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Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotypes Reveal Cell-Nonautonomous Functions of Oncogenic RAS and the p53 Tumor Suppressor

Coppé, Jean-Philippe; Patil, Christopher K; Rodier, Francis; Sun, Yu; Muñoz, Denise P; Goldstein, Joshua; Nelson, Peter S; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cell proliferation, essentially permanently, in response to oncogenic stimuli, including genotoxic stress. We modified the use of antibody arrays to provide a quantitative assessment of factors secreted by senescent cells. We show that human cells induced to senesce by genotoxic stress secrete myriad factors associated with inflammation and malignancy. This senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) developed slowly over several days and only after DNA damage of sufficient magnitude to induce senescence. Remarkably similar SASPs developed in normal fibroblasts, normal epithelial cells, and epithelial tumor cells after genotoxic stress in culture, and in epithelial tumor cells in vivo after treatment of prostate cancer patients with DNA-damaging chemotherapy. In cultured premalignant epithelial cells, SASPs induced an epithelial–mesenchyme transition and invasiveness, hallmarks of malignancy, by a paracrine mechanism that depended largely on the SASP factors interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Strikingly, two manipulations markedly amplified, and accelerated development of, the SASPs: oncogenic RAS expression, which causes genotoxic stress and senescence in normal cells, and functional loss of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Both loss of p53 and gain of oncogenic RAS also exacerbated the promalignant paracrine activities of the SASPs. Our findings define a central feature of genotoxic stress-induced senescence. Moreover...

Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Cytoskeletal Reorganization during Ionizing Radiation-Induced Senescence of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Wang, Daojing; Jang, Deok-Jin
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are critical for tissue regeneration. How hMSC respond to genotoxic stresses and potentially contribute to aging and cancer remain underexplored. We demonstrated that ionizing radiation induced cellular senescence of hMSC over a period of 10 days, showing a critical transition between day 3 and day 6. This was confirmed by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining, protein expression profiles of key cell cycle regulators (retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, p53, p21waf1/Cip1, and p16INK4A), and senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) (IL-8, IL-12, GRO, and MDC). We observed dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization of hMSC through reduction of myosin-10, redistribution of myosin-9, and secretion of profilin-1. Using a SILAC-based phosphoproteomics method, we detected significant reduction of myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, coinciding with its redistribution. Importantly, through treatment with cell permeable inhibitors ((4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzotriazole (TBB) and 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT)), and gene knockdown using RNA interference, we identified CK2, a kinase responsible for myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, as a key factor contributing to the radiation-induced senescence of hMSC. We showed that individual knockdown of CK2 catalytic subunits CK2α and CK2α′ induced hMSC senescence. However...

Cellular senescence increases expression of bacterial ligands in the lungs and is positively correlated with increased susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia

Shivshankar, Pooja; Boyd, Angela Rodriguez; Le Saux, Claude Jourdan; Yeh, I-Tien; Orihuela, Carlos J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cellular senescence is an age-associated phenomenon that promotes tumor invasiveness due to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, proteases, and growth factors. Herein we demonstrate that cellular senescence also potentially increases susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus), the leading cause of infectious death in the elderly. Aged mice had increased lung inflammation as determined by cytokine analysis and histopathology of lung sections. Immunoblotting for p16, pRb, and mH2A showed that elderly humans and aged mice had increased levels of these senescence markers in their lungs versus young controls. Keratin 10 (K10), Laminin Receptor (LR), and Platelet activating factor receptor (PAFr), host proteins known to be co-opted for bacterial adhesion, were also increased. Aged mice were found to be highly susceptible to pneumococcal challenge in a PsrP, the pneumococcal adhesin that binds K10, dependent manner. In vitro senescent A549 lung epithelial cells had elevated K10 and LR protein levels and were up to 5-fold more permissive for bacterial adhesion. Additionally, exposure of normal cells to conditioned media from senescent cells doubled PAFr levels and pneumococcal adherence. Genotoxic stress induced by bleomycin and oxidative stress enhanced susceptibility of young mice to pneumonia and was positively correlated with enhanced p16...

