A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics; This Work Project has the objective of performing an internal analysis of the operations undertaken at Amorim Turismo’s restaurants in their three hotels in Portugal. A more in depth analysis can be made through the study and improvement of its operational efficiency and quality of service utilizing methodologies such as ABC Classification, inventory management, facility layout optimization, demand forecast and RFM model. Various recommendations are suggested as part of an improvement plan for a better performance of the company.
Senior Customers pose some unique challenges to operators due to some of the physiological changes associated with aging. In an effort to make food and beverage managers more cognizant of these changes, the authors examine these areas and also discuss strategies to attract and enhance the dining experience of the viable senior market segment.
In the analysis - Recreational Food Service Is Big Business - by Gary Horvath, President, Recreational Foodservice Division, Service America Corporation and Mickey Warner, Associate Professor School of Hospitality Management at Florida International University, Horvath and Warner initially state: “Recreational food service is very different from routine food service management. The authors review the market and the management planning and challenges that create that difference.”
Recreational food is loosely defined by the authors as food for special events. These can be one-time events, repeated events that are not on a fixed schedule [i.e. concerts], weekly events such as football-baseball-or basketball games, or other similar venues. Concessions are a large part of these fan based settings.
“An anticipated 101,000 fans at a per capita spending of $5-6 [were expected]. A typical concessions menu of hot dogs, popcorn, soda, beer, snacks, novelty foods, candy, and tobacco products comprises this market segment,” say Horvath and Warner in reference to the Super-Bowl XXI football championship game, held in Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California, on January 25, 1987. Some of the article is based upon that event.
These food service efforts focus on the individual fan...
In - Service Management Concepts: Implications for Hospitality Management – a study by K. Michael Haywood, Associate Professor, School of Hotel and Food Administration, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, Associate Professor Haywood initially proffers: “The study and application of hospitality management has progressed on its own for many years; however, managers are not immune to the knowledge gained from study of other service industries. The author synthesizes what is happening in the area of service management, looks at its relevance to hospitality management, and identifies a few important implications of service management for hospitality managers.”
The author draws a distinction between non-denominated service management, and service management as it applies to the hospitality industry. This is done to make an apparent comparison, as many people would assume the two are one in the same. They are not, and the contrast works well here.
“While much of what we already know about effective management applies to service industries, some of the traditional concepts of management are inadequate in solving the problems faced by service businesses,” Haywood points out. “If a body of knowledge to be known as service management already exists...
Food service on a cruise ship presents some unique challenges. A review of food service in the cruise industry is presented along with some ideas on the future. The case is made for a change in traditional operations with a move toward greater use of computer-driven management techniques.
In the discussion - Indirect Cost Factors in Menu Pricing – by David V. Pavesic, Associate Professor, Hotel, Restaurant and Travel Administration at Georgia State University, Associate Professor Pavesic initially states: “Rational pricing methodologies have traditionally employed quantitative factors to mark up food and beverage or food and labor because these costs can be isolated and allocated to specific menu items. There are, however, a number of indirect costs that can influence the price charged because they provide added value to the customer or are affected by supply/demand factors. The author discusses these costs and factors that must be taken into account in pricing decisions.
Professor Pavesic offers as a given that menu pricing should cover costs, return a profit, reflect a value for the customer, and in the long run, attract customers and market the establishment. “Prices that are too high will drive customers away, and prices that are too low will sacrifice profit,” Professor Pavesic puts it succinctly.
To dovetail with this premise the author provides that although food costs measure markedly into menu pricing, other factors such as equipment utilization, popularity/demand, and marketing are but a few of the parenthetic factors also to be considered.
“… there is no single method that can be used to mark up every item on any given restaurant menu. One must employ a combination of methodologies and theories...
Although it is a substantial issue, the technology behind genetically altered foods and the concerns being raised about them are not well understood by most people. The authors discuss how genetically altered foods might fit into the business strategies of multi-unit food service operators as well as current policies and predispositions of multi-unit food service companies toward the use of genetically altered foods. They also outline the issues surrounding genetically altered food as they relate to the food service industry and provide a picture of where multi-unit food service operators currently stand on the technology
The recreational food service industry represents a wealth of potential job opportunities for graduates of hospitality management degree programs. Most hospitality management curricula are saturated with core courses and basic hospitality education course work, leaving little room for additional components. Recreational food service, however, could be easily integrated into an existing pro- gram and made available for students interested in this growing employment option. The author presents one option as a model curriculum approach.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicators (MBTI) assess preferences based on Carl Jungs theory of psychological types. They are widely used in organizational development, management and leadership training, and team building. This study examines MBTl of food service managers in a single organization to determine whether food service managers have a typical personal style and whether this style varies.
