Research has found that, on average, deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students graduate from high school reading at the fourth grade level (Allen, 1986). Additionally, DHH children of deaf parents (Charrow & Fletcher, 1974) and those with strong American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency (Strong & Prinz, 1997) tend to outperform DHH students without parents who are proficient in ASL.
The Simple View of Reading (SVR; Gough & Tunmer, 1986) suggests that reading comprehension is a product of decoding and language proficiency. Many DHH students have limited auditory access, and may struggle to acquire English, especially the more demanding academic English characteristics of school texts (Mayer & Wells, 1996). Academic English has been identified as a strong predictor of reading comprehension among hearing children (Uccelli et al., 2015). Guided by a modified SVR model, in this study I investigate DHH secondary school students’ reading comprehension as predicted by receptive ASL proficiency, word reading fluency/decoding, and academic English proficiency.
Guided by prior research on DHH and hearing students, I investigate the hypothesis that for secondary school DHH students enrolled in ASL/English bilingual/bimodal schools for the deaf...
Studies have shown that learning
outcomes are related to the amount of time students engage
in learning tasks. However, visits to schools have revealed
that students are often taught for only a fraction of the
intended time, particularly in lower-income countries.
Losses are due to informal school closures, teacher
absenteeism, delays, early departures, and sub-optimal use
of time in the classroom. A study was undertaken to develop
an efficient methodology for measuring instructional time
loss. Thus, instructional time use was measured in sampled
schools in Tunisia, Morocco, Ghana, and the Brazilian state
of Pernambuco. The percentage of time that students were
engaged in learning vis-à-vis government expectations was
approximately 39 percent in Ghana, 63 percent in Pernambuco,
71 percent in Morocco, and 78 percent in Tunisia.
Instructional time use is a mediator variable that is
challenging to measure, so it often escapes scrutiny.
Research suggests that merely financing the ingredients of
instruction is not enough to produce learning outcomes;
students must also get sufficient time to process the
information. The quantity-quality tradeoff that often
accompanies large-scale enrollments may be partly due to
instructional time restrictions. Time wastage also distorts
budgetary outlays and teacher salary rates. To achieve the
Millennium Development Goals students must get more of the
time that governments...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of direct instruction in story grammar on the reading and writing achievement of second graders. Three aspects of story grammar (character, setting, and plot) were taught with direct instruction using the concept development technique of deep processing. Deep processing which included (a) visualization (the drawing of pictures), (b) verbalization (the writing of sentences), (c) the attachment of physical sensations, and (d) the attachment of emotions to concepts was used to help students make mental connections necessary for recall and application of character, setting, and plot when constructing meaning in reading and writing.^ Four existing classrooms consisting of seventy-seven second-grade students were randomly assigned to two treatments, experimental and comparison. Both groups were pretested and posttested for reading achievement using the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests. Pretest and posttest writing samples were collected and evaluated. Writing achievement was measured using (a) a primary trait scoring scale (an adapted version of the Glazer Narrative Composition Scale) and (b) an holistic scoring scale by R. J. Pritchard. ANCOVAs were performed on the posttests adjusted for the pretests to determine whether or not the methods differed. There was no significant improvement in reading after the eleven-day experimental period for either group; nor did the two groups differ. There was significant improvement in writing for the experimental group over the comparison group. Pretreatment and posttreatment interviews were selectively collected to evaluate qualitatively if the students were able to identify and manipulate elements of story grammar and to determine patterns in metacognitive processing. Interviews provided evidence that most students in the experimental group gained while most students in the comparison group did not gain in their ability to manipulate...
