensure internal
accountability and accountability for learning outcomes.
This report focuses on school-level management as the place
where governance structures and management processes
converge. It examines the role of various governance
structures for secondary schools and their impact on the
management of teachers and of general academic and financial
management. Finally this publication summarizes the
discussions in terms of the key issues and suggestions for
improvements within educational governance, management, and accountability.
Uzbekistan is a lower middle-income country of 29.5 million people, located in Central Asia, with an economy that has been growing by over 8 percent per annum since the mid-2000s. Given international evidence about the high returns that can be realized from investing in pre-primary education ranging from promoting children s school readiness to equalizing opportunities across the income distribution, policymakers are keen to explore ways to expand access and promote the provision of high-quality early childhood education. This report is divided into four sections. Section two presents an analytical framework for analyzing early childhood interventions. Section three conducts an in-depth analysis of Early Childhood Care and Education (or Pre-primary Education), or ECCE in Uzbekistan, with a focus on increasing access and equity, promoting quality, and ensuring adequate and effective financing. Section four makes some recommendations for expanding access to high-quality ECCE in Uzbekistan.
The Kyrgyz Republic has seen a rapid
expansion of public spending on education in recent years,
yet the sector continues to be plagued by a number of
challenges. Efficiency of spending is low across the
education system, and sustainability of sector financing is
threatened by large outlays on wages following rapid wage
growth during 2010-2012 and high shares of resources going
toward food and utility costs. Lack of investment in the
necessary teaching and learning materials contributes to low
education quality, with over 80 percent of 15 year olds
scoring at "functionally illiterate" levels in the
2009 PISA assessment. Coverage remains low in pre-primary
education, while equity of education service provision
varies widely across localities and social groups. The
practices surrounding education sector governance could also
be improved and brought in line with international
standards. This chapter is composed of six sections. Section
two presents an overview of the Kyrgyz education sector,
covering its structure and governance...
The aim of the SABER-school finance
initiative is to collect, analyze and disseminate comparable
data about education finance systems across countries.
SABER-school finance assesses education finance systems
along six policy goals: (i) ensuring basic conditions for
learning; (ii) monitoring learning conditions and outcomes;
(iii) overseeing service delivery; (iv) budgeting with
adequate and transparent information; (v) providing more
resources to students who need them; and (vi) managing
resources efficiently. SABER-school finance will document
how education is financed by national, subnational, local
governments, and schools.
This paper develops and estimates an
equilibrium model of charter school entry and school choice.
In the model, households choose among public, private, and
charter schools, and a regulator authorizes charter entry
and mandates charter exit. The model is estimated for
Washington, D.C. According to the estimates, charters
generate net social gains by providing additional school
options, and they benefit non-white, low-income, and
middle-school students the most. Further, policies that
raise the supply of prospective charter entrants in
combination with high authorization standards enhance social welfare.
The number of students identified as having autism increased by 500% in the past 10 years (United States Government Accountability Office, 2005). All students with disabilities are required to be placed in least restrictive environments and to be given access to the general curriculum in the major subjects of math, reading, writing, and science as mandated by federal legislation such as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004) and No Child Left Behind (NCLB, 2001). As a result of this legislation, an increasing number of students with autism are being educated in inclusive classrooms. ^ Most studies on general education access and curriculum modifications and/or instructional accommodations center on students with intellectual disabilities (e.g. Soukup, Wehmeyer, Bashinski, & Boviard, 2007; Wehmeyer, Lattin, Lapp-Rincker, & Agran, 2003). Wehmeyer et al. (2003) and Soukup et al. (2007) found included students with intellectual disabilities had more access to the general curriculum than mostly self-contained students. This meant included students were more likely to be working on the general curriculum as mandated by NCLB than those in only self-contained classrooms. This study builds and expands the research of Wehmeyer et al....
Students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD)present considerable academic challenges along with emotional and/or behavioral problems. In terms of reading, these students typically perform one-to-two years below grade level (Kauffman, 2001). Given the strong correlation between reading failure and school failure and overall success (Scott & Shearer-Lingo, 2002), finding effective approaches to reading instruction is imperative for these students (Staubitz, Cartledge, Yurick, & Lo, 2005). ^ This study used an alternating treatments design to comparethe effects of three conditions on the reading fluency, errors, and comprehension of four, sixth-grade students with EBD who were struggling readers. Specifically, the following were compared: (a) Repeated readings in which participants repeatedly read a passage of about 100-150 words, three times, (b) Non-repeated readings in which participants sequentially read an original passage of about 100-150 words once, and (c) Equivalent non-repeated readings in which participants sequentially read a passage of about 300-450 words, equivalent to the number of words in the repeated readings condition. Also examined were the effects of the three repeated readings practice trials per sessions on reading fluency and errors. The reading passage difficulty and length established prior to commencing were used for all participants throughout the standard phase. During the enhanced phase...
