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Weak phenotypic reversion of ivermectin resistance in a field resistant isolate of Haemonchus contortus by verapamil

Borges, Fernando A.; Rossini, Julhiano B.; Velludo, Patrícia P.; Buzzulini, Carolina; Costa, Gustavo H.; Molento, Marcelo B.; Costa, Alvimar J.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 731-736
Português
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 04/12803-1; Avanços recentes na reversão fenotípica da resistência anti-helmíntica por drogas moduladoras de Pgp em nematódeos de ruminantes indicam que esta pode ser uma ferramenta útil no controle de helmintos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da ivermectina (IVM), em combinação com o verapamil (VRP), em veículo oleoso ou à base de água, contra um isolado de campo de H. contortus resistente por meio de teste de migração de larvas e infecção experimental em ovinos. No teste in vitro, observou-se reversão fenotípica da resistência de Haemonchus contortus à ivermectina com alta concentração de VRP, aumentando a eficácia da IVM de 53,1% para 94,3. No teste in vivo, IVM + VRP demonstrou 36,02% de eficácia em relação a 7,75% de IVM sozinha. O veículo da formulação não apresentou influência na eficácia. Estes são os primeiros resultados que demonstram o efeito da VRP como reversor parcial do fenótipo da resistência de IVM-fenótipo em um isolado de campo de H. contortus resistente, inoculado experimentalmente em ovinos.; Recent advances in anthelmintic resistant phenotype reversion by Pgp modulating drugs in ruminant nematodes indicate that this can be a useful tool to helminth control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) in combination with verapamil (VRP)...

Influence of moderate electric fields on gelation of whey protein isolate

Rodrigues, Rui M.; Martins, Artur J.; Ramos, Óscar L.; Malcata, F. X.; Teixeira, J. A.; Vicente, A. A.; Pereira, Ricardo
Fonte: Elsevier BV Publicador: Elsevier BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Proteins are one of the food constituents most affected by heating, and some of the changes involve their unfolding, denaturation and gelation. Ohmic heating has often been claimed to improve the quality of foodstuffs due to its uniform heating and (putative) presence of a moderate electric field (MEF). However, this is still subject to discussion, so it is important to determine the effect of ohmic heating and of its MEF upon food constituents. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of MEF on denaturation, aggregation and viscoelastic properties of whey protein isolate (WPI), and compare them with those obtained via conventional heating under identical treatment conditions (up to 30 min at 85 °C). Results have shown that MEF interferes with whey protein unfolding and aggregation pathways at relatively high temperatures. MEF treatments have resulted in WPI solutions possessing more 8 and 10% of native β-Lactoglobulin and α-Lactalbumin, respectively, after 30 s of heating at 85 °C, when compared with a conventional heating method. Protein aggregates from MEF-treated WPI solutions presented a maximum increase in size of 78 nm, whereas conventional heating produced an increase of 86 nm. Unlike in conventional heating...

In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon

Silva,Luiz Francisco Rocha e; Magalhães,Pedro Melillo de; Costa,Mônica Regina Farias; Alecrim,Maria das Graças Costa; Chaves,Francisco Célio Maia; Hidalgo,Ari de Freitas; Pohlit,Adrian Martin; Vieira,Pedro Paulo Ribeiro
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2012 Português
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Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water) and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A. annua used was cultivated in three Amazon ecosystems (várzea, terra preta de índio and terra firme) and in the city of Paulínia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Artemisinin levels in the A. annua leaves used were 0.90-1.13% (m/m). The concentration of artemisinin in the infusions was 40-46 mg/L. Field P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to quinine and artemisinin. The average 50% inhibition concentration values for A. annua infusions against field isolates were 0.11-0.14 μL/mL (these infusions exhibited artemisinin concentrations of 4.7-5.6 ng/mL) and were active in vitro against P. falciparum due to their artemisinin concentration. No synergistic effect was observed for artemisinin in the infusions.

