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The Role of Education Quality for Economic Growth

Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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49.21339%
The role of improved schooling, a central part of most development strategies, has become controversial because expansion of school attainment has not guaranteed improved economic conditions. This paper reviews the role of education in promoting economic well-being, focusing on the role of educational quality. It concludes that there is strong evidence that the cognitive skills of the population-rather than mere school attainment-are powerfully related to individual earnings, to the distribution of income, and to economic growth. New empirical results show the importance of both minimal and high-level skills, the complementarity of skills and the quality of economic institutions, and the robustness of the relationship between skills and growth. International comparisons incorporating expanded data on cognitive skills reveal much larger skill deficits in developing countries than generally derived from just school enrollment and attainment. The magnitude of change needed makes it clear that closing the economic gap with industrial countries will require major structural changes in schooling institutions.

Universal Secondary Education (USE) in Guyana

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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49.96209%
In 2002, Guyana adopted a broadly-based five year plan (2003-2007) to achieve universal secondary education (USE), with a strategy to convert secondary classes in primary schools and grade 7-10 community high schools into General Secondary Schools (GSS) in which all students could present for the Caribbean Examination Certificate (CXC) or an alternative competency-based Certificate. Current status of secondary education (chapter one) summarizes the performance of public schools in Guyana against the Ministry of Education (MOE) policy on universal secondary education (2002), trends evident in the annual statistical digests, and the broad issues presented to Senior MOE officers on 13 December and to the Minister on 19 December 2007. Improving secondary student participation (chapter two) examines national and regional trends in population, enrollment, low levels of apparent transition from primary to secondary schools, poor secondary school entry examination (SSEE) results and issues related to the "size" of secondary schools. Upgrading and qualifying teachers (chapter three) identifies small school enrollment issues in earlier chapters with the enrollment required to offer a viable secondary curriculum...

India - Karnataka : Secondary Education and the New Agenda for Economic Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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49.48214%
The report addresses three major concerns of policy makers in Karnataka, on which there is little prior information, or research, namely whether the expansion in student places at the secondary, and higher secondary levels, is justified on economic grounds; how do secondary school drop-outs from disadvantaged, or poor backgrounds perform in the labor market, and in continuing into higher education: is it worse than students from more advantaged backgrounds?; and, is vocational training a desirable alternative to general higher education, in terms of improving labor market performance? State specific data on employment, unemployment, and earnings is used form the National Sample Survey 1993/94, and from a tracer study conducted in 2001. This study provides more recent data on the labor market performance of new entrants with secondary education, and the patterns of transition into higher education: the transition rate is very high - some two thirds of lower secondary students, and 87 percent of higher secondary students...

Education Investment Guide : A Guide for Investors in Private Education in Emerging Markets

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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40.01661%
This guide has been prepared as a reference for International Finance Corporation (IFC) partner banks and other investors considering an investment in private education. It aims to: 1) describe some of the special features of private education entities, such as primary and secondary schools, technical and vocational colleges as well as tertiary colleges and universities; and 2) indicate the key questions to ask and what to look for when such institutions are being appraised. The document is divided into four sections: i) the education sector in emerging economies; ii) investing in education; iii) national policies and regulation; and iv) good practice, pitfalls and performance. The first section sets the education market in a global context, explaining why the private sector is emerging as a major player in many countries. The second section sets out the different approaches of private equity and banks as lenders. The next section focuses on the national context and describes some of the national policies and regulations that might influence the operations and profitability of an education institution. The final section illustrates the elements of a successful education investment from both the financial and educational points of view.

Grenada Workforce Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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59.833105%
Grenada has faced various socioeconomic challenges within the last decade, including the destruction wrought by Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and the global financial crisis. As a result, economic indicators for Grenada illustrate unfavorable. Increases in the poverty and unemployment rates, especially among the youth and young adults. This report presents an assessment of the regulatory, legislative, and institutional landscape governing workforce development (WfD) in Grenada. The results of this analysis are based on a newly designed analytical tool developed by the World Bank under the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) initiative. The aim of this initiative is to garner data so as to provide systematic documentation and assessment of the policy and institution factors that influence the performance of education and training systems of SABER-participating countries. The SABER-WfD tool encompasses initial, continuing, and targeted vocational education and training that are offered through multiple channels...