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a writing process approach for the instruction of language arts with learning disabled elementary students. A nonequivalent control group design was used. The sample included 24 students with learning disabilities who were in second and third grade. All students were instructed in resource room settings for ninety minutes per day in language arts.^ The students in the treatment group received instruction using the writing process steps to create complete meaningful compositions on self-chosen topics. A literature-based reading program accompanied instruction in writing to provide examples of good writing and to provide a basis for topic selection.^ The students in the control group received instruction through the use of the county-adopted textbooks and accompanying worksheets. The teacher followed basic textbook and curriculum guide suggestions which consisted mainly of fill in the blank and matching type exercises.^ The treatment group consisted of 12 students: five second-graders and seven third-graders. The control group consisted of 12 students: four second-graders and eight third-graders.^ All students were pretested and posttested using the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-Revised (WJ-R ACH) for writing samples and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT) for reading achievement.^ T-tests were also done to investigate the gain from pre to post for each reading or writing variable for each group separately. The results showed a highly significant difference from pretest to posttest for all writing and reading variables for both groups. Analysis of Covariance showed that the population mean posttest achievement scores for all variables adjusted for the pretest were higher for the treatment group than those for the control group. ^
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the influences of literacy variables on high-stakes test performance including: (a) student achievement on the Metropolitan Achievement Test, Seventh Edition (MAT-7) as correlated to the high-stakes test such as the FCAT examination and (b) the English language proficiency attained by English Language Learners (ELL) students when participating in, or exiting from English Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) program as determined by the Limited English Proficient (LEP) committee. ^ Two one-sample Chi-square tests were conducted to investigate the relationship between passing the MAT-7 Reading and Language examinations and the FCAT-SSS Reading Comprehension and FCAT-NRT examinations. In addition, 2x2 Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to address the relationship between the time ELL students spent in the ESOL program and the level of achievement on MAT-7 Reading and Language examinations and the FCAT-SSS Reading Comprehension and FCAT-NRT. ^ Findings of this study indicated that more ELL students exit the program based on the LEP committee decisions than by passing the MAT-7. The majority of ELL students failed the 10th grade FCAT, the passing of which is needed for graduation. A significant number of ELL students failed...
Stereotype threat (Steele & Aronson, 1995) refers to the risk of confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group in a particular performance domain. The theory assumes that performance in the stereotyped domain is most negatively affected when individuals are more highly identified with the domain in question. As federal law has increased the importance of standardized testing at the elementary level, it can be reasonably hypothesized that the standardized test performance of African American children will be depressed when they are aware of negative societal stereotypes about the academic competence of African Americans.^ This sequential mixed-methods study investigated whether the standardized testing experiences of African American children in an urban elementary school are related to their level of stereotype awareness. The quantitative phase utilized data from 198 African American children at an urban elementary school. Both ex-post facto and experimental designs were employed. Experimental conditions were diagnostic and non-diagnostic testing experiences. The qualitative phase utilized data from a series of six focus group interviews conducted with a purposefully selected group of 4 African American children. The interview data were supplemented with data from 30 hours of classroom observations. ^ Quantitative findings indicated that the stereotype threat condition evoked by diagnostic testing depresses the reading test performance of stereotype-aware African American children (F[1...
This was a longitudinal study that investigated the effects of an early intervention program which was implemented at the beginning of formal reading instruction and used individual clinical instruction with at-risk students. A total of 37 private school students were divided into three cognitive ability groups and evaluated over a three year period using the reading comprehension and study skills sections of the Stanford Achievement Tests (1982) administered annually. At-risk students were matched with a normal peer group for gender, cognitive ability, and time at school. Results showed there were no significant differences in the reading comprehension scores for program and non-program students. However, the at-risk group showed significantly lower scores on the study skills section at the end of grade three. These results indicate that early reading intervention for at-risk students promotes compensation and helps develop processes for adequate reading comprehension but these students continue to have weaker linguistic abilities. ^
This study investigated the effects of two types of bilingual education programs (two-way and transitional) on the academic performance, attitudes, and metacognitive awareness of 5th grade students who entered kindergarten or first grade with different levels of English proficiency. The multi-stage sample consisted of students who had participated in each program for a period of at least five years. A mixed model design allowed for the collection of quantitative and qualitative data that were analyzed accordingly and integrated. ^ The findings indicated no significant differences between the two groups on measures of academic achievement in English. Significant differences were found in the number of semesters required for the students to become proficient English speakers. An important conclusion, based on these findings, was that the students enrolled in the two-way bilingual education (TWBE) programs learned English faster. Moreover, they maintained a high level of proficiency in Spanish, scoring significantly higher than the transitional bilingual education group on measures of Spanish reading ability.^ Questionnaire and interview data indicated that the students in the two-way bilingual education programs tended to use more Spanish for recreational purposes and tended to rate themselves as more proficient Spanish speakers than their peers. Conversely...
Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, School of Education, 2006; Two major obstacles to using PBL methods in K-12 classrooms are the time it takes to design the rich learning environment and the time required for students to interact at their own pace with ill-structured problems. The focus of this study was to determine whether game-design design principles can be used to both compliment a digital PBL environment and improve student learning. Further, this study sought to determine whether such a design could allow teachers to act as a challenger of poorly developed knowledge constructs instead of as a font of directional and procedural knowledge for students To answer these questions a digital learning environment was designed that used embedded scaffolds, nested goals, clue trails, narrative context, and explicit rules to improve student writing. This unit was part of a larger multi-user virtual environment, but was designed to be a self-contained unit that leveraged advanced technologies to establish an immersive experience for learning writing skills. The unit was designed to be two-times per week for four weeks in total length which included student training on the active role of a reporter who investigated mysteries taking place in a virtual town. The learner then composed feature stories relating their understanding of the mystery. A comparison class was recruited and the teacher was observed teaching the same content and skill standards but through more didactic methods of instruction.
The results of this study showed that the treatment condition had decreases in teacher time spent answering procedural and directional questions...
This study examines the effects of looping (staying with the same teacher for two grade levels) on the reading achievement of fourth graders within a large, urban, multicultural school. Looping was expected to have a positive effect on reading achievement and reading qualities. Additional benefits, such as its effect on anxiety levels and self-concept were also assumed to accrue from looping. ^ A causal-comparative design was employed. Four existing classrooms consisting of eighty-one fourth grade students comprised the treatment and comparison groups. The two “looping” treatment groups consisted of students who had the same teacher for their third and fourth grade school years. The remaining two classes comprised the comparison groups. Pre- and post-tests for reading achievement total scores and subscores for main idea and comparisons were obtained using the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). Assessments were also obtained from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, modified to reflect reading, and the Self-Perception Profile for Children. The difference in pre- and post-test FCAT scores were analyzed via a four group simple ANOVA to examine the effects of the looping model on reading achievement and reading qualities. Similar simple ANOVAs were performed to investigate the relationship of looping to anxiety and self-concept. ^ The findings led to the conclusion that looping was significantly related to improvement in reading achievement and reading qualities. In addition...
This study examined the relationships between gifted selection criteria used in the Dade County Public Schools of Miami, Florida and performance in sixth grade gifted science classes.^ The goal of the study was to identify significant predictors of performance in sixth grade gifted science classes. Group comparisons of performance were also made. Performance in sixth grade gifted science was defined as the numeric average of nine weeks' grades earned in sixth grade gifted science classes.^ The sample consisted of 100 subjects who were formerly enrolled in sixth grade gifted science classes over two years at a large, multiethnic public middle school in Dade County.^ The predictors analyzed were I.Q. score (all scales combined), full scale I.Q. score, verbal scale I.Q. score, performance scale I.Q. score, combined Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) score (Reading Comprehension plus Math Applications), SAT Reading Comprehension score, and SAT Math Applications score. Combined SAT score and SAT Math Applications score were significantly positively correlated to performance in sixth grade gifted science. Performance scale I.Q. score was significantly negatively correlated to performance in sixth grade gifted science. The other predictors examined were not significantly correlated to performance.^ Group comparison results showed the mean average of nine weeks grades for the full scale I.Q. group was greater than the verbal and performance scale I.Q. groups. Females outperformed males to a highly significant level. Mean g.p.a. for ethnic groups was greatest for Asian students...
The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure high school students’ perspectives on global awareness and attitudes toward social issues. The research questions that guided this study were: (a) Can acceptable validity and reliability estimates be established for an instrument developed to measure high schools students' global awareness? (b) Can acceptable validity and reliability estimates be established for an instrument developed to measure high schools students' attitudes towards global social issues? (c) What is the relationship between high school students’ GPA, race/ethnicity, gender, socio-economic status, parents’ education, getting the news, reading and listening habits, the number of classes taken in the social sciences, whether they speak a second language, and have experienced living in or visiting other countries, and their perception of global awareness and attitudes toward global social issues. ^ An ex post facto research design was used and the data were collected using a 4-part Likert-type survey. It was administered to 14 schools in the Miami-Dade County, Florida area to 704 students. A factor analysis with an orthogonal varimax rotation was vii used to select the factors that best represented the three constructs – global education...
