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Restriction-Site-Specific PCR as a Rapid Test To Detect Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains in Environmental Samples

Kimura, Richard; Mandrell, Robert E.; Galland, John C.; Hyatt, Doreene; Riley, Lee W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2000 Português
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Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is an important food-borne pathogen in industrialized countries. We developed a rapid and simple test for detecting E. coli O157:H7 using a method based on restriction site polymorphisms. Restriction-site-specific PCR (RSS-PCR) involves the amplification of DNA fragments using primers based on specific restriction enzyme recognition sequences, without the use of endonucleases, to generate a set of amplicons that yield “fingerprint” patterns when resolved electrophoretically on an agarose gel. The method was evaluated in a blinded study of E. coli isolates obtained from environmental samples collected at beef cattle feedyards. The 54 isolates were all initially identified by a commonly used polyclonal antibody test as belonging to O157:H7 serotype. They were retested by anti-O157 and anti-H7 monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The RSS-PCR method identified all 28 isolates that were shown to be E. coli O157:H7 by the monoclonal antibody ELISA as belonging to the O157:H7 serotype. Of the remaining 26 ELISA-confirmed non-O157:H7 strains, the method classified 25 strains as non-O157:H7. The specificity of the RSS-PCR results correlated better with the monoclonal antibody ELISA than with the polyclonal antibody latex agglutination tests. The RSS-PCR method may be a useful test to distinguish E. coli O157:H7 from a large number of E. coli isolates from environmental samples.

Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Environmental Waters by PCR Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

Sails, A. D.; Bolton, F. J.; Fox, A. J.; Wareing, D. R. A.; Greenway, D. L. A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2002 Português
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A PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay was applied to the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in environmental water samples after enrichment culture. Bacterial cells were concentrated from 69 environmental water samples by using filtration, and the filtrates were cultured in Campylobacter blood-free broth. After enrichment culture, DNA was extracted from the samples by using a rapid-boiling method, and the DNA extracts were used as a template in a PCR ELISA assay. A total of 51 samples were positive by either PCR ELISA or culture; of these, 43 were found to be positive by PCR ELISA and 43 were found to be positive by culture. Overall, including positive and negative results, 59 samples were concordant in both methods. Several samples were positive in the PCR ELISA assay but were culture negative; therefore, this assay may be able to detect sublethally damaged or viable nonculturable forms of campylobacters. The method is rapid and sensitive, and it significantly reduces the time needed for the detection of these important pathogens by 2 to 3 days.

Species Diversity Improves the Efficiency of Mercury-Reducing Biofilms under Changing Environmental Conditions

von Canstein, Harald; Kelly, Sven; Li, Ying; Wagner-Döbler, Irene
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2002 Português
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Six mercury-resistant environmental proteobacterial isolates and one genetically modified mercury-resistant Pseudomonas putida strain were analyzed for physiological traits of adaptive relevance in an environment of packed-bed bioreactors designed for the decontamination of mercury-polluted chlor-alkali wastewater. The strains displayed characteristic differences in each trait (i.e., biofilm formation capability, growth rate in mercury contaminated wastewaters, and mercury reduction efficiency). Subsequently, they were immobilized either as a monoculture or as a mixed culture on porous carrier material in packed-bed bioreactors through which different batches of filter-sterilized industrial chlor-alkali wastewater were pumped. In monospecies bioreactors, the mercury retention efficiency was sensitive to rapidly increasing mercury concentrations in the wastewater. Mixed culture biofilms displayed a high mercury retention efficiency that was not affected by rapid increases in mercury or continuously high mercury concentrations. The dynamic in the community composition of the mixed culture bioreactors was determined by ribosomal intergenic spacer polymorphism analysis. Mercury-mediated selective pressure decreased the number of prevalent strains. Microbial diversity was completely restored after easing of the selective pressure. Microbial diversity provides a reservoir of strains with complementary ecological niches that results in a superior bioreactor performance under changing environmental conditions.

