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Efficacy, national/international practices and motivational factors of lifelong driver education for the aging population

Israels, Richard (Richard Steven)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 182 leaves; 10929297 bytes; 10936965 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In a society facing a significant increase in its aging population, older driver education/training is emerging as a potential solution to help seniors drive more safely, thus maintaining their mobility and quality of life. Nonetheless, sufficient evidence has not emerged directly linking such programs to significant reductions in accident rates for seniors. But older driver education has produced certain outcomes that have been indirectly linked to driver safety. Among these secondary outcomes that led to significant reductions in crash rates are increases in self-regulation (i.e., modifying driving behavior to compensate for certain physical limitations) and a measure of visual/perceptual ability called Useful Field of View (UFOV). Despite some questions surrounding the efficacy of these programs, older driver courses are offered in the United States and internationally among various countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Many of the courses address similar core topics such as the effects on driving from certain physiological, cognitive changes that accompany aging. On the other hand, the programs can vary more on structural/administrative factors. For example, many courses in Europe offer behind the wheel training to supplement the material learned in the classroom.; (cont.) For other courses...

Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : South Africa Country Report

Isaacs, Shafika
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev) - supported survey of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. In all the different facets of the ICTs for education prism, South Africa boasts more than a decade of accumulated experience from its wide range of projects and programs pioneered by noteworthy champions across the stakeholder spectrum of communities, the private sector, civil society, donor, development, and government agencies. A variety of tested models on ICT access, digital content development, teacher training and professional development, optimal usage, partnerships, and resource mobilization have encouraged significant learning among innovators, practitioners, and policymakers. The scale of all these interventions to date has led to at least 22 percent computer penetration in all public schools. While South Africa has a policy on e-education only for the schools and Further Education and Training (FET) college sectors...

International Conference on Use of ICT and ODL in Teacher Education : Bihar, India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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With Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) transitioning towards the Right To Education (RTE), teacher education institutions and systems need to be fully geared up to meet the demands of pre-service and in-service teacher education and their ongoing professional development. Most states do not have adequate systems to provide the necessary cadres of trained elementary level school teachers. It is thus important to enhance the roles and capacities of teacher education institutions in India to support them to become globally competitive, professionally managed, and futuristically progressive to cater to the needs of huge back logs of untrained teachers. This training is crucial to ensure that children at the elementary levels get quality education in accordance with the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005 and its basic tenets of child centered pedagogy.

Expanding Access to Early Childhood Development : Using Interactive Audio Instruction

World Bank Group; Education Development Center
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
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The returns to investments in early childhood development (ECD) are manifold and can include improved school readiness, reduced drop-out rates, higher labor force productivity and greater social cohesion. Despite these high returns, enrollment in early childhood education is just 18 percent across Africa, with disproportionately high enrollment from children in urban areas and from wealthier families. Interactive Audio Instruction (IAI) is a distance learning technology that can deliver low-cost, culturally appropriate education via radio or mobile audio technology. It is a highly effective tool to reach children who can be hard to reach through conventional programs, including the rural poor and children with disabilities. IAI can also be an effective form of service delivery in unstable and conflict-affected regions.

The effect of a reform on a school organizational culture after receiving a failing Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test rating

Abou-Assali, Mona
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The purpose of this research was to explore the effects of a reform that took place in an elementary school during 2000/2001 as a result of a failure rating on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test on the structure and the personnel of the organization. ^ The exploration took place over a period of 10 months starting in August 2000 until June 2001. It focused on the effect of the failure rating on the: (a) structure and operation of the school; (b) morale, beliefs, behaviors, and daily lives of teachers and the principal; and (c) the effect of the reform effort on the leadership style of the principal, whether she became a transactional or a transformative leader. ^ The researcher assumed the role of a participant observer. Data sources were her personal recollections of major events that took place during the year of the reform, interviews, observations, and school documents. The sample included 15 teachers present during the time of the reform. Ten taught second through fifth grade. The remaining five participants were the music teacher, the counselor, and the writing, reading and technology specialists. Together they represented the instructional team or represented special education areas. ^ The findings indicated that the reform effort had an effect on the structure and the operation of the school. The changes included reorganization of the physical set up...

Orthodoxy, Heterodoxy and Instruction

McCoy, Daniel Stewart
Fonte: University of Florida ( [Gainesville, Fla.] ) Publicador: University of Florida ( [Gainesville, Fla.] )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1 online resource (198 p.)
Publicado em //2015 Português
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.; Includes vita.; (Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references.; (Source of Description) Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.; (Source of Description) This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.; (Thesis) Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2015.; (Local) Adviser: DANA,THOMAS M.; (Local) Co-adviser: EMIHOVICH,CATHERINE A.; (Electronic Access) RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2017-05-31; (Statement of Responsibility) by Daniel Stewart McCoy.

