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Parallel graphics and visualization

Santos, Luís Paulo; Raffin, Bruno; Heirich, Alan
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2007 Português
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Computer graphics and visualization are very active fields of Computer Science, continuously producing new and exciting results. However, the demand for increasingly faster feedback together with the huge volume of data usually associated with these applications, result on growing computational requirements. An efficient utilization of a multiplicity of computational and visualization resources expedites data processing for image generation, thus enabling such requirements to be met. This special issue of Parallel Computing attends to a selection of six papers out of 21 published at the past 2006 Eurographics Symposium on Parallel Graphics and Visualization, which was held in May 2006 in Braga, Portugal. The Eurographics Symposium on Parallel Graphics and Visualization focuses on theoretical and applied research issues critical to parallel and distributed computing and its application to all aspects of computer graphics, virtual reality, scientific and engineering visualization. Parallel graphics and visualization has evolved dramatically in the last few years. While previous works focused on SIMD architectures and standard PC clusters, more recent research moved to large displays and visualization oriented cluster architectures...

Parallel graphics and visualization

Santos, Luís Paulo; Reiners, Dirk; Favre, Jean
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2008 Português
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Computer Graphics and Visualization are two fields that continue to evolve at a fast pace, always addressing new application areas and achieving better and faster results. The volume of data processed by such applications keeps getting larger and the illumination and light transport models used to generate pictorial representations of this data keep getting more sophisticated. Richer illumination and light transport models allow the generation of richer images that convey more information about the phenomenons or virtual worlds represented by the data and are more realistic and engaging to the user. The combination of large data sets, rich illumination models and large, sophisticated displays results in huge workloads that cannot be processed sequentially and still maintain acceptable response times. Parallel processing is thus an obvious approach to such problems, creating the field of Parallel Graphics and Visualization. The Eurographics Symposium on Parallel Graphics and Visualization (EGPGV) gathers together researchers from all over the world to foster research focused on theoretical and applied issues critical to parallel and distributed computing and its application to all aspects of computer graphics, virtual reality...

Constant Boundary Elements on graphics hardware: a GPU-CPU complementary implementation

Labaki,Josué; Ferreira,Luiz Otávio Saraiva; Mesquita,Euclides
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 Português
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Numerical simulation of engineering problems has reached such a large scale that the use of a parallel computing approach is required to obtain solutions within a reasonable time. Recent efforts have been made to implement these large scale computational tasks on general-purpose programmable graphics hardware (GPGPU). The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is specially well-suited to address problems that can be formulated in form of data-parallel computations with high arithmetic intensity. This work addresses the implementation of the direct version of the Boundary Element Method (DBEM) on a complementary GPU-CPU system. In this article, constant elements were used for the solution of 2D potential problems. A serial implementation of the BEM was rewritten under the SIMT (Single Instruction Multiple Thread) parallel programming paradigm. The code was developed on an NVidiaTM CUDA programming environment. The efficiency of the implemented strategies is investigated by solving a representative 2D potential problem. The paper reviews in detail the classical BEM formulation in order to be able to address the possible parallelization steps in the numerical implementation. The article reports the performance of the GPU-CPU system compared to the classical CPU-based system for an increasing number of boundary elements.

Superposition of graphics on low bit rate video as an aid in teleoperation

Noyes, Mark Vincent
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 43 leaves; 2137571 bytes; 2137331 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Mark Vincent Noyes.; Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 1984.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND ENGINEERING.; Includes bibliographical references.

Computer graphics for system effectiveness analysis

Bohner, Christine M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: [9], 107 [i.e. 132] leaves; 7288599 bytes; 7288358 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Christine M. Bohner.; Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1986.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND ENGINEERING; Bibliography: leaf 74.

The Curl Graphics2d immediate mode rendering API; Curl Graphics 2d immediate mode rendering API

McGuire, Morgan, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 69 leaves; 4072575 bytes; 4079339 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) 170 thousand lines of code in the Curl language. Morgan McGuire has worked on computer graphics and imaging at Morgan Systems, the NEC Research Institute and the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center. He is currently employed by Curl Corporation as senior architect of the computer graphics group.; The Curl Graphics2d API (Graphics2d) is a 2d immediate mode rendering API for the Curl Internet content language. The unique capabilities of the Curl language enable the API to take the form of a graphics language rather than a simple library of routines. This graphics language offers a basis set of primitives and an extension mechanism that allows 2d and 3d graphics without sacrificing performance. Graphics2d attempts to achieve minimalist simplicity by identifying fundamental concepts in 2d rendering and representing each of those concepts with a single interface class or method. These interfaces may be implemented by user (parties outside of Curl, possibly executing untrusted code) code to interact with other modules built to the API. However, user code will typically use the implementation provided with Curl to build graphics intense applications rather than extending the API directly. As with any large API, the philosophy and crucial design points comprise the essence of Graphics2d...