Long-Chain N-Acyltyrosine Synthases from Environmental DNA

Brady, Sean F.; Chao, Carol J.; Clardy, Jon
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2004 Português
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The heterologous expression of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples (environmental DNA [eDNA]) in easily cultured hosts provides access to natural products produced by previously inaccessible microorganisms. When eDNA cosmid libraries were screened in Escherichia coli for antibacterially active clones, long-chain N-acyltyrosine-producing clones were found in every eDNA library. These apparently common natural products have not been previously described from screening extracts of cultured bacteria for biologically active natural products. Of the 11 long-chain N-acyl amino acid synthases (NASs) that were characterized, 10 are unique sequences. A predicted protein of previously unknown function from Nitrosomonas europaea, a gram-negative nitrifying beta-proteobacterium, is 14 to 37% identical to eDNA NASs. When cloned into E. coli, this open reading frame confers the production of long-chain N-acyltyrosines to the host and is therefore the first NAS from a cultured bacterium to be functionally characterized. Understanding the role that long-chain N-acyl amino acids play in soil microbial communities should now be feasible with the identification of a cultured organism that has the genetic capacity to produce these compounds.

Quantification of Enterococci and Human Adenoviruses in Environmental Samples by Real-Time PCR

He, Jian-Wen; Jiang, Sunny
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2005 Português
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Pathogenic bacteria and enteric viruses can be introduced into the environment via human waste discharge. Methods for rapid detection and quantification of human viruses and fecal indicator bacteria in water are urgently needed to prevent human exposure to pathogens through drinking and recreational waters. Here we describe the development of two real-time PCR methods to detect and quantify human adenoviruses and enterococci in environmental waters. For real-time quantification of enterococci, a set of primers and a probe targeting the 23S rRNA gene were used. The standard curve generated using Enterococcus faecalis genomic DNA was linear over a 7-log-dilution series. Serial dilutions of E. faecalis suspensions resulted in a lower limit of detection (LLD) of 5 CFU/reaction. To develop real-time PCR for adenoviruses, degenerate primers and a Taqman probe targeting a 163-bp region of the adenovirus hexon gene were designed to specifically amplify 14 different serotypes of human adenoviruses, including enteric adenovirus serotype 40 and 41. The standard curve generated was linear over a 5-log-dilution series, and the LLD was 100 PFU/reaction using serial dilutions of purified adenoviral particles of serotype 40. Both methods were optimized to be applicable to environmental samples. The real-time PCR methods showed a greater sensitivity in detection of adenoviruses in sewage samples than the viral plaque assay and in detection of enterococci in coastal waters than the bacterial culture method. However...

Distribution of Environmental Mycobacteria in Karonga District, Northern Malawi

Chilima, Benson Z.; Clark, Ian M.; Floyd, Sian; Fine, Paul E. M.; Hirsch, Penny R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2006 Português
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The genus Mycobacterium includes many species that are commonly found in the environment (in soil and water or associated with plants and animals), as well as species that are responsible for two major human diseases, tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae). The distribution of environmental mycobacteria was investigated in the context of a long-term study of leprosy, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination, and the responses of individuals to various mycobacterial antigens in Karonga District, northern Malawi, where epidemiological studies had indicated previously that people may be exposed to different mycobacterial species in the northern and southern parts of the district. A total of 148 soil samples and 24 water samples were collected from various locations and examined to determine the presence of mycobacteria. The detection method involved semiselective culturing and acid-fast staining, following decontamination of samples to enrich mycobacteria and reduce the numbers of other microorganisms, or PCR with primers specific for the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene, using DNA extracted directly from soil and water samples. Mycobacteria were detected in the majority of the samples, and subsequent sequence analysis of PCR products amplified directly from soil DNA indicated that most of the products were related to known environmental mycobacteria. For both methods the rates of recovery were consistently higher for dry season samples than for wet season samples. All isolates cultured from soil appeared to be strains of Mycobacterium fortuitum. This study revealed a complex pattern for the environmental mycobacterial flora but identified no clear differences between the northern and southern parts of Karonga District.