Using Technology to Teach Students with Mild Disabilities: Current Trends and Future Technologies

Roper, Rachel
Fonte: Theresa A. Ochoa, School of Education, Indiana University Publicador: Theresa A. Ochoa, School of Education, Indiana University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 398629 bytes; application/pdf
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Thank you to Jeanne Sept, Dean of Faculties,and Dean Geraldo Gonzalez and Sarah Baumgart at the School of Education, Indiana University.; The use of technology has seen a significant increase in U.S. public schools. Evidence has shown more and more student success as new technologies are being integrated into the educational curriculum. The area that is experiencing growing attention with regard to technology integration is that of special education, as it has become an IEP (Individualized Education Program) requirement established by the Individuals with Disability Act (IDEA). A growing body of evidence is showing the benefits of this aid to students with special needs. Many technologies can be used for individuals with mild disabilities, such as computer-managed instruction, electronic books, and technology tools. One of the drawbacks to using technology in the classroom is that many educators are not prepared to use these resources. Fortunately, a growing number of pre-service teachers are becoming familiar with these technologies for use in their classroom.; Dean of Faculties and School of Education, Indiana University

OECD Reviews of School Resources; Kazakhstan 2015

Pons, Anna; Amoroso, Jeremie; Herczynski, Jan; Kheyfets, Igor; Lockheed, Marlaine; Santiago, Paulo
Fonte: Paris: OECD Publishing Publicador: Paris: OECD Publishing
Tipo: Book; Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
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The primary and secondary education system in Kazakhstan has accomplished significant achievements. Kazakhstan has embarked on profound reforms to improve the quality of the education system and is increasingly looking to international standards and best practices. Reform initiatives include the expansion of the pre-primary education network, the development of new mechanisms of school financing (including a new per capita funding scheme), the creation of resource centers to support small-class schools, further investment in school infrastructure, and a wider use of information technologies in schools. In this context of reforms, while there is an apparent desire to increase resources devoted to education and awareness that spending per student remains markedly lower than the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average and that of other neighboring countries, there remains an official reluctance to expand public expenditure on education. This report analyses the effectiveness of the Kazakh school system and identifies policy areas with potential efficiency gains or requiring further public investment. The following policy priorities were identified to improve the effectiveness of resource use in the Kazakh school system: increase overall public spending on education as the sector gains absorptive capacity...

A Basic Interpretive Study of the Experiences of University Students Who Have Dropped or Failed an Online Course

Paul, Natalie
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Online courses have increased in enrollments over the past few decades. As the number of students taking online courses have increased, so has the number of students who have dropped or failed an online course. According to the literature, online courses may have higher drop rates than traditional, face-to-face courses. The number of students who fail an online course is, also, of concern. As online courses may continue to grow over the next few decades, studies on persistence in online courses may benefit students, administrators, instructional designers, educators, and researchers. Although previous research studies have addressed persistence in online courses, very few examine it from the perspectives of students who were unsuccessful in their courses. These students may have unique insights about the online experience that may have related to their lack of success. The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of university students who have failed or dropped an online course through the lenses of transactional distance theory and Kember’s model of dropout in distance education. Transactional distance theory discusses the dialog, structure, and learner autonomy involved in an online course, while, Kember’s model presents categories that may relate to dropping an online course. Together...

Assessing the effectiveness of two-year banking and insurance technology programs of junior colleges in Taiwan, R.O.C.: An application of the Context Input Process Product (CIPP) evaluation model

Hsieh, Wen-Kuei
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the banking and insurance technology curriculum at ten junior colleges in Taiwan. The study focused on curriculum, curriculum materials, instruction, support services, student achievement and job performance. Data was collected from a diverse sample of faculty, students, alumni, and employers. ^ Questionnaires on the evaluation of curriculum at technical junior colleges were developed for use in this specific case. Data were collected from the sample described above and analyzed utilizing ANOVA, T-Tests and crosstabulations. Findings are presented which indicate that there is room for improvement in terms of meeting individual students' needs. ^ Using Stufflebeam's CIPP model for curriculum evaluation it was determined that the curriculum was adequate in terms of the knowledge and skills imparted to students. However, students were dissatisfied with the rigidity of the curriculum and the lack of opportunity to satisfy the individual needs of students. Employers were satisfied with both the academic preparation of students and their on the job performance. ^ In sum, the curriculum of the two-year banking and insurance technology programs of junior college in Taiwan was shown to have served adequately preparing a work force to enter businesses. It is now time to look toward the future and adapt the curriculum and instruction for the future needs of the ever evolving high-tech society. ^