The design and implementation of a 3D graphics pipeline for the raw reconfigurable architecture

Taylor, Kenneth William, 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 346 p.; 15035915 bytes; 15082700 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis presents the design and implementation of a 3D graphics pipeline, built on top of the "Raw" processor developed at MIT. The Raw processor consists of a tiled array of CPUs, caches, and routing processors connected by several high-speed networks, and can be treated as a coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture. The graphics pipeline has four stages, and four-way parallelism in each stage, and is mapped on to a 16-tile Raw array. It supports basic rendering functions such as hardware transform and lighting, perspective correct texture mapping, and depth buffering, and is intended to be used as a slave processor receiving rendering commands from a host system. The design process is described in detail, along with difficulties encountered along the way, and a comprehensive performance evaluation is carried out. The paper concludes with many suggestions for architectural and performance improvements to be made over the initial design.; by Kenneth William Taylor.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 345-346).

Rendering from unstructured collections of images

Buehler, Christopher James, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 163 p.; 6842427 bytes; 6842234 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Computer graphics researchers recently have turned to image-based rendering to achieve the goal of photorealistic graphics. Instead of constructing a scene with millions of polygons, the scene is represented by a collection of photographs along with a greatly simplified geometric model. This simple representation allows traditional light transport simulations to be replaced with basic image-processing routines that combine multiple images together to produce never-before-seen images from new vantage points. This thesis presents a new image-based rendering algorithm called unstructured lumigraph rendering (ULR). ULR is an image-based rendering algorithm that is specifically designed to work with unstructured (i.e., irregularly arranged) collections of images. The algorithm is unique in that it is capable of using any amount of geometric or image information that is available about a scene. Specifically, the research in this thesis makes the following contributions: * An enumeration of image-based rendering properties that an ideal algorithm should attempt to satisfy. An algorithm that satisfies these properties should work as well as possible with any configuration of input images or geometric knowledge. * An optimal formulation of the basic image-based rendering problem...

The design of a fast and flexible Internet subscription system using content graphics

Kulik, Joanna L
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 148 p.; 8445164 bytes; 8453298 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This dissertation describes the design and evaluation of the Fast, Flexible Forwarding system (F3), a distributed system for disseminating information to networked subscribers. It examines existing subscription approaches, proposes F3 as an alternative to these approaches, and presents results from comparisons of F3 and other subscription approaches. Existing subscription approaches examined in the dissertation fall into three categories: unicast, single-identifier multicast, and content-based multicast systems. Careful examination of these approaches suggests that none is able to support complex subscription requests from large numbers of subscribers at high data rates. F3, the systems proposed as an alternative, shares many features with other multicast systems. Like many multicast systems, for example, F3 uses an overlay network of routers to distribute messages to subscribers. F3 differs from other systems, however, in its use of preprocessors to analyze messages before routing begins. Preprocessors carry out analyses of the relationships between subscription topics, and store the results in special content graph data-structures. Preprocessors share the results of their analyses by distributing content graphs to routers in the F3 network. Using content graphs...

Load-balanced rendering on a general-purpose tiled architecture

Chen, Jiawen (Jiawen Kevin)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 80 p.; 3159538 bytes; 3163126 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Commodity graphics hardware has become increasingly programmable over the last few years, but has been limited to a fixed resource allocation. These architectures handle some workloads well, others poorly; load-balancing to maximize graphics hardware performance has become a critical issue. I have designed a system that solves the load-balancing problem in real-time graphics by using compile-time resource allocation on general-purpose hardware. I implemented a flexible graphics pipeline on Raw, a tile-based multicore processor. The complete graphics pipeline is expressed using StreamIt, a high-level language based on the stream programming model. The StreamIt compiler automatically maps the stream computation onto the Raw architecture. The system is evaluated by comparing the performance of the flexible pipeline with a fixed allocation representative of commodity hardware on common rendering tasks. The benchmarks place workloads on different parts of the pipeline to determine the effectiveness of the load-balance. The flexible pipeline achieves up to twice the throughput of a static allocation.; by Jiawen Chen.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2005.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 77-80).