Deciphering the role of Nuclear Factor-κB in cellular senescence

Vaughan, Simon; Jat, Parmjit S.
Fonte: Impact Journals LLC Publicador: Impact Journals LLC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/09/2011 Português
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Cellular senescence is a program of irreversible cell cycle arrest that cells undergo in response to a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli including progressive shortening of telomeres, changes in telomeric structure or other forms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic stress. The role of nuclear factor-κB in cellular senescence is controversial, as it has been associated with both proliferation and tumour progression, and also with growth arrest and ageing. This research perspective focuses on the evidence for a functional relationship between NF-κB and senescence, and how disruption of the NF-κB pathway can lead to its bypass.

Cellular Senescence and Cancer Chemotherapy Resistance

Gordon, Ryan R.; Nelson, Peter S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Innate or acquired resistance to cancer therapeutics remains an important area of biomedical investigation that has clear ramifications for improving cancer specific death rates. Importantly, clues to key resistance mechanisms may lie in the well-orchestrated and highly conserved cellular and systemic responses to injury and stress. Many anti-neoplastic therapies typically rely on DNA damage, which engages potent DNA damage response signaling pathways that culminate in apoptosis or growth arrest at checkpoints to allow for damage repair. However, an alternative cellular response, senescence, can also be initiated when challenged with these internal/external pressures and in ideal situations acts as a self-protecting mechanism. Senescence-induction therapies are an attractive concept in that they represent a normal, highly conserved and commonly-invoked tumor-suppressing response to overwhelming genotoxic stress or oncogene activation. Yet, such approaches should ensure that senescence by-pass or senescence re-emergence does not occur, as emergent cells appear to have highly drug resistant phenotypes. Further, cell non-autonomous senescence responses may contribute to therapy-resistance in certain circumstances. Here we provide an overview of mechanisms by which cellular senescence plausibly contributes to therapy resistance and concepts by which senescence responses can be influenced to improve cancer treatment outcomes.

Oncogenes induce senescence with incomplete growth arrest and suppress the DNA damage response in immortalized cells

Sherman, Michael Y.; Meng, Le; Stampfer, Martha; Gabai, Vladimir L.; Yaglom, Julia A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Activation of the Her2 (ErbB2) oncogene is implicated in the development of breast, ovary and other cancers. Here, we show that expression of NeuT, a mutant-activated rodent isoform of Her2, in immortalized breast epithelial cells, while promoting senescence associated morphological changes, up-regulation of senescence associated β-galactosidase activity, and accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, failed to trigger the major senescence end-point, i.e. permanent growth arrest. Similar senescence-associated phenotype with incomplete growth arrest, which we dubbed senescence with incomplezXte growth arrest (SWING), could also be triggered by the expression of the Ras oncogene. SWING phenotype was stable, and persisted in tumor xenografts established from NeuT-transduced cells. Furthermore, a significant population of cells in SWING state was found in tumors in the MMTV/NeuT transgenic mouse model. SWING cells showed downregulation of histone H2AX, critical for repair of double-stranded DNA breaks, and impaired activation of Chk1 kinase. Overall, SWING cells were characterized by increased DNA instability and hypersensitivity to genotoxic stresses. We propose that the SWING state could be a stage in the process of cancer development.

Senescence-associated secretory phenotype favors the emergence of cancer stem-like cells

Cahu, J; Bustany, S; Sola, B
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The molecular mechanisms underlying cancer resistance remain elusive. One possible explanation is that cancer stem cells (CSCs) elude drug treatment, emerge and reproduce a tumor. Using multiple myeloma as a paradigm, we showed that cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) appear after genotoxic stress because of their intrinsic properties. However, these properties do not drive the emergence of the CSLCs. Following genotoxic stress, remaining DNA damages lead to a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Senescent cells, which are the non-CSLCs, secrete chemokines contributing to the emergence, maintenance and migration of CSLCs. Downregulation of checkpoint protein 2, a key player of SASP, significantly reduced the emergence of CSLCs. Our results unravel a novel molecular mechanism by which SASP might promote malignancy, underlining the dual role of senescence in tumorigenesis. This mechanism, based on mutual cooperation among tumor cells, illustrates how cancer may relapse; its targeting could represent new therapeutic opportunities.