The effects of participation in an Internet -based project on the development of global knowledge, global mindedness, and global pedagogy among preservice social studies teachers

Zong, Guichun
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In order to prepare younger generations to live in a world characterized by interconnectedness, developing global and international perspectives for future teachers has been recommended by the National Council for the Social Studies and the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects that participation in the International Communication and Negotiation Simulation (ICONS), an Internet-based communication project has on preservice social studies teachers' global knowledge, global mindedness, and global teaching strategies. ^ The study was conducted at a public university in South Florida. A combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches was employed. Two groups of preservice social studies teachers were chosen as participants: a control group composed of 14 preservice teachers who enrolled in a global education class in the summer semester of 1998 and an experimental group that included nine preservice teachers who took the same class in the fall semester of 1998. The summer class was conducted in a traditional format, which included lectures, classroom discussions, and student presentations. The fall class incorporated a five-week Internet-based communication project. The Global Mindedness Scale (Hett...

The Effects of the Use of Technology In Mathematics Instruction on Student Acheivement

Myers, Ron Y
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the use of technology on students’ mathematics achievement, particularly the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) mathematics results. Eleven schools within the Miami-Dade County Public School System participated in a pilot program on the use of Geometers Sketchpad (GSP). Three of these schools were randomly selected for this study. Each school sent a teacher to a summer in-service training program on how to use GSP to teach geometry. In each school, the GSP class and a traditional geometry class taught by the same teacher were the study participants. Students’ mathematics FCAT results were examined to determine if the GSP produced any effects. Students’ scores were compared based on assignment to the control or experimental group as well as gender and SES. SES measurements were based on whether students qualified for free lunch. The findings of the study revealed a significant difference in the FCAT mathematics scores of students who were taught geometry using GSP compared to those who used the traditional method. No significant differences existed between the FCAT mathematics scores of the students based on SES. Similarly, no significant differences existed between the FCAT scores based on gender. In conclusion...

Assessing the effectiveness of five-year mechanical engineering technology programs of junior colleges in Taiwan, R.O.C.: An application of the CIPP evaluation model

Chiang, Pei-Ling Wu
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical engineering technology curriculum effectiveness at the junior college in Taiwan by using the CIPP evaluation model. The study concerned the areas of the curriculum, curriculum materials, individualized instruction, support services, teaching effectiveness, student achievement, and job performance. A descriptive survey method was used with questionnaires for data collection from faculty, students, graduates, and employers.^ All categories of respondents tended to agree that the curriculum provides appropriate occupational knowledge and skills. Students, graduates, and faculty tended to be satisfied with the curriculum; faculty tended to be satisfied with student achievement; graduates tended to be satisfied with their job preparation; and employers were most satisfied with graduates' job performance.^ Conclusions were drawn in the context, input, process, and product of the CIPP model. In Context area: Students were dissatisfied with curriculum flexibility in students characteristics. Graduates were dissatisfied with curriculum design for student's adaptability in new economic and industrial conditions; practicum flexibility in student characteristics; and course overlap. Both students and graduates were dissatisfied with practicum credit hours. Both faculty and students were dissatisfied with the number of required courses.^ In Input area: Students...

A comparison of the effects of classroom and Multi-User Virtual Environments on the perceived speaking anxiety of adult post-secondary English Language Learners

Abal, Abdulaziz
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The population of English Language Learners (ELLs) globally has been increasing substantially every year. In the United States alone, adult ELLs are the fastest growing portion of learners in adult education programs (Yang, 2005). There is a significant need to improve the teaching of English to ELLs in the United States and other English-speaking dominant countries. However, for many ELLs, speaking, especially to Native English Speakers (NESs), causes considerable language anxiety, which in turn plays a vital role in hindering their language development and academic progress (Pichette, 2009; Woodrow, 2006). ^ Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT), such as simulation activities, has long been viewed as an effective approach for second-language development. The current advances in technology and rapid emergence of Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) have provided an opportunity for educators to consider conducting simulations online for ELLs to practice speaking English to NESs. Yet to date, empirical research on the effects of MUVEs on ELLs' language development and speaking is limited (Garcia-Ruiz, Edwards, & Aquino-Santos, 2007). ^ This study used a true experimental treatment control group repeated measures design to compare the perceived speaking anxiety levels (as measured by an anxiety scale administered per simulation activity) of 11 ELLs (5 in the control group...