1.00 Introduction to Computers and Engineering Problem Solving, Fall 2002; Introduction to Computers and Engineering Problem Solving

Harward, Vernon Judson; Lerman, Steven R.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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This course presents fundamental software development and computational methods for engineering and scientific applications. Object-oriented software design and development is the focus of the course. Weekly programming problems cover programming concepts, graphical user interfaces, numerical methods, data structures, sorting and searching, computer graphics and selected advanced topics. Emphasis is on developing techniques for solving problems in engineering, science, management, and planning. The Java programming language is used. The course is worth 3 Engineering Design Points.

Application of VAX/VMS graphics for solving preliminary ship design problems

McGowan, Gerald K.
Fonte: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The VAX/VMS UIS graphics library routines were used in the creation of a menu driven, interactive program which solves basic preliminary ship design problems. The program uses a menu with active mouse and keyboard to select options, enter data, and control program execution. At present, the program solves transverse and longitudinal static stability problems and predicts the effects of shifting weight in three planes. It also calculates the hydrodynamic derivatives for maneuvering performance and predicts the turning circle characteristics of the ship. Provisions for a hardcopy, detailed report are also included. Space has been allocated to include future program modules or user supplied programs.

A version of the graphics-oriented interactive finite element time-sharing system (GIFTS) for an IBM with CP/CMS.

Hundley, Ronnie.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution unlimited; A version of the Graphics-oriented, Interactive, Finite element, Time-sharing System (GIFTS) has been developed for, and installed on, an IBM computer with the Conversational Monitor System (CMS). GIFTS, developed at, and available from the Interactive Graphics Engineering Laboratory of the University of Arizona, is an extensive code for static, transient, modal, and constrained substructural analysis of three dimensional truss, plate, shell, and solid finite element models. A brief description of GIFTS, including insights into its logic and structure necessary to the version's development, and an in-depth description of the method used to invoke CMS commands from the executing program for the purpose of data base management are provided. The version, making use of the Tektronix 4000 series graphics terminals, is self-contained and portable, allowing its installation on other IBM computers with the CMS operating system.; http://archive.org/details/versionofgraphic00hund; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Efficient shadow algorithms on graphics hardware

Chan, Eric, 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 92 p.; 5716220 bytes; 5726683 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Shadows are important to computer graphics because they add realism and help the viewer identify spatial relationships. Shadows are also useful story-telling devices. For instance, artists carefully choose the shape, softness, and placement of shadows to establish mood or character. Many shadow generation techniques developed over the years have been used successfully in offline movie production. It is still challenging, however, to compute high-quality shadows in real-time for dynamic scenes. This thesis presents two efficient shadow algorithms. Although these algorithms are designed to run in real-time on graphics hardware, they are also well-suited to offline rendering systems. First, we describe a hybrid algorithm for rendering hard shadows accurately and efficiently. Our method combines the strengths of two existing techniques, shadow maps and shadow volumes. We first use a shadow map to identify the pixels in the image that lie near shadow discontinuities. Then, we perform the shadow-volume computation only at these pixels to ensure accurate shadow edges. This approach simultaneously avoids the edge aliasing artifacts of standard shadow maps and avoids the high fillrate consumption of standard shadow volumes. The algorithm relies on a hardware mechanism that we call a computation mask for rapidly rejecting non-silhouette pixels during rasterization. Second...

Groebner bases in Java with applications in computer graphics

Malesevic, Branko J.; Jovovic, Ivana V.; Campara, Milan Z.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In this paper we present a Java implementation of the algorithm that computes Buchbereger's and reduced Groebner's basis step by step. The Java application enables graphical representation of the intersection of two surfaces in 3-dimensional space and determines conditions of existence and planarity of the intersection.; Comment: International convention on Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics moNGeometrija 2010, http://www.mongeometrija.org/