Occupational stress in private schools: A teacher profile

Davies, John P
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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48.53816%
The purpose of this study was threefold. The primary purpose was to develop a stress profile for teachers in private schools. This study also addressed two exploratory issues. The first, consisted of an examination of the possible differences in the levels of on-the-job stress among teachers in different types of private schools. A second issue was to discuss the findings on private school in light of the extant literature on public schools, specifically using the data collected by Fimain to develop the Teacher Stress Inventory. This study was conducted utilizing 316 full time teachers from seven schools from six different states.^ The instrument employed in this study was the Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI) developed by Fimian (1988). The TSI is a 10 factor, 49 item self-report measure. The 10 factors consist of five Stress Sources and five Stress measure. The 10 factors consist of five Stress Sources and five Stress Manifestations subscales. The mean for these 10 factors yields the stress construct termed "Total Stress." Of the 437 surveys mailed, 316 usable surveys, i.e., 72.3%, were returned.^ The results suggest that private school teachers experience moderate levels of stress. The mean score was 2.27 indicating a lower than average stress level as measured by the TSI. Comparisons between types of private schools revealed that there were no significant differences between the stress levels of teachers in boarding and nonboarding schools. Teachers in large schools experience significantly higher levels of stress than teachers in small and medium size schools. However...

Teoría instruccional y tecnología para el nuevo paradigma de la educación; Instructional Theory and Technology for the New Paradigm of Education

Reigeluth, Charles
Fonte: Universidade de Múrcia Publicador: Universidade de Múrcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Resumen En este artículo se describe la teoría instruccional como base y apoyo a la educación post-industrial y a los sistemas de formación - a los sistemas personalizados y que están centrados en el alumno, en los que el progreso del estudiante se basa en el aprendizaje más que en una organización basada en el tiempo. El artículo describe los métodos universales de enseñanza, los métodos situacionales, también describe las ideas centrales del nuevo paradigma post-industrial de instrucción, la importancia y los problemas con la educación basada en la tarea. Los aborda desde la visión de una teoría de la instrucción para la educación y formación post-industrial, así como los papeles que pueden jugar el profesor, el alumno y la tecnología en el nuevo paradigma.; This article describes instructional theory that supports post-industrial education and training systems - ones that are customized and learner-centered; in which student progress is based on learning rather than time. The article describes universal methods of instruction; situational methods; core ideas of the post-industrial paradigm of instruction; the importance of and problems with task-based instruction; a vision of an instructional theory for post-industrial education and training; and the roles that may be played by the teacher; the learner; and technology in the new paradigm.

The Outlook for Indonesia's Development Project of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)

Morton, Ashleigh
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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69.2193%
The Indonesian government is largely concerned that there are too many graduates leaving secondary school without the skills necessary to ensure their economic welfare, and to contribute to national economic and industrial development. Furthermore, the Indonesian youth unemployment and underemployment rates are high and rising. The Indonesian community has a great number of students who, despite their qualifications, find it very difficult to find employment. Because of this, the Indonesian government decided to develop technical and vocational education and training (TVET) secondary schools, also known as SMKs, as the Indonesian government believed that the vocational nature of the TVET curriculum better enabled students to master a number of specific job-related knowledge and skills needed for employment, and therefore it would be easier for them to find employment. However, since the initiation of the Indonesian government's development plan for SMKs, there has been a prolific debate about whether the Indonesian government should have pushed funding into SMKs, and whether the development projects will succeed. There are several factors, which support the Indonesian government's decision. Firstly, the youth unemployment rate of lndonesia was very high and it was understood that SMK graduates found employment more easily than those from general secondary schools (SMAs). Secondly...