The relationship between faculty perceptions and implementation of elements of transactional distance theory and online web-based course completion rates

Nwankwo, Victor Ikechukwu
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between faculty perceptions, selected demographics, implementation of elements of transactional distance theory and online web-based course completion rates. This theory posits that the high transactional distance of online courses makes it difficult for students to complete these courses successfully; too often this is associated with low completion rates. Faculty members play an indispensable role in course design, whether online or face-to-face. They also influence course delivery format from design through implementation and ultimately to how students will experience the course.^ This study used transactional distance theory as the conceptual framework to examine the relationship between teaching and learning strategies used by faculty members to help students complete online courses. Faculty members' sex, number of years teaching online at the college, and their online course completion rates were considered. A researcher-developed survey was used to collect data from 348 faculty members who teach online at two prominent colleges in the southeastern part of United States. ^ An exploratory factor analysis resulted in six factors related to transactional distance theory. The factors accounted for slightly over 65% of the variance of transactional distance scores as measured by the survey instrument. Results provided support for Moore's (1993) theory of transactional distance. Female faculty members scored higher in all the factors of transactional distance theory when compared to men. Faculty number of years teaching online at the college level correlated significantly with all the elements of transactional distance theory. Regression analysis was used to determine that two of the factors...

Different Paths to Student Learning : Good Practices and Student Performance - Identifying Success from Municipal School Systems in Brazil; Diversos Caminhos para o Sucesso Educacional : Boas Praticas e Desempenho dos Alunos na Prova Brasil - Identificando Casos bem Sucedidos nas Redes Municipais de Ensino

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Education Sector Review; Economic & Sector Work
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The importance of education to the socioeconomic and political development of nations is widely discussed in the education policy literature. This study seeks to identify the good policies and practices that lead students in some municipal school systems in Brazil to obtain better results than would be expected based purely on socioeconomic factors. This report is divided into four sections. The next section, section two, explains in detail the rationale and motivation for the study. Section three explains the conceptual framework for the qualitative field research. It provides a succinct but detailed explanation of the methodology used, elaborating on issues such as the definition of study samples and the design of the field research instruments. Section four presents the main results of the analysis and identifies the principal education policy factors that appeared to help some municipal school systems obtain better-than-expected Prova Brasil results. Section five presents 12 municipal 'success stories' in a loose narrative format. These narratives serve as examples of how different combinations of good practices can translate into results in a variety of actual situations. Lastly...

A basic guide to open educational resources (OER)

Kanwar, Asha; Uvalić-Trumbić, Stamenka; Butcher, Neil
Fonte: Vancouver : Commonwealth of Learning ; Paris : UNESCO Publicador: Vancouver : Commonwealth of Learning ; Paris : UNESCO
Tipo: Livro Formato: application/pdf
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133 p. : ill.; Libro Electrónico; This Guide comprises three sections. The first – a summary of the key issues – is presented in the form of a set of ‘Frequently Asked Questions’. Its purpose is to provide readers with a quick and user-friendly introduction to Open Educational Resources (OER) and some of the key issues to think about when exploring how to use OER most effectively. The second section is a more comprehensive analysis of these issues, presented in the form of a traditional research paper. For those who have a deeper interest in OER, this section will assist with making the case for OER more substantively. The third section is a set of appendices, containing more detailed information about specific areas of relevance to OER. These are aimed at people who are looking for substantive information regarding a specific area of interest; Contents Acknowledgements 1 Overview of the Guide 3 A Basic Guide to Open Educational Resources: Frequently asked questions 5 What are Open Educational Resources (OER)? 5 Is OER the same as e-learning? 5 Is OER the same as open learning/open education? 6 Is OER related to the concept of resource-based learning? 7 How open is an open licence? 8 What is the difference between OER and open access publishing? 9 Shouldn’t I worry about ‘giving away’ my intellectual property? 9 Who will guarantee the quality of OER? 12 How can education benefit by harnessing OER? 13 Is OER really free? 14 Does use of OER preclude use of commercial content? 16 What policy changes are needed for institutions to make more effective use of OER? 16 What are the best ways to build capacity in OER? 17 Where do I find OER? 18 How can I share my OER with others? 19 How much can I change OER for my own purposes? 20 Making the Case for Open Educational Resources 23 Introduction 23 Defining the concept 24 The implications for educational planners and decision-makers 39 Conclusion 44 References 45 Appendix One: Overview of Open Licences 47 Introduction 47 Creative Commons Licences 48 Appendix References 52 Appendix Two: The Components of a Well-Functioning Distance Education System 53 The Components 53 The Rationale for Use of Distance Education Methods 55 Appendix Three: Technology Applications 57 iii Appendix Four: Open Source Software Applications in Education 61 References 64 Appendix Five: Mapping the OER Terrain Online 65 Introduction 65 OCW OER Repositories 65 University OCW Initiatives 70 Subject-Specific OCW OER 74 Content Creation Initiatives 78 Open Schooling Initiatives 81 OCW OER Search 84 Conclusion 85 Appendix Six: A Catalogue of OER-Related Websites 87 OCW OER Repositories 88 Open Schooling Initiatives 92 OCW OER Search 93 University OCW Initiatives 95 Subject-Specific OCW-OER 104 OER Tools 109 Other OER Sources 113 Appendix Seven: Some OER Policy Issues in Distance Education 115 Appendix Eight: OER Policy Review Process 123 Appendix Nine: Skills Requirements for Work in Open Educational Resources 131