Weak phenotypic reversion of ivermectin resistance in a field resistant isolate of Haemonchus contortus by verapamil

Borges,Fernando A.; Rossini,Julhiano B.; Velludo,Patrícia P.; Buzzulini,Carolina; Costa,Gustavo H.; Molento,Marcelo B.; Costa,Alvimar J.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 Português
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Recent advances in anthelmintic resistant phenotype reversion by Pgp modulating drugs in ruminant nematodes indicate that this can be a useful tool to helminth control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) in combination with verapamil (VRP), in oil or water-based vehicle, against an IVM-resistant field isolate of Haemonchus contortus through a larval migration assay and experimental infection trial. In the in vitro assay was observed a phenotypic reversion of H. contortus resistance to ivermectin at a high concentration of VRP, increasing IVM efficacy from 53.1% to 94.3. In the in vivo trial, IVM + VRP demonstrated 36.02% efficacy compared to the 7.75% of IVM alone. The vehicle formulation showed no influence in efficacy. These are the first results demonstrating the effect of VRP as a partial IVM-resistance phenotype reverser in a field isolate of IVM-resistant H. contortus experimentally inoculated in sheep.

Evaluation of resistance in a selected field strain of Haemonchus contortus to ivermectin and moxidectin using the Larval Migration on Agar Test

Fortes,Fernanda S.; Kloster,Fernando S.; Schafer,Andressa S.; Bier,Daniele; Buzatti,Andréia; Yoshitani,Ursula Y.; Molento,Marcelo B.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2013 Português
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Haemonchus contortus is one of the most common and economically significant causes of disease in small ruminants worldwide, and the control programs of parasitic nematodes - including H. contortus - rely mostly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. The consequence of the use of this, as the sole sanitary strategy to avoid parasite infections, was the reduction of the efficacy of all chemotherapeutic products with a heavy selection for resistance. The widespread of anthelmintic resistance and the difficulty of its early diagnosis has been a major concern for the sustainable parasite management on farms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) effect in a selected field strain of H. contortus with a known resistance status, using the in vitro larval migration on agar test (LMAT). Third stage larvae of the selected isolate were obtained from faecal cultures of experimentally infected sheep and incubated in eleven increasing diluted concentrations of IVM and MOX (6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1536, 3072 and 6144µg/mL). The dose-response sigmoidal curves were obtained using the R² value of >0.90 and the lethal concentration (LC50) dose for the tested anthelmintic drugs using a four-parameter logistic model. The LC50 value for MOX was significantly lower than IVM (1.253µg/mL and 91.06µg/mL)...

Comparison of Molecular and Biological Characteristics of a Modified Live Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Vaccine (Ingelvac PRRS MLV), the Parent Strain of the Vaccine (ATCC VR2332), ATCC VR2385, and Two Recent Field Isolates of PRRSV

Opriessnig, T.; Halbur, P. G.; Yoon, K.-J.; Pogranichniy, R. M.; Harmon, K. M.; Evans, R.; Key, K. F.; Pallares, F. J.; Thomas, P.; Meng, X. J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2002 Português
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The objectives of this study were to compare the molecular and biological characteristics of recent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) field isolates to those of a modified live virus (MLV) PRRS vaccine and its parent strain. One hundred seventeen, 4-week-old pigs were randomly assigned to six groups. Group 1 (n = 20) served as sham-inoculated negative controls, group 2 (n = 19) was inoculated with Ingelvac PRRS MLV vaccine, group 3 (n = 20) was inoculated with the parent strain of the vaccine (ATCC VR2332), group 4 (n = 19) was inoculated with vaccine-like PRRSV field isolate 98-38803, group 5 (n = 19) was inoculated with PRRSV field isolate 98-37120, and group 6 (n = 20) was inoculated with known high-virulence PRRSV isolate ATCC VR2385. The levels of severity of gross lung lesions (0 to 100%) among the groups were significantly different at both 10 (P < 0.0001) and 28 days postinoculation (p.i.) (P = 0.002). At 10 days p.i., VR2332 (26.5% ± 4.64%) and VR2385 (36.4% ± 6.51%) induced gross lesions of significantly greater severity than 98-38803 (0.0% ± 0.0%), 98-37120 (0.8% ± 0.42%), Ingelvac PRRS MLV (0.9% ± 0.46%), and negative controls (2.3% ± 1.26%). At 28 days p.i., 98-37120 (17.2% ± 6.51%) induced gross lesions of significantly greater severity than any of the other viruses. Analyses of the microscopic-interstitial-pneumonia-lesion scores (0 to 6) revealed that VR2332 (2.9 ± 0.23) and VR2385 (3.1 ± 0.35) induced significantly more severe lesions at 10 days p.i. At 28 days p.i....