Polyphosphate Stores Enhance the Ability of Vibrio cholerae To Overcome Environmental Stresses in a Low-Phosphate Environment▿ †

Jahid, Iqbal K.; Silva, Anisia J.; Benitez, Jorge A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of Asiatic cholera, has been reported to make large quantities of polyphosphate. Inorganic polyphosphate is a ubiquitous molecule with a variety of functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. We constructed a V. cholerae mutant with a deletion in the polyphosphate kinase (ppk) gene. The mutant was defective in polyphosphate biosynthesis. Deletion of ppk had no significant effect on production of cholera toxin, hemagglutinin/protease, motility, biofilm formation, and colonization of the suckling mouse intestine. The wild type and mutant had similar growth rates in rich and minimal medium and exhibited similar phosphate uptake and alkaline phosphatase induction. In contrast to ppk mutants from other gram-negative bacteria, the V. cholerae mutant survived prolonged starvation in LB medium and artificial seawater basal salts. The ppk mutant was significantly more sensitive to low pH, high salinity, and oxidative stress when it was cultured in low-phosphate minimal medium. The ppk mutant failed to induce catalase when it was downshifted to phosphorus-limiting conditions. Furthermore, the increased sensitivity of the ppk mutant to environmental stressors in phosphate-limited medium correlated with a diminished capacity to synthesize ATP from intracellular reservoirs. We concluded that polyphosphate protects V. cholerae from environmental stresses under phosphate limitation conditions. It has been proposed that toxigenic V. cholerae can survive in estuaries and brackish waters in which phosphorus and/or nitrogen can be a limiting nutrient. Thus...

Development of a Real-Time PCR Probe for Quantification of the Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Cryptoperidiniopsis brodyi (Dinophyceae) in Environmental Samples▿

Park, Tae-Gyu; de Salas, Miguel F.; Bolch, Christopher J. S.; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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A TaqMan format real-time PCR probe was developed against the internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA region for the specific detection and quantification of Cryptoperidiniopsis brodyi in environmental samples. The assay specificity was confirmed by testing against related dinoflagellates and verified by sequencing PCR amplicons from natural water samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced environmental samples also showed that this assay is specific to C. brodyi. The C. brodyi-specific assay was used in conjunction with Pfiesteria piscicida- and Pfiesteria shumwayae-specific real-time PCR assays to investigate the temporal variations of C. brodyi, P. piscicida, and P. shumwayae abundance in the Derwent estuary, Tasmania. The 18-month field survey from November 2004 to April 2006 revealed that C. brodyi occurred in all seasons at very low densities, mostly below 25 cells liter−1, with higher abundance (maximum, 112 cells liter−1) in April and May. P. piscicida was detected only once, in May 2005 at 60 cells liter−1. P. shumwayae was not detected during the survey.

Diversity of Environmental Mycobacterium Isolates from Hemodialysis Water as Shown by a Multigene Sequencing Approach▿ †

Gomila, Margarita; Ramirez, Antonio; Lalucat, Jorge
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Here we used a multigene sequencing approach for the identification and molecular typing of environmental mycobacteria of the fast-growing subgroup. Strains were isolated from hemodialysis water and clinical samples. Eleven type strains of related species of the genus were also included in this study. To gain further insight into the diversity of the environmental mycobacteria, we analyzed several housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, ITS1, gyrB, hsp65, recA, rpoB, and sodA). No individual phylogenetic tree allowed good discrimination of all of the species studied. However, a concatenated and a consensus analysis, combining the genes, allowed better discrimination of each strain to the species level, and the increase in sequence size also led to greater tree robustness. This approach is useful not only for the discrimination and identification of environmental mycobacteria but also for their molecular typing and studies of population genetics. Our results demonstrate high genetic diversity among the isolates obtained, which are probably new species of the genus.

Covariability of Vibrio cholerae Microdiversity and Environmental Parameters▿ †

Zo, Young-Gun; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Arakawa, Eiji; Watanabe, Haruo; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Fine-scale diversity of natural bacterial assemblages has been attributed to neutral radiation because correspondence between bacterial phylogenetic signals in the natural environment and environmental parameters had not been detected. Evidence that such correspondence occurs is provided for Vibrio cholerae, establishing a critical role for environmental parameters in bacterial diversity.

Assessment of Microbial Communities by Graph Partitioning in a Study of Soil Fungi in Two Alpine Meadows▿ †

Zinger, L.; Coissac, E.; Choler, P.; Geremia, R. A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Understanding how microbial community structure and diversity respond to environmental conditions is one of the main challenges in environmental microbiology. However, there is often confusion between determining the phylogenetic structure of microbial communities and assessing the distribution and diversity of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) in these communities. This has led to the use of sequence analysis tools such as multiple alignments and hierarchical clustering that are not adapted to the analysis of large and diverse data sets and not always justified for characterization of MOTUs. Here, we developed an approach combining a pairwise alignment algorithm and graph partitioning by using MCL (Markov clustering) in order to generate discrete groups for nuclear large-subunit rRNA gene and internal transcript spacer 1 sequence data sets obtained from a yearly monitoring study of two spatially close but ecologically contrasting alpine soils (namely, early and late snowmelt locations). We compared MCL with a classical single-linkage method (Ccomps) and showed that MCL reduced bias such as the chaining effect. Using MCL, we characterized fungal communities in early and late snowmelt locations. We found contrasting distributions of MOTUs in the two soils...