Beyond analysis and representation in CAD : a new computational approach to design education; Beyond analysis and representation in computer-aided design

Celani, Maria Gabriela Caffarena
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 202 p.; 43114181 bytes; 43113940 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis aims at changing students' attitude towards the use ofcomputer-aided design (CAD) in architecture. It starts from the premise that CAD is used mostly for analysis and representation, and not as a real design aide, and that architecture students have a bias against learning computer programming. For this purpose, a prototypical instruction system that mixes computer-aided design and computational design theory was developed, based on a series of fundamental concepts that are common to both fields. This system was influenced by Mitchell's (1987) The Art of Computer Graphics Programming and Stiny's (1976) shape grammars. Despite being based on solid theoretical foundations, CAD has progressively become an exclusively practical tool, since its origins in the 50's and 60's, while computational design theories have been mostly restricted to the academic circles. This thesis proposes an inversion in the present situation: the study of CAD theory, and the application of computational design into practice. The system proposed provides a conceptual framework that can be adapted to different circumstances, including course formats and resources, as well as students' background and technical training.; (cont.) It is based on seven fundamental concepts from computational design theories that are also important to the study of shape grammars: symmetry...

William Robert Ware and the beginnings of architectural education in the United States, 1861-1881; Beginnings of architectural education in the United States, 1861-1881

Chewning, John Andrew
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (ix, 490 leaves)
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William Robert Ware (1832- 1915) planned and directed the first collegiate program in architectural education i n the United States. He was educated in the liberal arts and civil engineering at Harvard University and received further training in architects' offices before entering into practice with Henry Van Brunt (1832-1903). In 1865 Ware was appointed to the newly established Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He remained on the faculty until 1881, when he was called to Columbia University to organize still another collegiate program in architecture. During 1866-67, Ware traveled in Europe, paying particular attention to the role of national schools and professional organizations in the teaching of architecture in Britain and France. Formal instruction in architecture at M.I.T. began in the fall of 1868. Ware devised a curriculum, which he adjusted throughout the 1870s, including drawing and design, architectural history, and construction and practice (i . e., building materials and components, specifications, and contracts). In the spring of 1872, he recruited Eugene Letang (1842-1892), an alumnus of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, to teach design. From this time on, the routine studio problems at M.I.T. began to emulate those of the Ecole...

Guidelines for using mobile devices in higher education

Szczecinski, Robert Alan
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Hofstetter, Fred T.; iPads and other mobile devices are increasingly popular in higher education, but making use of them in the educational environment and integrating them into existing pedagogy can be challenging. The literature has confirmed both the potential of iPads in education and the challenges with integration. Results of case studies conducted with three higher-education institutions identify both the opportunities and the challenges of iPad use. Findings include recognition that the iPad will be an important tool for improving the overall educational experience for both teachers and students. To realize the benefits of the tool, however, colleges/universities will have to address the challenges of implementation and adapt to a changing environment. This project recommends guidelines and strategies for iPad integration to help increase the likelihood of success in improving how instructors teach and students learn in the classroom. These recommendations highlight the importance of providing access to iPads, with incentives, and a commitment by instructors and students to fully utilize them in their educational activities. The establishment of funding sources to support iPad availability is critical. Key internal and external partnerships should be developed...