Involvement of the Leader Sequence in Sendai Virus Pathogenesis Revealed by Recovery of a Pathogenic Field Isolate from cDNA

Fujii, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Kiyotani, Katsuhiro; Huang, Cheng; Fukuhara, Noriko; Egi, Yoshiko; Yoshida, Tetsuya
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2002 Português
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We previously demonstrated that a systematic passage of a pathogenic field isolate of Sendai virus (SeV), the Hamamatsu strain, in embryonated eggs caused attenuation of virulence to mice, and we isolated viral clones of distinct virulence (K. Kiyotani et al. Arch. Virol. 146:893-908, 2001). One of the clones, E15cl2, which was obtained from the virus at the 15th egg passage of E0, the parental Hamamatsu clone for egg passage, had 165-fold-attenuated virulence to mice and possessed only four mutations in the entire 15,384-base genome: in an antigenomic sense, U to A at position 20 (U20A) and U to A at position 24 (U24A) in the leader sequence, the promoter for transcription and replication, and A to G at position 9346 (silent) and A to U at position 12174 (Ser to Cys) in the L gene. To examine the possibility that leader mutations affect virus pathogenesis, we recovered live viruses from cDNA derived from the Hamamatsu strain. A mutant virus possessing either a mutation of U20A or U24A in the leader sequence showed a slightly lower pathogenicity than that of the parental virus, whereas a double mutant virus possessing both of the mutations showed 25-fold-attenuated virulence, accompanying a significantly lower virus replication in the mouse lung. Replications of the leader mutant viruses were also impaired in a primary culture of mouse pulmonary epithelial cells but not in chicken embryo fibroblasts. These findings suggest that leader mutations of SeV affect virus pathogenesis by altering virus replication in a host-dependent manner.

Antigenic differences between a field isolate and vaccine strains of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

Reddy, J R; Xue, W; Rivera, S; Minocha, H C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1995 Português
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Antigenic diversity among the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) cytopathic strains 87-2552 (field isolate) and NADL and Singer (prototype strains) was demonstrated with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent, immunofluorescence, virus neutralization, and immunoprecipitation assays. Two MAbs against BVDV strain 87-2552, designated D11 and B7, strongly neutralized this field strain and were specific for the 48-kDa glycoprotein of the virus. These two MAbs have different subisotypes, immunoglobulin G1 for D11 and immunoglobulin G3 for B7. MAbs against BVDV strains 87-2552 and NADL were specific for their respective strains in virus neutralization assays. The results indicated significant antigenic differences between BVDV strain 87-2552 and the NADL and Singer strains.

Junctional Adhesion Molecule A Serves as a Receptor for Prototype and Field-Isolate Strains of Mammalian Reovirus

Campbell, Jacquelyn A.; Schelling, Pierre; Wetzel, J. Denise; Johnson, Elizabeth M.; Forrest, J. Craig; Wilson, Greame A. R.; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Imhof, Beat A.; Stehle, Thilo; Dermody, Terence S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2005 Português
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Reovirus infections are initiated by the binding of viral attachment protein σ1 to receptors on the surface of host cells. The σ1 protein is an elongated fiber comprised of an N-terminal tail that inserts into the virion and a C-terminal head that extends from the virion surface. The prototype reovirus strains type 1 Lang/53 (T1L/53) and type 3 Dearing/55 (T3D/55) use junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) as a receptor. The C-terminal half of the T3D/55 σ1 protein interacts directly with JAM-A, but the determinants of receptor-binding specificity have not been identified. In this study, we investigated whether JAM-A also mediates the attachment of the prototype reovirus strain type 2 Jones/55 (T2J/55) and a panel of field-isolate strains representing each of the three serotypes. Antibodies specific for JAM-A were capable of inhibiting infections of HeLa cells by T1L/53, T2J/55, and T3D/55, demonstrating that strains of all three serotypes use JAM-A as a receptor. To corroborate these findings, we introduced JAM-A or the structurally related JAM family members JAM-B and JAM-C into Chinese hamster ovary cells, which are poorly permissive for reovirus infection. Both prototype and field-isolate reovirus strains were capable of infecting cells transfected with JAM-A but not those transfected with JAM-B or JAM-C. A sequence analysis of the σ1-encoding S1 gene segment of the strains chosen for study revealed little conservation in the deduced σ1 amino acid sequences among the three serotypes. This contrasts markedly with the observed sequence variability within each serotype...