Friend or foe: emerging role of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells in cell senescence

Mowla, Sophia N; Perkins, Neil D; Jat, Parmjit S
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/09/2013 Português
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The nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) proteins are a family of ubiquitously expressed transcription factors that regulate the response to cellular stress. They mediate innate and adaptive immunity through the initiation of an inflammatory response to pro-inflammatory signals. The role of persistent inflammation in aiding tumor development has led to the NF-κB family of transcription factors being strongly implicated in promoting cancer. However, recent studies have now revealed that NF-κB can also function as a tumor suppressor through the induction of cellular senescence. Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest that normal cells undergo in response to a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli including: progressive telomere shortening, changes in telomeric structure, or other forms of genotoxic stress. Senescence can compromise tissue repair and regeneration, contributing to tissue and organismal aging via the accumulation of senescent cells, depletion of stem/progenitor cells and secretion of an array of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases. Senescence can also lead to the removal of potentially cancerous cells, thereby acting as a potent tumor suppressor mechanism. Herein...

Escherichia coli Producing Colibactin Triggers Premature and Transmissible Senescence in Mammalian Cells

Secher, Thomas; Samba-Louaka, Ascel; Oswald, Eric; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/10/2013 Português
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Cellular senescence is an irreversible state of proliferation arrest evoked by a myriad of stresses including oncogene activation, telomere shortening/dysfunction and genotoxic insults. It has been associated with tumor activation, immune suppression and aging, owing to the secretion of proinflammatory mediators. The bacterial genotoxin colibactin, encoded by the pks genomic island is frequently harboured by Escherichia coli strains of the B2 phylogenetic group. Mammalian cells exposed to live pks+ bacteria exhibit DNA-double strand breaks (DSB) and undergo cell-cycle arrest and death. Here we show that cells that survive the acute bacterial infection with pks+ E. coli display hallmarks of cellular senescence: chronic DSB, prolonged cell-cycle arrest, enhanced senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) activity, expansion of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear foci and senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. This was accompanied by reactive oxygen species production and pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and proteases secretion. These mediators were able to trigger DSB and enhanced SA-β-Gal activity in bystander recipient cells treated with conditioned medium from senescent cells. Furthermore, these senescent cells promoted the growth of human tumor cells. In conclusion...

Bacterial intoxication evokes cellular senescence with persistent DNA damage and cytokine signalling

Blazkova, Hana; Krejcikova, Katerina; Moudry, Pavel; Frisan, Teresa; Hodny, Zdenek; Bartek, Jiri
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are proteins produced and secreted by facultative pathogenic strains of Gram-negative bacteria with potentially genotoxic effects. Mammalian cells exposed to CDTs undergo cell type-dependent cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis; however, the cell fate responses to such intoxication are mechanistically incompletely understood. Here we show that both normal and cancer cells (BJ, IMR-90 and WI-38 fibroblasts, HeLa and U2-OS cell lines) that survive the acute phase of intoxication by Haemophilus ducreyi CDT possess the hallmarks of cellular senescence. This characteristic phenotype included persistently activated DNA damage signalling (detected as 53BP1/γH2AX+ foci), enhanced senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, expansion of promyelocytic leukaemia nuclear compartments and induced expression of several cytokines (especially interleukins IL-6, IL-8 and IL-24), overall features shared by cells undergoing replicative or premature cellular senescence. We conclude that analogous to oncogenic, oxidative and replicative stresses, bacterial intoxication represents another pathophysiological stimulus that induces premature senescence, an intrinsic cellular response that may mechanistically underlie the ‘distended’ morphology evoked by CDTs. Finally...

FOXM1 targets NBS1 to regulate DNA damage-induced senescence and epirubicin resistance

Khongkow, Pasarat; Karunarathna, Upekha; Khongkow, Mattaka; Gong, Chun; Gomes, Ana R.; Yagüe, Ernesto; Monteiro, Lara J.; Kongsema, Mesayamas; Zona, Stefania; Man, Ellen P. S.; Tsang, Janice W.-H.; Coombes, R. Charles; Wu, Kou-Juey; Khoo, Ui-Soon; Medema
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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FOXM1 is implicated in genotoxic drug resistance but its mechanism of action remains elusive. We show here that FOXM1-depletion can sensitize breast cancer cells and MEFs into entering epirubicin-induced senescence, with the loss of long-term cell proliferation ability, the accumulation of γH2AX foci, and the induction of senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and cell morphology. Conversely, reconstitution of FOXM1 in FOXM1-deficient MEFs alleviates the accumulation of senescence-associated γH2AX foci. We also demonstrate that FOXM1 regulates NBS1 at the transcriptional level through an FHRE on its promoter. Like FOXM1, NBS1 is overexpressed in the epirubicin-resistant MCF-7EpiR cells and its expression level is low but inducible by epirubicin in MCF-7 cells. Consistently, overexpression of FOXM1 augmented and FOXM1 depletion reduced NBS1 expression and epirubicin-induced ATM phosphorylation in breast cancer cells. Together these findings suggest that FOXM1 increases NBS1 expression and ATM phosphorylation, possibly through increasing the levels of the MRN(MRE11/RAD50/NBS1) complex. Consistent with this idea, the loss of P-ATM induction by epirubicin in the NBS1-deficient NBS1-LBI fibroblasts can be rescued by NBS1 reconstitution. Resembling FOXM1...