Phenotypic Diversity Caused by Differential RpoS Activity among Environmental Escherichia coli Isolates▿†

Chiang, Sarah M.; Dong, Tao; Edge, Thomas A.; Schellhorn, Herb E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2011 Português
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Enteric bacteria deposited into the environment by animal hosts are subject to diverse selective pressures. These pressures may act on phenotypic differences in bacterial populations and select adaptive mutations for survival in stress. As a model to study phenotypic diversity in environmental bacteria, we examined mutations of the stress response sigma factor, RpoS, in environmental Escherichia coli isolates. A total of 2,040 isolates from urban beaches and nearby fecal pollution sources on Lake Ontario (Canada) were screened for RpoS function by examining growth on succinate and catalase activity, two RpoS-dependent phenotypes. The rpoS sequence was determined for 45 isolates, including all candidate RpoS mutants, and of these, six isolates were confirmed as mutants with the complete loss of RpoS function. Similarly to laboratory strains, the RpoS expression of these environmental isolates was stationary phase dependent. However, the expression of RpoS regulon members KatE and AppA had differing levels of expression in several environmental isolates compared to those in laboratory strains. Furthermore, after plating rpoS+ isolates on succinate, RpoS mutants could be readily selected from environmental E. coli. Naturally isolated and succinate-selected RpoS mutants had lower generation times on poor carbon sources and lower stress resistance than their rpoS+ isogenic parental strains. These results show that RpoS mutants are present in the environment (with a frequency of 0.003 among isolates) and that...

Intercity Spread of Echovirus 6 in Shandong Province, China: Application of Environmental Surveillance in Tracing Circulating Enteroviruses

Tao, Zexin; Song, Yanyan; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Yong; Yoshida, Hiromu; Ji, Shengxiang; Xu, Aiqiang; Song, Lizhi; Liu, Yao; Cui, Ning; Ji, Feng; Li, Yan; Chen, Peng; Xu, Wenbo
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2012 Português
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Environmental surveillance is an effective approach in investigating circulating enteroviruses and had been conducted in the cities of Jinan and Linyi since February 2008 and April 2010, respectively. This study analyzed 46 sewage samples collected in the two cities in 2011 and found that echovirus 6 (E6) was the predominant serotype, with 134 isolates (65 in Jinan and 69 in Linyi) from 23 (50%) samples. This differs from the 2010 data that found 29 E6 isolates in Jinan and only 3 in Linyi. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 coding region showed that all environmental E6 samples from 2008 to 2011 (n = 167) segregated into two lineages and revealed an increase in VP1 gene diversity in 2011, suggesting that the increased number of E6 detections reflects a real epidemic in the two cities. Most Linyi isolates (n = 61, or 88%) in 2011 segregated into sublineage 1a, together with 18 Jinan isolates in 2011. Interestingly, the ancestral VP1 sequence of sublineage 1a inferred using the maximum-likelihood method had 100% identity with the sequence of one environmental isolate from Jinan in August 2010, suggesting an intercity spread from Jinan to Linyi. By Bayesian phylodynamic methods, the most recent common ancestor of Linyi isolates in sublineage 1a dated back to 24 December 2010...