In vivo evaluation of vaccine efficacy against challenge with a contemporary field isolate from the α cluster of H1N1 swine influenza virus

Detmer, Susan E.; Gramer, Marie R.; King, Vickie L.; Mathur, Sheerin; Rapp-Gabrielson, Vicki J.
Fonte: Canadian Veterinary Medical Association Publicador: Canadian Veterinary Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 Português
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Influenza A virus vaccines currently contain a mixture of isolates that reflect the genetic and antigenic characteristics of the currently circulating strains. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a trivalent inactivated swine influenza virus vaccine (Flusure XP) in pigs challenged with a contemporary α-cluster H1N1 field isolate of Canadian swine origin. Pigs were allocated to vaccinated, placebo, and negative-control groups and monitored for respiratory disease for 5 d after challenge. On the challenge day and 5 d after challenge the serum of the vaccinated pigs had reciprocal hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers 40 for all the vaccine viruses but ≤ 20 for the challenge virus. Gross lesions were present in the lungs of all pigs that had been inoculated with the challenge virus, but the proportion of lung tissue consolidated did not differ significantly between the placebo and vaccinated pigs. However, the amount of virus was significantly reduced in the nasal secretions, lungs, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the vaccinated pigs compared with the placebo pigs. These results indicate that swine vaccinated with Flusure XP were partially protected against experimental challenge with a swine α-cluster H1N1 virus that is genetically similar to viruses currently circulating in Canadian swine.

Characterization of humoral responses to soluble trimeric HIV gp140 from a clade A Ugandan field isolate

Visciano, Maria Luisa; Tagliamonte, Maria; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Heyndrickx, Leo; Vanham, Guido; Jansson, Marianne; Fomsgaard, Anders; Grevstad, Berit; Ramaswamy, Meghna; Buonaguro, Franco M; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Biswas, Priscilla; Scarlatti, Gabri
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/07/2013 Português
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Trimeric soluble forms of HIV gp140 envelope glycoproteins represent one of the closest molecular structures compared to native spikes present on intact virus particles. Trimeric soluble gp140 have been generated by several groups and such molecules have been shown to induce antibodies with neutralizing activity against homologous and heterologous viruses. In the present study, we generated a recombinant trimeric soluble gp140, derived from a previously identified Ugandan A-clade HIV field isolate (gp14094UG018). Antibodies elicited in immunized rabbits show a broad binding pattern to HIV envelopes of different clades. An epitope mapping analysis reveals that, on average, the binding is mostly focused on the C1, C2, V3, V5 and C5 regions. Immune sera show neutralization activity to Tier 1 isolates of different clades, demonstrating cross clade neutralizing activity which needs to be further broadened by possible structural modifications of the clade A gp14094UG018. Our results provide a rationale for the design and evaluation of immunogens and the clade A gp14094UG018 shows promising characteristics for potential involvement in an effective HIV vaccine with broad activity.

De Novo Assembly of a Field Isolate Genome Reveals Novel Plasmodium vivax Erythrocyte Invasion Genes

Hester, James; Chan, Ernest R.; Menard, Didier; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Barnwell, John; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Serre, David
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/12/2013 Português
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Recent sequencing of Plasmodium vivax field isolates and monkey-adapted strains enabled characterization of SNPs throughout the genome. These analyses relied on mapping short reads onto the P. vivax reference genome that was generated using DNA from the monkey-adapted strain Salvador I. Any genomic locus deleted in this strain would be lacking in the reference genome sequence and missed in previous analyses. Here, we report de novo assembly of a P. vivax field isolate genome. Out of 2,857 assembled contigs, we identify 362 contigs, each containing more than 5 kb of contiguous DNA sequences absent from the reference genome sequence. These novel P. vivax DNA sequences account for 3.8 million nucleotides and contain 792 predicted genes. Most of these contigs contain members of multigene families and likely originate from telomeric regions. Interestingly, we identify two contigs containing predicted protein coding genes similar to known Plasmodium red blood cell invasion proteins. One gene encodes the reticulocyte-binding protein gene orthologous to P. cynomolgi RBP2e and P. knowlesi NBPXb. The second gene harbors all the hallmarks of a Plasmodium erythrocyte-binding protein, including conserved Duffy-binding like and C-terminus cysteine-rich domains. Phylogenetic analysis shows that this novel gene clusters separately from all known Plasmodium Duffy-binding protein genes. Additional analyses showing that this gene is present in most P. vivax genomes and transcribed in blood-stage parasites suggest that P. vivax red blood cell invasion mechanisms may be more complex than currently understood. The strategy employed here complements previous genomic analyses and takes full advantage of next-generation sequencing data to provide a comprehensive characterization of genetic variations in this important malaria parasite. Further analyses of the novel protein coding genes discovered through de novo assembly have the potential to identify genes that influence key aspects of P. vivax biology...