Three steps to the immortality of cancer cells: senescence, polyploidy and self-renewal

Erenpreisa, Jekaterina; Cragg, Mark S
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/09/2013 Português
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Metastatic cancer is rarely cured by current DNA damaging treatments, apparently due to the development of resistance. However, recent data indicates that tumour cells can elicit the opposing processes of senescence and stemness in response to these treatments, the biological significance and molecular regulation of which is currently poorly understood. Although cellular senescence is typically considered a terminal cell fate, it was recently shown to be reversible in a small population of polyploid cancer cells induced after DNA damage. Overcoming genotoxic insults is associated with reversible polyploidy, which itself is associated with the induction of a stemness phenotype, thereby providing a framework linking these separate phenomena. In keeping with this suggestion, senescence and autophagy are clearly intimately involved in the emergence of self-renewal potential in the surviving cells that result from de-polyploidisation. Moreover, subsequent analysis indicates that senescence may paradoxically be actually required to rejuvenate cancer cells after genotoxic treatments. We propose that genotoxic resistance is thereby afforded through a programmed life-cycle-like process which intimately unites senescence, polyploidy and stemness.

Sustained activation of DNA damage response in irradiated apoptosis-resistant cells induces reversible senescence associated with mTOR downregulation and expression of stem cell markers

Chitikova, Zhanna V; Gordeev, Serguei A; Bykova, Tatiana V; Zubova, Svetlana G; Pospelov, Valery A; Pospelova, Tatiana V
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cells respond to genotoxic stress by activating the DNA damage response (DDR). When injury is severe or irreparable, cells induce apoptosis or cellular senescence to prevent transmission of the lesions to the daughter cells upon cell division. Resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer that challenges the efficacy of cancer therapy. In this work, the effects of ionizing radiation on apoptosis-resistant E1A + E1B transformed cells were investigated to ascertain whether the activation of cellular senescence could provide an alternative tumor suppressor mechanism. We show that irradiated cells arrest cell cycle at G2/M phase and resume DNA replication in the absence of cell division followed by formation of giant polyploid cells. Permanent activation of DDR signaling due to impaired DNA repair results in the induction of cellular senescence in E1A + E1B cells. However, irradiated cells bypass senescence and restore the population by dividing cells, which have near normal size and ploidy and do not express senescence markers. Reversion of senescence and appearance of proliferating cells were associated with downregulation of mTOR, activation of autophagy, mitigation of DDR signaling, and expression of stem cell markers.

ACUTE DYSKERIN DEPLETION TRIGGERS CELLULAR SENESCENCE AND RENDERS OSTEOSARCOMA CELLS RESISTANT TO GENOTOXIC STRESS-INDUCED APOPTOSIS

Lin, Ping; Mobasher, Maral E.; Alawi, Faizan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Dyskerin is a conserved, nucleolar RNA-binding protein implicated in an increasing array of fundamental cellular processes. Germline mutation in the dyskerin gene (DKC1) is the cause of X-linked dyskeratosis congenita. Conversely, wild-type dyskerin is overexpressed in sporadic cancers, and high-levels may be associated with poor prognosis. It was previously reported that acute loss of dyskerin function via siRNA-mediated depletion slowed the proliferation of transformed cell lines. However, the mechanisms remained unclear. Using human U2OS osteosarcoma cells, we show that siRNA-mediated dyskerin depletion induced cellular senescence as evidenced by proliferative arrest, senescence-associated heterochromatinization and a senescence-associated molecular profile. Senescence can render cells resistant to apoptosis. Conversely, chromatin relaxation can reverse the repressive effects of senescence-associated heterochromatinization on apoptosis. To this end, genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis was suppressed in dyskerin-depleted cells. In contrast, agents that induce chromatin relaxation, including histone deacetylase inhibitors and the DNA intercalator chloroquine, sensitized dyskerin-depleted cells to apoptosis. Dyskerin is a core component of the telomerase complex and plays an important role in telomere homeostasis. Defective telomere maintenance resulting in premature senescence is thought to primarily underlie the pathogenesis of X-linked DC. Since U2OS cells are telomerase-negative...