Development of Quantitative PCR Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Genes of Enterococcus spp. and Their Application to the Identification of Enterococcus Species in Environmental Samples

Ryu, Hodon; Henson, Michael; Elk, Michael; Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Griffith, John; Blackwood, Denene; Noble, Rachel; Gourmelon, Michèle; Glassmeyer, Susan; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 Português
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The detection of environmental enterococci has been determined primarily by using culture-based techniques that might exclude some enterococcal species as well as those that are nonculturable. To address this, the relative abundances of enterococci were examined by challenging fecal and water samples against a currently available genus-specific assay (Entero1). To determine the diversity of enterococcal species, 16S rRNA gene-based group-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed and evaluated against eight of the most common environmental enterococcal species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of 439 presumptive environmental enterococcal strains were analyzed to study further the diversity of enterococci and to confirm the specificities of group-specific assays. The group-specific qPCR assays showed relatively high amplification rates with targeted species (>98%), although some assays cross-amplified with nontargeted species (1.3 to 6.5%). The results with the group-specific assays also showed that different enterococcal species co-occurred in most fecal samples. The most abundant enterococci in water and fecal samples were Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, although we identified more water isolates as Enterococcus casseliflavus than as any of the other species. The prevalence of the Entero1 marker was in agreement with the combined number of positive signals determined by the group-specific assays in most fecal samples...

Environmental Surveillance of Human Enteroviruses in Shandong Province, China, 2008 to 2012: Serotypes, Temporal Fluctuation, and Molecular Epidemiology

Wang, Haiyan; Tao, Zexin; Li, Yan; Lin, Xiaojuan; Yoshida, Hiromu; Song, Lizhi; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Suting; Cui, Ning; Xu, Wenbo; Song, Yanyan; Xu, Aiqiang
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2014 Português
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Environmental surveillance is an effective approach in investigating the circulation of polioviruses (PVs) and other human enteroviruses (EVs) in the population. The present report describes the results of environmental surveillance conducted in Shandong Province, China, from 2008 to 2012. A total of 129 sewage samples were collected, and 168 PVs and 1,007 nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEVs) were isolated. VP1 sequencing and typing were performed on all isolates. All PV strains were Sabin-like, with the numbers of VP1 substitutions ranging from 0 to 7. The NPEVs belonged to 19 serotypes, and echovirus 6 (E6), E11, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), E3, E12, and E7 were the six main serotypes, which accounted for 18.3%, 14.8%, 14.5%, 12.9%, 9.0%, and 5.7% of NPEVs isolated, respectively. Typical summer-fall peaks of NPEV were observed in the monthly distribution of isolation, and an epidemic pattern of annual circulation was revealed for the common serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on environmental CVB3 and E3 strains with global reference strains and local strains from aseptic meningitis patients. Shandong strains formed distinct clusters, and a close relationship was observed between local environmental and clinical strains. As an EV-specific case surveillance system is absent in China and many other countries...

Genetic diversity and virulence potential of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O113: H21 strains isolated from clinical, environmental, and food sources

Feng, P.C.H.; Delannoy, S.; Lacher, D.W.; dos Santos, L.F.; Beutin, L.; Fach, P.; Rivas, M.; Hartland, E.L.; Paton, A.W.; Guth, B.E.C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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561.13195%
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains of serotype O113:H21 have caused severe human diseases, but they are unusual in that they do not produce adherence factors coded by the locus of enterocyte effacement. Here, a PCR microarray was used to characterize 65 O113:H21 strains isolated from the environment, food, and clinical infections from various countries. In comparison to the pathogenic strains that were implicated in hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Australia, there were no clear differences between the pathogens and the environmental strains with respect to the 41 genetic markers tested. Furthermore, all of the strains carried only Shiga toxin subtypes associated with human infections, suggesting that the environmental strains have the potential to cause disease. Most of the O113:H21 strains were closely related and belonged in the same clonal group (ST-223), but CRISPR analysis showed a great degree of genetic diversity among the O113:H21 strains.; Peter C. H. Feng, Sabine Delannoy, David W. Lacher, Luis Fernando dos Santos, Lothar Beutin, Patrick Fach, Marta Rivas, Elizabeth L. Hartland, Adrienne W. Paton and Beatriz E. C. Guth; Published ahead of print 23 May 2014

Trends in Environmental Microbiology for Public Health: Abstract Book

Executive Committee of TEMPH 2014
Fonte: Eruditus Publicador: Eruditus
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /09/2014 Português
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Resumos das comunicações apresentadas no Temph14 (Trends in Enviromental Microbiology for Public Health), um congresso organizado pelo Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, I.P. (INSA), em colaboração com a Escola Superior de Tecnologias da Saúde de Lisboa (ESTeSL).; Environmental microbiology is an evolving science. This is in part driven by changes and development of new analytical techniques that are becoming more varied and powerful. Emerging issues and techniques need to be discussed among scientists, technical professionals, practitioners, and students. TEMPH meetings provide a forum to discuss emerging pathogens, microbial toxins and resistance genes in air, water, sand and foodstuff in an environmental exposure context.