Whole Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of an Indian Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolate

Tyagi, Suchi; Pande, Veena; Das, Aparup
Fonte: The Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine Publicador: The Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Mitochondrial genome sequence of malaria parasites has served as a potential marker for inferring evolutionary history of the Plasmodium genus. In Plasmodium falciparum, the mitochondrial genome sequences from around the globe have provided important evolutionary understanding, but no Indian sequence has yet been utilized. We have sequenced the whole mitochondrial genome of a single P. falciparum field isolate from India using novel primers and compared with the 3D7 reference sequence and 1 previously reported Indian sequence. While the 2 Indian sequences were highly divergent from each other, the presently sequenced isolate was highly similar to the reference 3D7 strain.

Complete Genome Sequence of an Indian Field Isolate of Classical Swine Fever Virus Belonging to Subgenotype 1.1

Kamboj, Aman; Patel, Chhabi L.; Chaturvedi, V. K.; Saini, Mohini; Gupta, Praveen K.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/10/2014 Português
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We report the complete genome sequence of an Indian field isolate of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belonging to predominant subgenotype 1.1 prevalent in India. This report will help in understanding the molecular diversity of CSFV strains circulating worldwide and to select and develop a suitable vaccine candidate for classical swine fever (CSF) control in India.

Global Genome and Transcriptome Analyses of Magnaporthe oryzae Epidemic Isolate 98-06 Uncover Novel Effectors and Pathogenicity-Related Genes, Revealing Gene Gain and Lose Dynamics in Genome Evolution

Dong, Yanhan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Miaomiao; Jing, Maofeng; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Muxing; Guo, Xianxian; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Yue; Liu, Yongfeng; Liu, Yanhong; Ye, Wenwu; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Yuanchao; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/04/2015 Português
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Genome dynamics of pathogenic organisms are driven by pathogen and host co-evolution, in which pathogen genomes are shaped to overcome stresses imposed by hosts with various genetic backgrounds through generation of a variety of isolates. This same principle applies to the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and the rice host; however, genetic variations among different isolates of M. oryzae remain largely unknown, particularly at genome and transcriptome levels. Here, we applied genomic and transcriptomic analytical tools to investigate M. oryzae isolate 98-06 that is the most aggressive in infection of susceptible rice cultivars. A unique 1.4 Mb of genomic sequences was found in isolate 98-06 in comparison to reference strain 70-15. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed the presence of two critical expression patterns of M. oryzae based on 64 known pathogenicity-related (PaR) genes. In addition, 134 candidate effectors with various segregation patterns were identified. Five tested proteins could suppress BAX-mediated programmed cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Characterization of isolate-specific effector candidates Iug6 and Iug9 and PaR candidate Iug18 revealed that they have a role in fungal propagation and pathogenicity. Moreover...

Complete Genome Sequence of a Field Isolate of Classical Swine Fever Virus Belonging to Subgenotype 2.1b from Hunan Province, China

Shao, Weixing; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Faxing; Zhang, Zhi; Dong, Yaqin; Li, Xiaocheng
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/07/2015 Português
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We report the complete genome sequence of a field isolate of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Hunan 23/2013, belonging to the predominant subgenotype 2.1b. This strain was originally isolated from diseased pigs in Hunan Province, China. This report will help in understanding the molecular diversity of CSFV stains circulating in China and in selecting and developing a suitable vaccine candidate for CSF control.

In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon.