A concern for both educators and policy makers is how to increase the reading achievement of African American students. Studies have shown that rap music, which has its roots in the African American community, can be used as a tool to facilitate this increase, specifically how using rap songs in reading lessons can improve a child's reading motivation, information recall, and vocabulary development. There are also studies on how repeated reading of a text can help improve a child's reading fluency. Yet, there are no studies that combine rap music and repeated reading of a text. This study describes the effects of using a culturally responsive reading strategy on the fluency, decoding, and comprehension skills of African American students. ^ The sample consisted of 105 African American students within eight, second grade classrooms at two different elementary schools. The classes were randomly selected and assigned to the rap group or the control group. Students received eight half-hour sessions using either a rap text or a traditional text in a repeated reading lesson. All of the students were pre-tested and post-tested on the Oral Reading Fluency and the Nonsense Word Fluency portions of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Literacy Skills Test. Additionally...
The purpose of this study was to investigate which affective factors of adolescent high school readers were related to high-level readers, middle-level readers and low-level readers. The research problem was to determine the relationship between adolescent high school students' self-perceived reading self-efficacy factors and the students' reading performance on a standardized reading assessment considering demographic factors of age, gender and socio-economic status as covariates. ^ The research design was ex post facto making inferences without direct intervention. The sample was obtained from one large, diverse, urban high school, consisting of 9th and 10th grade adolescent students (N = 176). Students voluntarily completed a self-report, reading self-efficacy survey. School records were used to obtain standardized reading level scores, age, gender, and socio-economic status data. An exploratory factor analysis of the self-efficacy survey responses resulted in the identification of 7 underlying factors. The striving (low-level) readers had significantly lower self-perceptions on 5 of the 7 affective factors than the middle-level readers, and strong (high-level) readers, p < .05. The 5 affective factors on which the striving readers had significantly lower self-perceptions were: (a) Observational Comparison...
There is a national need to increase the STEM-related workforce. Among factors leading towards STEM careers include the number of advanced high school mathematics and science courses students complete. Florida's enrollment patterns in STEM-related Advanced Placement (AP) courses, however, reveal that only a small percentage of students enroll into these classes. Therefore, screening tools are needed to find more students for these courses, who are academically ready, yet have not been identified. ^ The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which scores from a national standardized test, Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/ National Merit Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), in conjunction with and compared to a state-mandated standardized test, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), are related to selected AP exam performance in Seminole County Public Schools. An ex post facto correlational study was conducted using 6,189 student records from the 2010 - 2012 academic years. ^ Multiple regression analyses using simultaneous Full Model testing showed differential moderate to strong relationships between scores in eight of the nine AP courses (i.e., Biology, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Physics B, Physics C Electrical...
The purpose of this study was to aid in understanding the relationship between current Reading report card grading practices and standards-based state standardized testing results in Reading and factors associated with the alignment of this relationship. Report card and Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FLAT) data for 2004 were collected for 1064 third grade students in nine schools of one feeder pattern in Florida's Miami-Dade County Public Schools. A Third Grade Teacher Questionnaire was administered to 48 Reading teachers. The questionnaire contained items relating to teachers' education, teaching experience, grading practices, and beliefs about the FCAT, instructional Reading activities, methods, and materials. ^ Findings of this study support a strong relationship between report card grades and FCAT Reading achievement levels. However, individual school correlational analysis showed significant differences among schools' alignment measures. Higher teacher alignment between grades and FCAT levels was associated with teachers spending more time on individualized methods of Reading instruction and to teachers feeling there was not enough time to teach and help individual students. Lower teacher alignment of grades and achievement levels was associated with teachers taking homework into account in the final Reading grade. Teacher alignment of grades and achievement levels was not associated with teacher beliefs concerning the FCAT...
This study examined the effects of providing students with explicit instruction in
how to use a repertoire of reading comprehension strategies and test taking skills when
reading and responding to three types of questions (direct, inferential, critical).