The current research examined the effects of perceived work status of hourly employees on the established relationships between turnover intentions and the constructs of autonomy, affective organizational commitment, perceived management concern for employees, and perceived management concern for customers in the casual-dining restaurant industry. Surveys were collected from 296 employees of a multi-unit casual-dining restaurant franchise, part of a large, national, casual-dining restaurant chain. Employeeswith perceived part-time work status revealed a generally negative trend in factors shown to contribute to turnover. Employees who perceived their work status as parttime also showed significantly lower levels of affective organizational commitment than those who perceived their work status as full-time. Additionally, the mean scores of the desirable attributes trended lower for those employees who perceived themselves as part-time. Even more, helping behaviors, so crucial in a casual-dining environment, were lower when employees perceived their work status to be part-time. The current study discusses managerial implications of the research findings and gives suggestions for future research.
The thesis which follows is a study of recruiting and developing skilled workers for Hotel Food Service Operations in the Miami area. The aim of the study is to bring to the attention of personnel management the role of recruiting and training in providing the skilled people needed for their operation in the short and long run as well.
The study was done as a case study of the medium and large size hotels which have a minimum of 250 units each in the Miami area. However, the study has been generalized where it is possible, and when data permitted.
The primary data was collected by the use of the questionnaire survey method composed of key questions about recruiting, training and sources of skilled people, turnover reasons, etc.
Eight tables have been constructed, analyzed and interpreted. A personal opinion was mentioned in the interpretation of each table's data.
It was found that personnel management should provide a better recruiting and developing procedures in order to attract more qualified people, particularly among the youngsters who are potential skilled workers for the future.
It was concluded that the quality of work life, the benefits, and the opportunities for advancement in the food and beverage operations play a significant role in an employee's decision to stay with a particular job...
In his dialogue titled - Overcoming The Impotency Of Marketing - K. Michael Haywood, Assistant Professor, School of Hotel and Food Administration, University of Guelph, originally reveals: “Many accommodation businesses have discovered that their marketing activities are becoming increasingly impotent. To overcome this evolutionary stage in the life cycle of marketing, this article outlines six principles that will re-establish marketing's vitality.”
“The opinion of general managers and senior marketing, financial, and food and beverage managers is that the marketing is not producing the results it once did and is not working as it should,” Haywood advises.
Haywood points to price as the primary component hospitality managers use to favor/adjust their marketability. Although this is an effective tool, the practice can also erode profitability and margin he says.
Haywood also points at recession as a major factor in exposing the failures of marketing plans. He adds that the hotel manager cannot afford to let this rationale go unchallenged; managers must take measures to mitigate circumstances that they might not have any control over. Managers must attempt to maintain profitability.
“In many hotels, large corporate accounts or convention business generates a significant proportion of occupancy. Often these big buyers dictate their terms to the hotels...
In her dialogue entitled - Restructuring in the Hospitality Industry - Elisa S. Moncarz, Associate Professor, the School of Hospitality Management at Florida International University, intends for you to know the following: “Recent years have seen a proliferation of restructurings of major American corporations creating an extremely important issue that has affected U.S. business. This article discusses restructuring issues in the hospitality industry, focusing attention on its causes and motivations, as well as on its benefits and perils. The author considers the impact of restructuring on investors and management while examining recent restructurings involving hospitality firms.”
In defining the concept of restructuring, Associate Professor Moncarz informs you, “Restructuring entails the implementation of fundamental and comprehensive modification of a company's operational and/or financial structure.”
“It has, indeed, become fashionable to take a company apart and put it back together in a different form,” the author says. Additionally, Moncarz refers to a Wall Street Journal study, dated August 1985, which reveals that nearly half the large American corporations were, or were soon to be restructured in the 1984/85 time frame.
There are several distinct types of restructurings and the author wants you to be aware of some of them. “…threats of takeover attempts...
In their survey/study - Adult Alternatives for Social Drinking: A Direction - by John Dienhart and Sandra Strick, Assistant Professors, Department of Restaurant, Hotel and Institutional Management, Purdue University, Dienhart and Strick begin with: “Changes in consumer habits have brought about a change in the business of selling alcoholic drinks and have impacted upon hotel food and beverage operations. The authors surveyed a sample of hotel corporate food and beverage directors to ascertain how they are handling this challenge.”
Dienhart and Strick declare that the alcoholic beverage market, sale and consumption thereof, has taken a bit of a hit in contemporary society.
“Even to the casual observer, it's obvious that the bar and beverage industry has undergone a great deal of change in the past few years,” say the authors. “Observations include a change in the types of drinks people are ordering, as well as a decrease in the number of drinks being sold,” they qualify.