The replicometer is broken: telomeres activate cellular senescence in response to genotoxic stresses

Suram, Anitha; Herbig, Utz
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Telomeres, the ends of our linear chromosomes, can function as ‘replicometers’, capable of counting cell division cycles as they progressively erode with every round of DNA replication. Once they are critically short, telomeres become dysfunctional and consequently activate a proliferative arrest called replicative senescence. For many years, telomeres were thought to be autonomous structures, largely isolated from cell intrinsic and extrinsic signals, whose function is to prevent limitless cellular proliferation, a characteristic of most cancer cells. It is becoming increasingly evident, however, that telomeres not only count cell divisions, but also function as sensors of genotoxic stresses to stop cell cycle progression prematurely and long before cells would have entered replicative senescence. This stable growth arrest, triggered by dysfunctional telomeres that are not necessarily critically short, likely evolved as a tumor-suppressing mechanism as it prevents proliferation of cells that are at risk for acquiring potentially hazardous and transforming mutations both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we review studies supporting the concept that telomeres are important cellular structures whose function not only is to count cell divisions...

Persistent DNA damage-induced premature senescence alters the functional features of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

Minieri, Valentina; Saviozzi, Silvia; Gambarotta, Giovanna; Lo Iacono, Marco; Accomasso, Lisa; Cibrario Rocchietti, Elisa; Gallina, Clara; Turinetto, Valentina; Giachino, Claudia
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells located in various tissues, including the bone marrow. In contrast to terminally differentiated somatic cells, adult stem cells must persist and function throughout life to ensure tissue homeostasis and repair. For this reason, they must be equipped with DNA damage responses able to maintain genomic integrity while ensuring their lifelong persistence. Evaluation of hMSC response to genotoxic insults is of great interest considering both their therapeutic potential and their physiological functions. This study aimed to investigate the response of human bone marrow MSCs to the genotoxic agent Actinomycin D (ActD), a well-known anti-tumour drug. We report that hMSCs react by undergoing premature senescence driven by a persistent DNA damage response activation, as hallmarked by inhibition of DNA synthesis, p21 and p16 protein expression, marked Senescent Associated β-galactosidase activity and enlarged γH2AX foci co-localizing with 53BP1 protein. Senescent hMSCs overexpress several senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) genes and promote motility of lung tumour and osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro. Our findings disclose a multifaceted consequence of ActD treatment on hMSCs that on the one hand helps to preserve this stem cell pool and prevents damaged cells from undergoing neoplastic transformation...

Ionizing radiation-induced foci persistence screen to discover enhancers of accelerated senescence

Labay, Edwardine; Efimova, Elena V; Quarshie, Benjamin K; Golden, Daniel W; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Kron, Stephen J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Much like replicative senescence, the irreversible cell-cycle arrest induced by eroded telomeres, accelerated senescence occurs when replicative cells suffer irreparable DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Along with apoptosis and necrosis, senescence is a desirable outcome in cancer treatment with ionizing radiation (IR) or chemotherapy. In both normal and cancer cells, DSBs promote the assembly of IR-induced foci (IRIF), domains of modified chromatin that serve a key role in DNA damage signaling. IRIF persistence is a critical determinant of accelerated senescence, making drugs that promote persistent IRIF an attractive strategy to sensitize cancer to genotoxic therapy. As an IRIF reporter, we have expressed an inducible green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion to the IRIF-binding domain (IBD) of 53BP1 (GFP-IBD) in the breast cancer cell line MCF7. Within minutes of exposure to IR, the GFP-IBD relocalizes to form fluorescent nuclear foci, which disperse within several hours. A pair of high-content screening assays for IRIF formation and persistence were established in multiwell plates based on imaging and quantifying GFP-IBD foci per Hoechst-stained MCF7 nucleus at 2 hours and 24 hours. Using the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated inhibitor CGK733 to block IRIF formation and the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide to prevent IRIF resolution...