Specifically, the study examined whether providing students with a "model" of how to
read and respond to the text and to the comprehension questions improved their reading
comprehension relative to providing them with implicit instruction on reading
comprehension strategies and test taking skills. Students' reading comprehension and
test taking performance scores were compared as a function of instructional condition.
Students from 2 grade 8 classes participated in this study. The reading component
of the Canadian Achievement Tests, Third Edition (CAT/3) was used to identify
students' level of reading comprehension prior to the formal instructional sessions.
Students received either explicit instruction, which involved modelling, or implicit
instruction, which consisted of review and discussion of the strategies to be used.
Comprehension was measured through the administration of formative tests after
each instructional session. The formative tests consisted of reading comprehension
questions pertaining to a specific form of text (narrative...
This experimental study examined the effects of
cooperative learning and a question-answering strategy
called elaborative interrogation ("Why is this fact true?")
on the learning of factual information about familiar
animals. Retention gains were compared across four study
learning, cooperative-learning, elaborative-interrogation,
and reading-control. Sixth-grade students (n=68) were
randomly assigned to the four conditions. All participants
were given initial training and practice in cooperative
learning procedures via three 45-minute sessions. After
studying 36 facts about six animals, students' retention
gains were measured via immediate free recall, immediate
matched association, 30-day, and GO-day matched association
tests. A priori comparisons were made to analyze the data.
For immediate free recall and immediate matched association,
significant differences were found between students in the
three experimental conditions versus those in the control
condition. Elaborative-interrogation and elaborativeinterrogation-
plus-cooperative-learning also promoted longterm
retention (measured via 30-day matched association) of
the material relative to repetitive reading with
elaborative-interrogation promoting the most durable gains (measured via GO-day matched association). The relationship
between the types of elaborative responses and probability
of subsequent retention was also examined. Even when
students were unable to provide adequate answers to the why
Cette recherche s’inscrit dans le cadre de l’évaluation des compétences langagières en français chez des adultes immigrants en vue de leur placement dans des cours de français. Elle porte sur la dimensionnalité, de même que sur la difficulté objective et subjective de tâches discrètes ou intégrées de compréhension écrite, à différents niveaux de maîtrise. Elle propose des analyses de l’estimation de la maîtrise linguistique en fonction de l’appartenance des candidats à des groupes linguistiques distincts.
Pour mener à bien la recherche, un test de six textes et de 30 items a été créé. Il a été administré à 118 immigrants. Ces immigrants suivaient les cours de français proposés par le Ministère de l’immigration et des communautés culturelles du Québec (MICC) dans les écoles de langues de l’Université de Montréal et de l’Université du Québec à Montréal. Après administration, ce test a été soumis à des analyses portant sur la dimensionnalité et la difficulté des tâches discrètes et intégrées ainsi que sur les interactions entre ces tâches et les différents groupes de candidats. Des études plus précises ont été faites sur l’interaction entre le type de tâche, l’appartenance à un groupe linguistique pour des candidats et des items de niveau similaire. Enfin...
Ce mémoire s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une recherche de développement pédagogique d’objet, destinée à des enseignants du secondaire. L’objectif porte sur la conception, et la validation auprès d’un groupe d’experts, d’une grille visant l’analyse de la qualité de situations d’apprentissage et d’évaluation en lecture (GASAEL) conçues pour des élèves de niveau secondaire en difficulté d’apprentissage, notamment ceux du parcours de formation axée sur l’emploi (PFAE).
La problématique expose la nécessité chez les enseignants de trouver des réponses ajustées aux besoins d’apprentissage des élèves ciblés, dans un contexte de programmes élaborés par compétences. La situation d’apprentissage et d’évaluation (SAE) est une instrumentation pertinente, mais demeure sous-utilisée.
Le cadre conceptuel, guidé par le modèle de la situation pédagogique de Legendre (2005), assure l’analyse du contexte de la SAE et permet d’identifier ses caractéristiques. Ce cadre est suivi par la méthodologie de l’Analyse de la valeur pédagogique de Roque, Langevin et Riopel (1998) exposant la procédure d’analyse des fonctions du produit, au regard des besoins des utilisateurs.
L’innovation de ce produit pédagogique tient en son caractère pragmatique; il propose à la fois l’analyse de la qualité des SAE...