Public schools traditionally have been held accountable for educating the majority of the nation’s school children, and through the years, these schools have been evaluated in a variety of ways. Currently, evaluation measures for accountability purposes consist solely of standardized test scores. In the past, only test scores of general education students were analyzed. Laws governing the education of students with disabilities, however, have extended accountability measures not only to include those students, but to report their scores in a disaggregated form (No Child Left Behind Act, 2001). The recent emphasis on accountability and compliance has resulted in the need for schools to carefully examine how programs, services, and policies impact student achievement (Bowers & Figgers, 2003). ^ Standard-based school reform and accountability systems have raised expectations about student learning outcomes for all students, including those with disabilities and minority students. Yet, overall, racial/ethnic minority students are performing well below their White non-Hispanic peers in most academic areas. Additionally, with respect to special education, there exists an enduring problem of disproportionate representation of racial/ethnic minority students (National Research Council...
Culturally responsive instruction refers to the identification of relevant cultural aspects of students’ lives and infusion of these into the curriculum. This instructional approach assumes that a culturally appropriate curriculum can potentially motivate, engage, and lead students to higher rates of achievement.
This quasi-experimental study (N=44) investigated the relationship of culturally responsive instruction and the reading comprehension and attitude of struggling urban adolescent readers. The study incorporated the use of culturally responsive instruction using culturally relevant literature (CRL), the Bluford Series Novels, as authentic texts of instruction. Participants were seventh grade reading students at a Title I middle school in South Florida.
After a baseline period, two different classes were taught for 8 weeks using different methods. One class formed the experimental group (n=22) and the other class formed the comparison group (n=22). The CRI curriculum for the experimental group embraced the socio-cultural perspective through the use of small discussion groups in which students read and constructed meaning with peers through interaction with the Bluford Series Novels; gave written responses to multiple strategies according to SCRAP – Summarize...
Education finance has long been a topic
of debate. With education consuming a large share of public
expenditures in many countries, the public is increasingly
interested in how education resources are used. In addition,
the economic downturn is prompting many more questions as
governments reconsider spending priorities in the context of
tightening budgets. The goal of expanding educational
opportunity for all students is inextricably linked to
questions of education finance: how much do countries invest
in education? How do governments support schools? What is
the role of the private sector, including households, in
education? What are the appropriate financing arrangements
for an effective allocation of public funds? How should
resources be spent in schools to maximize student learning?
Efforts to answer these questions have been an important
part of the World Bank's operations and analytical
services work in low and middle income countries. Important
efforts include regional analyses to document the
relationship between per student financing and learning
outcomes; operational support for financing arrangements
that provide those closer to the point of service delivery
with greater control over educational resources; and the
development of tools to empower education stakeholders to
monitor school budgets and their implementation. While this
work has contributed to understanding better education
finance policies and practices...
Yunnan is a medium-sized and relatively
poor Chinese province on the southwestern border of China.
In 2012, the Yunnan department of education formally
requested Bank support in conducting a review of early
childhood education policies and programs in order to gain
an in-depth and evidence-based understanding of the
challenges the province faces in expanding early childhood
education-in particular to rural and mountainous regions.
The Bank's China education team embarked on raising
funds, designing and implementing a rather elaborate
research agenda around early childhood education. The goal
was to investigate key challenges, and to propose policy
interventions for expanding the Early Child Development
(ECD) coverage in rural Yunnan. This report presents the
findings from the background studies, and draws potential
policy implications for improving the access to and quality
of preschool education in Yunnan province. China has now
almost achieved universal 9-year basic education. Over the
last decade, the country has devoted increasing attention to
policy development in early childhood education. Even though
China does not yet have a specific early childhood education
This paper provides an overview of what
matters most for engaging the private sector in basic
education. In many countries, private schools educate a
substantial and growing share of the student population. The
goal of this paper is not to advocate for private schooling,
but to outline the most effective evidence based policies
that governments can use to orient these non-state providers
toward promoting learning for all children and youth.
Systems approach for better education results (SABER)
engaging the private sector (EPS) builds upon the framework
for effective service delivery outlined in the World
Bank's World Development Report 2004, making services
work for the poor, as well as in the World Bank's
education sector strategy 2020, learning for all. To assist
countries in improving their policy frameworks for private
education, SABER EPS analyzes and benchmarks four policy
goals that, according to the global evidence, can strengthen
provider accountability and promote learning for all. These
policy goals are: (1) encouraging innovation by providers;
(2) holding schools accountable; (3) empowering all parents...