Dienhart and Strick allude to an increase in the federal excise tax, attacks from alcohol awareness groups, the diminished capacity of bars and restaurants to offer happy hours, increased liability insurance premiums as well as third-party liability issues...
In their discussion - Fast-Food Franchises: An Alternative Menu for Hotel/Casinos - by Skip Swerdlow, Assistant Professor of Finance, Larry Strate, Assistant Professor of Business Law, and Francis X. Brown, Assistant Professor of Hotel Administration at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, their preview reads: Hotel/casino food service operations are adding some non-traditional fare to their daily offerings in the form of fast-food franchises. The authors review aspects of franchising and cite some new Las Vegas food ideas.”
The authors offer that the statewide food and beverage figures, according to the Nevada Gaming Abstract of 1985, exceeded $1.24 billion. Most of that figure was generated in traditional coffee shops, gourmet dining rooms, and buffets.
With that kind of food and beverage figure solidly on the table, it was inevitable that fast-food franchises would move into casinos to garner a share of the proceeds. In a March 1986 review of franchising, Restaurant Business reported the following statistics:
“Over 60 percent of all restaurants are franchisee owned. This relationship is also paralleled in dollar sales, which has exceeded $53 billion.”
“Restaurant franchising expansion has grown at an annual rate of 12 percent per year for the past five years.”
The beginning of the article is dedicated to describing...
In his study - The Food Service Industry: Beliefs Held by Academics - by Jack Ninemeier, Associate Professor, School of Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Management at Michigan State University, Associate Professor Ninemeier initially describes his study this way: “Those in the academic sector exert a great deal of influence on those they are training to enter the food service industry. One author surveyed educational institutions across the country to ascertain attitudes of teachers toward various segments of the industry.”
Those essential segments of the industry serve as the underpinnings of this discussion and are four-fold. They are lodging, institutional, multi-unit, and single-unit properties.
For each segment the analysis addressed factors relating to
Marketing, management and operating concerns: Marketing, operations, fiscal management, innovation, future of the segment
Employee-related concerns: quality of work life, training/education opportunities, career opportunities
The study uses a survey of academicians as a guide; they point to segments of the food service industry students might be inclined to enter, or even ignore. The survey was done via a questionnaire sent from the campus of the School of Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Management at Michigan State University to 1850 full-time faculty members in two and four-year hospitality programs in the United States.
Through the survey...
In the article - Past, Present, and Future: The Food Service Industry and Its Changes - by Brother Herman E. Zaccarelli, International Director, Restaurant, Hotel and Institutional Management Institute at Purdue University, Brother Zaccarelli initially states: “Educators play an important role in the evolution of the food service industry. The author discusses that evolution and suggests how educators can be change agents along with management in that evolutionary progression.”
The author goes on to wax philosophically, as well as speak generically about the food service industry; to why it offers fascinating and rewarding careers. Additionally, he writes about the influence educators have on students in this regard.
“Educators can speak about how the food service industry has benefited them both personally and professionally,” says Brother Zaccarelli. “We get excited about alerting students to the many opportunities and, in fact, serve as “salespersons” for the industry to whoever (school administrators, legislators, and peers in the educational institution) will listen.”
Brother Zaccarelli also speaks to growth and changes in food service, and even more importantly about the people and faces behind everything that food service...
Environmental and social responsibility
is becoming more and more important in today's global
economy. There are thousands of environmental and social
codes and standards in the world today. The codes and
standards define the rules and the objectives. But the
challenge is in the implementation. An environmental and
social management system helps companies to integrate the
rules and objectives into core business operations, through
a set of clearly defined, repeatable processes. This
handbook provides tools to build or enhance a company's
environmental and social management system (ESMS). Section
I is the Toolkit - sample documents, blank forms,
flowcharts, checklists and templates. There are tools for
each of the nine elements in the ESMS. Section II is the
Case Studies - examples of how two different companies used
the tools and developed and implemented an ESMS appropriate
to the size and nature of their business.
In the food and beverage industry, where growing, processing, packaging, distribution, storage, preparation, serving and disposing of food is the order of the day; energy consumption becomes an important input. Various energy models have been developed since the early 1970s, the period when energy caught the attention of policymakers due to the sudden price increase. Among the models are the index decomposition analysis (IDA), artificial neural network (ANN) and data envelopment analysis (DEA). The purpose of this study is to combine the strengths of these models, i.e., IDA, ANN and DEA, to allow biases in one model to offset biases in the other, so as to examine the effectiveness of energy management policies in a particular food and beverage industry. The integrated model applied to the food and beverage revealed that approximately 11% of energy consumed could be saved.