IGUANA Architecture, Framework and Toolkit for Interactive Graphics

Alverson, George; Eulisse, Giulio; Muzaffar, Shahzad; Osborne, Ianna; Tuura, Lassi A.; Taylor, Lucas
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/06/2003 Português
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IGUANA is a generic interactive visualisation framework based on a C++ component model. It provides powerful user interface and visualisation primitives in a way that is not tied to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The article describes interactive visualisation tools built using IGUANA for the CMS and D0 experiments, as well as generic GEANT4 and GEANT3 applications. It covers features of the graphical user interfaces, 3D and 2D graphics, high-quality vector graphics output for print media, various textual, tabular and hierarchical data views, and integration with the application through control panels, a command line and different multi-threading models.; Comment: Presented at the 2003 Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP03), La Jolla, Ca, USA, March 2003, 6 pages LaTeX, 4 eps figures. PSN MOLT008 More and higher res figs at http://iguana.web.cern.ch/iguana/snapshot/main/gallery.html

Grace: a Cross-platform Micromagnetic Simulator On Graphics Processing Units

Zhu, Ru
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/11/2014 Português
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A micromagnetic simulator running on graphics processing unit (GPU) is presented. It achieves significant performance boost as compared to previous central processing unit (CPU) simulators, up to two orders of magnitude for large input problems. Different from GPU implementations of other research groups, this simulator is developed with C++ Accelerated Massive Parallelism (C++ AMP) and is hardware platform compatible. It runs on GPU from venders include NVidia, AMD and Intel, which paved the way for fast micromagnetic simulation on both high-end workstations with dedicated graphics cards and low-end personal computers with integrated graphics card. A copy of the simulator software is publicly available.; Comment: 9 pages, 5 figures

The Comparison of three 3D graphics raster processors and the design of another

Brown, Paul
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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There are a number of 3D graphics accelerator architectures on the market today. One of the largest issues concerning the design of a 3D accelerator is that of affordability for the home user while still delivering good performance. Three such architectures were analyzed: the Heresy architecture defined by Chiueh [2], the Talisman architecture defined by Torborg [7], and the Tayra architecture's specification by White [9]. Portions of these three architectures were used to create a new architecture taking advantage of as many of their features as possible. The advantage of chunking will be analyzed, along with the advantages of a single cycle z-buffering algorithm. It was found that Fast Phong Shading is not suitable for implementation in this pipeline, and that the clipping algorithm should be eliminated in favor of a scissoring algorithm.

Volume ray casting techniques and applications using general purpose computations on graphics processing units

Romero, Michael
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Traditional 3D computer graphics focus on rendering the exterior of objects. Volume rendering is a technique used to visualize information corresponding to the interior of an object, commonly used in medical imaging and other fields. Visualization of such data may be accomplished by ray casting; an embarrassingly parallel algorithm also commonly used in ray tracing. There has been growing interest in performing general purpose computations on graphics processing units (GPGPU), which are capable exploiting parallel applications and yielding far greater performance than sequential implementations on CPUs. Modern GPUs allow for rapid acceleration of volume rendering applications, offering affordable high performance visualization systems. This thesis explores volume ray casting performance and visual quality enhancements using the NVIDIA CUDA platform, and demonstrates how high quality volume renderings can be produced with interactive and real time frame rates on modern commodity graphics hardware. A number of techniques are employed in this effort, including early ray termination, super sampling and texture filtering. In a performance comparison of a sequential versus CUDA implementation on high-end hardware, the latter is capable of rendering 60 frames per second with an impressive price-performance ratio heavily favoring GPUs. A number of unique volume rendering applications are explored including multiple volume rendering capable of arbitrary placement and rigid volume registration...

Role of engineers in the creation of engineering drawings - past, present and future

Castro-Cedeno, Mario
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 85149 bytes; application/pdf
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A change in technology can redefine roles in society. Skills that were previously considered specialties and/or optional can become required for the general population. Some recent examples include typing and drafting. Neither skill was expected from engineers before the widespread availability of personal computers. Secretaries performed the overwhelming majority of typing, and drafting technicians were available in sufficient numbers to do the drafting. Both were considered necessary support personnel in all engineering organizations. Recently, however, the adoption of personal computers has made typing and drafting expected and necessary skills for every engineer. The reason is that the number of typists and designers have decreased steadily during the last 20 years as engineering organizations reaped the benefits of the investment in personal computers that increased workforce efficiency. Some of the reduction in support personnel can be explained by increased efficiency but, in addition, today most engineering organizations expect engineers to perform tasks previously assigned to support personnel. One implication of decreasing numbers of drafting technicians is that, increasingly, recent engineering graduates are expected to perform in such a role without the benefit of lengthy on-the-job training...