Mentoring in an on -the -job training context

Royer, Jacqueline Malie
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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79.5089%
This study examined mentoring within an on-the-job training (OJT) context, with a focus on how mentors' perceptions of protégé competence affected both the short and long terin benefits of mentoring. The participants in this survey research were education majors at Florida International University engaged in a semester of student teaching. Their cooperating teachers, who were employed by Dade County, also participated. It was hypothesized and found that mentors who perceived their protégés as more competent provided higher quality mentoring and greater autonomy when performing training tasks. Protégés' self-efficacy was not affected by the amount of autonomy received during training. Additionally, protégés' final performance was not affected by their self-efficacy at the end of the training experience. Two mediated relationships were tested, although support for them was not found. Autonomy was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between mentors' perceptions of protégé competence and protégé self-efficacy. Protégé self-efficacy was expected to mediate the relationship between protégé autonomy and the final performance score. This study has shown the importance of considering mentors' perceptions of their protégés' competence when creating mentoring dyads during OJT. ^

India - Karnataka : Financing Education in the Context of Economic Restructuring

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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49.57876%
The study addresses four major concerns within the Bank's Economic Restructuring Program in Karnataka: 1) identifying the priority issues facing the education sector; 2) indicating possible areas for expenditure reform, to improve the efficiency, and equity of public spending in education; 3) identifying measures to strengthen the effectiveness of public expenditure; and, 4) assessing the resource requirements for school education. The report reviews achievements, and educational trends in the nineties, looking at the factors shaping Karnataka's education development, to then examine public expenditures on education, and the efficiency of public spending. Improvements in the effectiveness of public expenditures in education are proposed, namely in the input utilization of teachers, and non-teachers; in management strengthening of the private sector; and, decentralization in the education system. To attain the elementary, and secondary education goals, considerable financial allocations will be required...

Skills Shortages and Training in Russian Enterprises

Tan, Hong; Savchenko, Yevgeniya; Gimpelson, Vladimir; Kapelyushnikov, Rostislav; Lukyanova, Anna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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49.98342%
In the transition to a market economy, the Russian workforce underwent a wrenching period of change, with excess supply of some industrial skills coexisting with reports of skills shortages by many enterprises. This paper uses data from the Russia Competitiveness and Investment Climate Survey and related local research to gain insight into the changing supply and demand for skills over time, and the potential reasons for reported staffing problems and skills shortages, including labor turnover, compensation policies, and the inhibiting effects of labor regulations. It discusses in-service training as an enterprise strategy for meeting staffing and skills needs, and presents evidence on the distribution, intensity, and determinants of in-service training in Russia. It investigates the productivity and wage outcomes of in-service training, and the supportive role of training in firms' research and development and innovative activities. A final section concludes with some policy implications of the findings.

The Education System in Swaziland : Training and Skills Development for Shared Growth and Competitiveness

Marope, Mmantsetsa
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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49.968125%
In September 2007, the Government of the Kingdom of Swaziland (GoS) approved a broad national development reform agenda in the form of a poverty reduction strategy and action plan (PRSAP). The plan is intended to update and operationalize the National Development Strategy (NDS) of 1999, as well as to begin to actualize Vision 2022; which was also launched in 1999.The ultimate outcome of these instruments is 'improved quality of life for all Swazis.' Their key goal is 'growth acceleration with equity or accelerated and shared growth.' A critical intermediate goal expressed in the PRSAP is a 30 percent reduction in poverty by 2015, and ultimate poverty eradication by 2022. It is estimated that reaching these targets will require a five percent average annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth over a sustained period of time. This report presents an analysis of the adequacy of Swaziland's education, training and skills development sector (ETSDS) to effectively contribute toward addressing the outlined challenges and toward achieving national development goals presented in the PRSAP. Key sector weaknesses are identified and recommendations for their redress are made.