Étude de Necdin par un modèle de carcinogénèse lié à l’antigène grand T du Virus du polyome

Lafontaine, Julie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Les virus sont utilisés depuis longtemps dans la recherche sur le cancer et ont grandement contribué à l’avancement des connaissances de même qu’à l’établissement de préceptes importants encore valables aujourd’hui dans le domaine. L’un des défis actuels est de mieux définir les étapes menant à la transition d’une cellule normale à une cellule transformée et c’est sur cette problématique que nous nous sommes penchés. Pour ce faire, nous avons tiré profit de l’utilisation de l’antigène grand-T du virus de polyome (PyLT), un virus capable d’induire des tumeurs chez les rongeurs. Cet oncogène viral à lui seul possède des propriétés intéressantes qui suggèrent que, en plus de l’immortalisation, il peut également contribuer aux événements précoces de la carcinogénèse. Ceci repose principalement sur la capacité de PyLT à induire des tumeurs en souris transgéniques et ce, avec une certaine latence ce qui suggère que des événements supplémentaires sont nécessaires. Ainsi, l’utilisation de PyLT dans un modèle de culture cellulaire permet de disséquer les changements qui lui sont attribuables. Dans un premier temps, l’établissement du profil d'expression génique associé à l'expression de PyLT dans un modèle murin nous a permis de sélectionner un bon nombre de gènes...

Identification of a Selective G1-Phase Benzimidazolone Inhibitor by a Senescence-Targeted Virtual Screen Using Artificial Neural Networks12

Bilsland, Alan E.; Pugliese, Angelo; Liu, Yu; Revie, John; Burns, Sharon; McCormick, Carol; Cairney, Claire J.; Bower, Justin; Drysdale, Martin; Narita, Masashi; Sadaie, Mahito; Keith, W. Nicol
Fonte: Neoplasia Press Publicador: Neoplasia Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/10/2015 Português
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Cellular senescence is a barrier to tumorigenesis in normal cells, and tumor cells undergo senescence responses to genotoxic stimuli, which is a potential target phenotype for cancer therapy. However, in this setting, mixed-mode responses are common with apoptosis the dominant effect. Hence, more selective senescence inducers are required. Here we report a machine learning–based in silico screen to identify potential senescence agonists. We built profiles of differentially affected biological process networks from expression data obtained under induced telomere dysfunction conditions in colorectal cancer cells and matched these to a panel of 17 protein targets with confirmatory screening data in PubChem. We trained a neural network using 3517 compounds identified as active or inactive against these targets. The resulting classification model was used to screen a virtual library of ~ 2M lead-like compounds. One hundred and forty-seven virtual hits were acquired for validation in growth inhibition and senescence-associated β-galactosidase assays. Among the found hits, a benzimidazolone compound, CB-20903630, had low micromolar IC50 for growth inhibition of HCT116 cells and selectively induced senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity in the entire treated cell population without cytotoxicity or apoptosis induction. Growth suppression was mediated by G1 blockade involving increased p21 expression and suppressed cyclin B1...

Participación de p19INK4d en la inducción de senescencia genotóxica y replicativa; Role of p19INK4d in the induction of genotoxic-induced and replicative senescence

Sonzogni, Silvina Verónica
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 Português
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A lo largo de la evolución, los organismos con tejidos renovables han desarrollado mecanismos para prevenir la tumorigénesis. Entre ellos, podemos mencionar a la senescencia celular y a la apoptosis. La senescencia se caracteriza por el arresto permanente del ciclo celular en respuesta a insultos tanto endógenos como exógenos. En los últimos años se han estudiando las moléculas involucradas en la activación de este mecanismo, destacándose la participación de los inhibidores de quinasas dependientes de ciclinas (CKIs) p21Cip1, p16INK4a y p15INK4b. En nuestro laboratorio se ha demostrado que la proteína p19INK4d (p19), un miembro de la familia INK4 de CKIs, se induce significativamente en respuesta a diversos genotóxicos aumentando la eficiencia de la reparación del ADN. El daño al ADN es un agente causal común de la respuesta senescente, independientemente del estímulo que le da origen. Los efectos provocados por diferentes inductores, tales como las especies reactivas de oxigeno (considerablemente aumentadas a lo largo del envejecimiento), los agentes genotóxicos (frecuentemente empleados en quimioterapia) o la activación de oncogenes, culminan dañando al ADN y activando en consecuencia mecanismos de arresto del ciclo celular. El arresto es dependiente de factores que controlan la progresión del ciclo tales como p53 y pRb-p16. Si bien estos son lo principales efectores moleculares involucrados en la iniciación y mantenimiento del estado de senescencia...