SILVA, L. F. R. E; MAGALHÃES, P. M. DE; COSTA, M. R. F.; ALECRIM, M. DAS G. C.; CHAVES, F. C. M.; HIDALGO, A. DE F.; POHLIT, A. M.; VIEIRA, P. P. R.
Fonte: Mememórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, v. 107, n. 7, p. 859-866, Nov. 2012. Publicador: Mememórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, v. 107, n. 7, p. 859-866, Nov. 2012.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
Português
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Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water) and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A. annua used was cultivated in three Amazon ecosystems (várzea, terra preta de índio and terra firme) and in the city of Paulínia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Artemisinin levels in the A. annua leaves used were 0.90-1.13% (m/m). The concentration of artemisinin in the infusions was 40-46 mg/L. Field P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to quinine and artemisinin. The average 50% inhibition concentration values for A. annua infusions against field isolates were 0.11-0.14 μL/mL (these infusions exhibited artemisinin concentrations of 4.7-5.6 ng/mL) and were active in vitro against P. falciparum due to their artemisinin concentration. No synergistic effect was observed for artemisinin in the infusions.; 2012

Identification of a field isolate of Fasciola hepatica resistant to albendazole and susceptible to triclabendazole

Sanabria, Rodrigo Eduardo Fabrizio; Ceballos, Laura; Moreno, Laura; Romero, Jorge Marcelo; Lanusse Carlos; Alvarez, Luis Ignacio
Fonte: Elsevier Science Bv Publicador: Elsevier Science Bv
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Português
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The experiments described here were designed to characterize the status of susceptibility/resistance to albendazole (ABZ) and triclabendazole (TCBZ) of a Fasciola hepatica isolate (named CEDIVE isolate) recovered from infected sheep (Gualeguay, Argentina) and maintained under laboratory conditions. Two separate clinical efficacy experiments were performed on sheep artificially infected with the CEDIVE isolate. Experiment 1: Sheep were randomly distributed either in an untreated control group or an ABZ (7.5 mg/kg) treated group (n= 4 each). Additionally, the systemic exposure of ABZ metabolites was assessed in those ABZ-treated infected animals. In Experiment 2, an untreated control group and a TCBZ (10 mg/kg) treated group was included (n = 4 each). The fluckicidal efficacy of ABZ and TCBZ was assessed by comparison of the number of flukes recovered from untreated and treated sheep at 15 days post-treatment. The efficacy against the CEDIVE isolate of F. hepatica was 29% (ABZ) and 100% (TCBZ). The plasma drug exposure (expressed as AUC and Cmax) observed in the ABZ treated animals (Experiment 1), was in agreement with data obtained in previous studies, which indicate that the low ABZ efficacy was not related to the quality of the pharmaceutical product and/or to a low systemic availability of the active drug/metabolite. The results reported here...

The Molecular Characterization of a Novel Field Isolate of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus

White, Robyn
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Calvin Keeler; Infectious laryngotracheitis virus is an alphaherpesvirus responsible for causing a respiratory disease of chickens. The goal of this project is to sequence a novel field isolate of ILTV, UD2011K, using DNA isolated from CAM material. CAM material has not before been used for genomic sequencing of ILTV. After extracting the total DNA for UD2011K-infected CAM material, a DNA sequence library was constructed. Approximately 0.7% of the generated sequence was ILTV. The complete sequence of UD2011K was determined after alignment to the USDA reference strain and was found to be 151,756 base pairs long. The UD2011K sequence was found to contain 196 SNPs and 28 indels. Of note was a three nucleotide deletion of the ICP4 gene. This sequencing method may be more accurate than RFLP analysis in differentiating strains of ILTV.; Pre-veterinary Medicine and Animal Biosciences

Sequencing field isolates of ILTV

Clark, Kyle
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.250095%
Calvin Keeler; The objective of this project is to develop new sequencing technology which will be used to determine and analyze the infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genome. Infectious laryngotracheitis is an acute respiratory tract infection of birds. The disease spreads rapidly and is characterized by bloody mucus, gasping, and high mortality. The virus itself is classified as an alpha herpesvirus (Gallid herpesvirus 1), with a genome approximately 150,000 nucleotides in length (49). By using next-generation sequencing (Illumina) technology we have sequenced two field isolates of ILTV. The first isolate (1874C5) is a 2005 field isolate from Georgia. The second isolate (632) is a 1985 Delaware field isolate. The sequences of these two isolates were compared to show how similar the strains remain across time and geographical location. The results of sequencing for the 1874C5 strain yielded a total of 6,122,687 ILTV bases that aligned to the published reference sequence (49). For the 632 strain, a total of 432,786,937 ILTV bases were sequenced which aligned to the reference. Analysis of the 632 and 1874C5 isolates show that the two sequences are 97.6% similar with only 128 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between them...