Toward a Better Future : Education and Training for Economic Development in Singapore since 1965; Hacia un futuro mejor : educacion y formacion para el desarrollo economico de Singapur desde 1965

Lee, Sing-Kong; Goh, Chor Boon; Fredriksen, Birger; Tan, Jee Peng
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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69.98758%
The Singapore economy has undergone significant stages of development since the 1960s. It has grown from its traditional role as a regional port and distribution center in the 1960s to an international manufacturing and service center in the 1970s and 1980s, and now into a center of science-based manufacturing and knowledge-intensive technical services. Much has been written to explain this success. Emphasis has been placed on the early adoption of an export-oriented strategy for industrialization, high savings and investment rates, a stable macroeconomic environment, and even socio cultural traits that support successful industrialization. This volume documents a less-explored aspect of Singapore's economic development: it examines the transformation of the education and training system since the country's independence in 1965 and how the process contributed to skills formation and, hence, economic change.

Differentiation and Articulation in Tertiary Education Systems : A Study of Twelve African Countries; Differenciation et articulation dans les systemes d'enseignement superieur en Afrique : une etude de douze pays Africains

Ng'ethe, Njuguna; Subotzky, George; Afeti, George
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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59.810347%
This study strives to sketch an initial map of the extent and nature of institutional and program differentiation within African systems of tertiary education. In doing so, it also seeks to chart the patterns of articulation that have emerged or been consciously put in place between the different institutional types (such as public universities, private universities, polytechnics, training colleges). The analysis of tertiary education differentiation and articulation is based on field visits to a dozen selected African countries. Its purpose is to improve general understanding of this under-researched but strategically important technical aspect of African higher education at a time when it is becoming an important aspect of education policy. African countries display far more differentiation than articulation within their tertiary education systems. Their systems are quite diverse and can be classified as unitary, binary, trinary, semi-differentiated or fully differentiated, depending upon the number of different institutional types that comprise the tertiary system. In general...

Gender Equity in Junior and Senior Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

Sutherland-Addy, Esi
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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59.55259%
This thematic study is about gender equity in junior and senior secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It consists of case studies of Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda, as well as, a review of studies undertaken over the past ten years on education in Africa with particular attention to girls' and secondary education. Gender equity at the primary level has been the focus of considerable attention within the education for all frameworks of action, but much less so at the secondary level. Evidence of gender inequity and inequality in terms of access, retention and performance in secondary education in SSA raises many questions. While transition rates from primary to secondary are higher for girls than boys, and the repetition rates are lower, girls still significantly trail behind boys in terms of secondary gross enrollment rate (GER). The purpose of this study is to document and analyze the extent and nature of gender disadvantage in junior and senior secondary education, to analyze the causes of this disadvantage and to identify strategies that may be effective in reducing or eliminating it. This thematic study will make a timely and useful contribution to the debate on Secondary Education and Training in Africa (SEIA) issues.

Matching Aspirations : Skills for Implementing Cambodia's Growth Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Phnom Penh Publicador: World Bank, Phnom Penh
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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49.878223%
Over the past decade, Cambodia improved the skills of its workforce at a slower rate than other countries in East Asia. And, although Cambodia's firms do not perceive skills as their main business constraint, skills shortages may negatively affect the process of both industrial and agricultural upgrading and economic diversification. Employers point to a structural imbalance in skills supply, including a relative shortage of vocational training graduates compared to university graduates. This report provides valuable insight for Cambodia to develop the skills necessary to match the country's development aspiration. At the same time, it outlines specific actions to create opportunities for access to information in the skills market, to expand household-oriented interventions, to improve school retention, and to strengthen second-chance options - including technical and vocational education and training. This report further proposes how to expand financing for early childhood development effectively, to strengthen institutions, and to promote incentives toward better results among skills providers, including higher education institutions. The analysis in this report represents an important collaborative contribution to Cambodia's growth strategy and human development agenda.