Eritrea is one of the poorest countries
in the world, with an average annual per capita income of
US$ 200 in 2006, and ranks 157th out of 177 countries in the
2005 human development index. Rain-fed agriculture, the
predominant economic activity for more than half the
population, is a very risky enterprise and food security
remains one of the government's main concerns. Given
the security situation the government is concerned about
fiscal transparency for national security reasons, but has
provided access to fiscal data for a review of the education
and health sectors. There have been significant improvements
in access to education since independence, and improving the
skills of the labor force remains critical for
Eritrea's long term development. Eritrea's public
resource allocation to education has increased rapidly and
at 6.7 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2005 is
slightly higher than many countries in the Africa Region.
There has been a rapid expansion in tertiary education
following investments in 2005 to provide an additional five
colleges. The general health status of Eritrea has greatly
improved since independence.
Since 2003, the Civic Engagement,
Empowerment, and Respect for Diversity (CEERD) program of
the World Bank Institute has included a program on Education
and Respect for Diversity. The program consists of a series
of initiatives to promote tolerance and respect for
diversity through curriculum and textbook reform and pre-
and in-service teacher training. To date it has focused on
ways in which Bank-financed programs can help education
systems to address the needs of all students and to promote
social cohesion. Activities have included information
dissemination, through workshops and papers, as well as
financing for pilot programs in Colombia, the Lao
People's Democratic Republic, Nigeria, Romania, and Sri
Lanka. These pilots are designed to put in place strategies
that can be scaled up either in the pilot country or in
Despite a sharp increase in the share of
girls who enroll in, attend, and complete various levels of
schooling, an educational gender gap remains in some
countries. This paper argues that one explanation for this
gender gap is the degree of social exclusion within these
countries, as indicated by ethno-linguistic heterogeneity,
which triggers both economic and psycho-social mechanisms to
limit girls' schooling. Ethno-linguistic heterogeneity
initially was applied to explaining lagging economic growth,
but has emerged in the literature more recently to explain
both civil conflict and public goods. This paper is a first
application of the concept to explain gender gaps in
education. The paper discusses the importance of female
education for economic and social development, reviews the
evidence regarding gender and ethnic differences in
schooling, reviews the theoretical perspectives of various
social science disciplines that seek to explain such
differences, and tests the relevance of ethnic and
linguistic heterogeneity in explaining cross-country
differences in school attainment and learning. The study
indicates that within-country ethnic and linguistic
heterogeneity partly explains both national female primary
school completion rates and gender differences in these
Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo empreender algumas reflexões concernentes às práticas de leitura de textos literários no ensino fundamental, no âmbito de um programa de enriquecimento curricular da SEE -SP, a HORA DA LEITURA. Visamos compreender o por que o professor de Língua Portuguesa sente dificuldade em realizar uma prática de leitura de textos literários sob uma perspectiva mais lúdica e prazerosa. A justificativa para esse trabalho repousa na constatação de que as práticas de leitura delineadas em sala de aula têm sido apontadas como co-responsáveis pelos déficits diagnosticados nos exames de avaliações oficiais, como o SAEB e o PISA, e pelo afastamento da criança da literatura. A escola, instituição privilegiada para o desenvolvimento do gosto pela leitura literária, acaba, paradoxalmente, inviabilizando uma formação leitora compatível com as competências que é preciso desenvolver para fruir satisfatoriamente o texto literário, por meio de práticas descontextualizadas, não-estimulantes, que não buscam a fruição textual. Como fundamentação, discutimos a especificidade do texto literário e a importância da literatura na formação integral do homem e no desenvolvimento de um comportamento leitor (Cândido...
At a time when the tendency is to embrace immediacy and the easy path, the reading of literary texts from different periods, genres and countries becomes an essential activity for gaining linguistic, cultural, historical and world knowledge. Literature, as a complex phenomenon, enables the dialogue between the contemporary reader and the generations that preceded him/her, contributing towards the discovery and interpretation of differences and continuities. The acquisition of a particular semiotic baggage that comes from the reading of literary texts, as well as the ability to question oneself and to intervene in the real world, enhance a reader-text dialogic interaction, which is capable of generating important educational effects. Thus, its relevance to the training of autonomous, competent and critical readers stands out. In light of the above, using as a theoretical framework the Portuguese government guidelines relating to literary education - the National Reading Panel, the Curriculum of Portuguese language for Primary and Middle School Education and the Common Core State Standards for Portuguese - we selected a total of eight textbooks of Portuguese – six for primary school education and two for the first two years of middle school –...