Quantification of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 in Environmental Water by Using an External Standard Virus▿

Honjo, Mie N.; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Matsui, Kazuaki; Uchii, Kimiko; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Suzuki, Alata A.; Kohmatsu, Yukihiro; Iida, Takaji; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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559.0793%
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a lethal DNA virus that spreads in natural lakes and rivers, infects common carp and koi. We established a quantification method for CyHV-3 that includes a viral concentration method and quantitative PCR combined with an external standard virus. Viral concentration methods were compared using the cation-coated filter and ultrafiltration methods. The recovery of virus-like particles was similar for the two methods (cation-coated filter method, 44% ± 19%, n = 3; ultrafiltration method, 50% ± 3%, n = 3); however, the former method was faster and more suitable for routine determinations. The recovery of seeded CyHV-3 based on the cation-coated filter method varied by more than 3 orders of magnitude among the water samples. The recovery yield of CyHV-3 was significantly correlated with that of the seeded λ phage, and the average ratio of λ to the CyHV-3 recovery yield was 1.4, indicating that λ is useful as an external standard virus for determining the recovery yield of CyHV-3. Therefore, to quantify CyHV-3 in environmental water, a known amount of λ was added as an external standard virus to each water sample. Using this method, CyHV-3 DNA was detected in 6 of the 10 (60%) types of environmental water tested; the highest concentration of CyHV-3 DNA was 2 × 105 copies liter−1. The lowest recovery limit of CyHV-3 DNA was 60 copies liter−1. This method is practical for monitoring CyHV-3 abundance in environmental water.

Environmental Factors That Control Microbial Perchlorate Reduction

Chaudhuri, Swades K.; O'Connor, Susan M.; Gustavson, Ruth L.; Achenbach, Laurie A.; Coates, John D.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2002 Português
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As part of a study to elucidate the environmental parameters that control microbial perchlorate respiration, we investigated the reduction of perchlorate by the dissimilatory perchlorate reducer Dechlorosoma suillum under a diverse set of environmental conditions. Our results demonstrated that perchlorate reduction by D. suillum only occurred under anaerobic conditions in the presence of perchlorate and was dependent on the presence of molybdenum. Perchlorate reduction was dependent on the presence of the enzyme chlorite dismutase, which was induced during metabolism of perchlorate. Anaerobic conditions alone were not enough to induce expression of this enzyme. Dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 2 mg liter−1 were enough to inhibit perchlorate reduction by D. suillum. Similarly to oxygen, nitrate also regulated chlorite dismutase expression and repressed perchlorate reduction by D. suillum. Perchlorate-grown cultures of D. suillum preferentially reduced nitrate in media with equimolar amounts of perchlorate and nitrate. In contrast, an extended (40 h) lag phase was observed if a similar nitrate-perchlorate medium was inoculated with a nitrate-grown culture. Perchlorate reduction commenced only when nitrate was completely removed in either of these experiments. In contrast to D. suillum...

Abundance of Broad Bacterial Taxa in the Sargasso Sea Explained by Environmental Conditions but Not Water Mass

Sjöstedt, Johanna; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Munk, Peter; Riemann, Lasse
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2014 Português
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To explore the potential linkage between distribution of marine bacterioplankton groups, environmental conditions, and water mass, we investigated the factors determining the abundance of bacterial taxa across the hydrographically complex Subtropical Convergence Zone in the Sargasso Sea. Based on information from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from various locations and two depths, abundances of the predominant taxa (eubacteria, Archaea, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and the Roseobacter, SAR11, and SAR86 clades) were quantified by real-time PCR. In addition, the abundances of Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, and picoalgae were determined by flow cytometry. Linear multiple-regression models determining the relative effects of eight environmental variables and of water mass explained 35 to 86% of the variation in abundance of the quantified taxa, even though only one to three variables were significantly related to any particular taxon's abundance. Most of the variation in abundance was explained by depth and chlorophyll a. The predominant phototrophs, Prochlorococcus and picoalgae, were negatively correlated with phosphate, whereas eubacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, and SAR86 were negatively correlated with nitrite. Water mass showed limited importance for explaining the abundance of the taxonomical groups (significant only for Roseobacter...