Vouchers for Basic Education in Developing Economies : An Accountability Perspective

Gauri, Varun; Vawda, Ayesha
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
Português
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49.569385%
Advocates argue that voucher programs can correct the incentive problems of education systems in developing economies. An accountability perspective, based on a principal-agent framework, was developed to clarify the arguments for and against education vouchers. An assessment of findings on voucher programs in industrial countries and a review of voucher or quasi-voucher experiences in Bangladesh, Chile, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, and the Czech Republic support the usefulness of the analytic framework. The assessment concludes that the policy relevance of voucher programs for developing economies remains uncertain. Major voucher initiatives have been attempted only in countries with a well-developed institutional infrastructure. Some studies find favorable benefits for at least some population groups, but others find limited effects and evidence of increasing social stratification in schools. Whether vouchers lead to better outcomes or greater stratification appears related to specific contexts, institutional variables...

Strategic Reform Road-map for the Technical and Vocational Education and Training Sector in West Bengal

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
Português
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69.81258%
This report focuses on one of the key pillars of economic growth - namely, human development, and in particular, on skills development in West Bengal. It examines the current status of skills development, and potential ways forward for making the production of skills in the state more aligned to its economic growth needs. More specifically, the report investigates the characteristics of the technical and vocational education and training system that produces skills, how these skills match up in quantity and quality with what is in demand from employers in the organized and informal sectors, governance and quality assurance systems, emerging partnerships between the government and private providers of skills, and the availability of financial resources for skills development. Based on the findings from primary surveys, secondary data analysis, in-depth consultations with stakeholders, and declared policy priorities, the report provides a strategic framework and a time-based implementation road-map for reforming and reorienting technical and vocational education and training in West Bengal. This task was undertaken at the specific request of the new Government of West Bengal (GOWB) who took office in 2011. The GOWB wanted to know how to improve the quality of vocational and technical education and training in the state...

Vouchers for Basic Education in Developing Countries : A Principal-Agent Perspective

Gauri, Varun; Vawda, Ayesha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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49.25134%
Voucher programs consist of three simultaneous reforms: (1) allowing parents to choose schools, (2) creating intense incentives for schools to increase enrollment, and (3) granting schools management autonomy to respond to demand. As a result, voucher advocates and critics tend to talk past each other. A principal-agent framework clarifies the argument for education vouchers. Central findings from the literature, including issues related to variance in the performance measure, risk aversion, the productivity of more effort, multiple tasks, and the value of monitoring are found relevant for an analysis of vouchers. An assessment of findings on voucher programs in industrial countries, as well as a review of voucher or quasi-voucher experiences in Bangladesh, Chile, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, and the Czech Republic support the usefulness of the analytic framework. The authors conclude that vouchers for basic education in developing countries can enhance outcomes when they are limited to modest numbers of poor students in urban settings...

PARALLEL PROGRESSIVIST ORIENTATIONS: EXPLORING THE MEANINGS OF PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION IN TWO ONTARIO JOURNALS, THE SCHOOL AND THE CANADIAN SCHOOL JOURNAL, 1919-1942

CHRISTOU, THEODORE
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1379388 bytes; application/pdf
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49.60242%
This dissertation arose from a need to derive an inclusive model for describing the historical meanings of progressive education. It considers reform rhetoric published in two widely distributed and accessible journals in Ontario, The School and The Canadian School Journal, between 1919 and 1942. These sources brought together a wide variety of educationists in the province, including teachers, school board representatives, members of the Department of Education, inspectors, and the staff of teacher training institutions, and were forums for the exploration of new and progressive educational ideas. Various conceptions and interpretations of what progressive education would entail were published side by side, in parallel. This dissertation describes the rhetoric of progressive education, which concerned three domains—active learning, individualized instruction, and the linking of schools to contemporary society—and considers the distinctions within this language. Further, this dissertation argues that progressivist ideas were interpreted and represented in different ways according to conceptual orientation and context. Three distinct interpretations of progressive education are described in this thesis. The first progressivist orientation was primarily concerned with child study and developmental psychology; the second concerned social efficiency and industrial order; the third concerned social meliorism and cooperation. Hence...