Página 1 dos resultados de 142 itens digitais encontrados em 0.004 segundos

Climate change: the necessary, the possible and the desirable Earth League climate statement on the implications for climate policy from the 5th IPCC Assessment

Rockström, Johan; Brasseur, Guy; Hoskins, Brian; Lucht, Wolfgang; Schellnhuber, John; Kabat, Pavel; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Gong, Peng; Schlosser, Peter; Máñez Costa, Maria; Humble, April; Eyre, Nick; Gleick, Peter; James, Rachel; Lucena, Andre; Masera,
Fonte: AGU Publications Publicador: AGU Publications
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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The development of human civilisations has occurred at a time of stable climate. This climate stability is now threatened by human activity. The rising global climate risk occurs at a decisive moment for world development. World nations are currently discussing a global development agenda consequent to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which ends in 2015. It is increasingly possible to envisage a world where absolute poverty is largely eradicated within one generation and where ambitious goals on universal access and equal opportunities for dignified lives are adopted. These grand aspirations for a world population approaching or even exceeding nine billion in 2050 is threatened by substantial global environmental risks and by rising inequality. Research shows that development gains, in both rich and poor nations, can be undermined by social, economic and ecological problems caused by human-induced global environmental change. Climate risks, and associated changes in marine and terrestrial ecosystems that regulate the resilience of the climate system, are at the forefront of these global risks. We, as citizens with a strong engagement in Earth system science and socio-ecological dynamics, share the vision of a more equitable and prosperous future for the world...

Boom-bust patterns in the Brazilian Amazon

Weinhold, Diana; Reiss, Julian; Molina Vale, Petterson
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2015 Português
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We revisit the long-standing hypothesis that the process of human development and land clearing in Amazonia follows a boom-and-bust (inverted U) pattern, where early clearing leads to a socioeconomic ‘boom’ which then turns to ‘bust’ after the deforestation process has matured. Although the hypothesis has found some empirical support in cross sectional data, a handful of longitudinal case studies have failed to identify incidences of ‘busts.’ We show that the cross sectional results are a spurious artifact of spatial correlation, driven primarily by the large, multifaceted (and unobserved) differences between municipalities in the states of Amazonas and Maranhão. Furthermore, using new panel data on the Human Development Index (HDI) and deforestation rates from 1991 to 2010 we find no evidence of such boom-bust patterns in the time series. Municipalities categorized as either ‘post-frontier’ or ‘pre-frontier’ in 2000 enjoyed equal increases in HDI over the subsequent decade as the rest of the Amazon. Panel data analysis with fixed effects (within estimation) robustly rejects the hypothesis that HDI and deforestation follow an inverted-U relationship.

Climate change and human security: the international governance architectures, policies and instruments

Mason, Michael
Fonte: Edward Elgar Publicador: Edward Elgar
Tipo: Book Section; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
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The Handbook on Climate Change and Human Security is a landmark publication which links the complexities of climate change to the wellbeing and resilience of human populations. It is written in an engaging and accessible way but also conveys the state of the art on both climate change research and work into human security, utilizing both disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches. Organized around thematic sections, each chapter is written by an acknowledged expert in the field, and discusses the key concepts and evidence base for our current policy choices, and the dilemmas of international policy in the field. The Handbook is unique in containing sophisticated ethical and moral questions as well as new information and data from different geographical regions. It is a timely volume that makes the case for acting wisely now to avert impending crises and global environmental problems.

Book review: The fanaticism of the apocalypse

Sharman, Amelia
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/06/2013 Português
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"The Fanaticism of the Apocalypse." Pascal Bruckner. Polity. April 2013. --- The planet is sick and human beings have to pay. Today, that is the orthodoxy throughout the Western world, and our ecological catastrophism is turning us into cowering children, writes Pascal Bruckner. Rather than preaching catastrophe and pessimism, Bruckner argues that we instead need to develop a democratic and generous ecology that addresses specific problems in a practical way. Amelia Sharman finds this philosophical work a frustrating read for the ways it ignores the large body of climate science on the significant detrimental impacts to many areas of the world.

Long term changes in African savanna wildlife and land cover : pastoralists or policies

Homewood, K.; Lambin, E. F.; Coast, Ernestina; Kariuki, A.; Kikula, I.; Kivelia, J.; Said, M.; Serneels, S.; Thompson, M.
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/10/2001 Português
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Declines in habitat and wildlife in semiarid African savannas are widely reported and commonly attributed to agropastoral population growth, livestock impacts, and subsistence cultivation. However, extreme annual and shorter-term variability of rainfall, primary production, vegetation, and populations of grazers make directional trends and causal chains hard to establish in these ecosystems. Here two decades of changes in land cover and wildebeest in the Serengeti-Mara region of East Africa are analyzed in terms of potential drivers (rainfall, human and livestock population growth, socio-economic trends, land tenure, agricultural policies, and markets). The natural experiment research design controls for confounding variables, and our conceptual model and statistical approach integrate natural and social sciences data. The Kenyan part of the ecosystem shows rapid land-cover change and drastic decline for a wide range of wildlife species, but these changes are absent on the Tanzanian side. Temporal climate trends, human population density and growth rates, uptake of small-holder agriculture, and livestock population trends do not differ between the Kenyan and Tanzanian parts of the ecosystem and cannot account for observed changes. Differences in private versus stateycommunal land tenure...

In-migrants and exclusion in east African rangelands: access, tenure and conflict

Homewood, K.; Coast, Ernestina; Thompson, D. M.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 Português
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East African rangelands have a long history of population mobility linked to competition over key resources, negotiated access, and outright conflict. Both in the literature and in local discourse, in-migration is presented as leading to increased competition, driving poverty and social exclusion on the one hand and conflict and violence on the other. Current analyses in developing countries identify economic differences, ethnic fault lines, ecological stresses and a breakdown in State provision of human and constitutional rights as factors in driving conflict. The present paper explores this interaction of in-migration and conflict with respect to Kenyan and Tanzanian pastoralist areas and populations. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, patterns of resource access and control in Kenya and Tanzania Maasailand are explored in terms of the ways land and livestock are associated with migration status, ethnicity and wealth or political class. Contrasts and similarities between the two national contexts are used to develop a better understanding of the ways these factors operate under different systems of tenure and access. The conclusion briefly considers implications of these patterns, their potential for exacerbating poverty...

'Human rights' or 'property'? State, society, and the landless in South Africa

James, Deborah
Fonte: Human Rights Institute Publicador: Human Rights Institute
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2002 Português
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This paper explores the interlocking – but sometimes contradictory - efforts of NGOs and the state to safeguard the rights of those who have no land. "The landless" in South Africa, categorised along with "the poor and the dispossessed" by those who advocate their cause in the NGO sector, have come to occupy a contested position. As government policy has come increasingly to favour those who are structurally counterposed to “the landless” - the better-off who are potential commercial farmers - so NGO efforts have been directed, correspondingly, to safeguard the interests of this apparently large, but bewilderingly heterogenous, category. While those in this sector are agreed on the importance of helping "the landless, the poor and the dispossessed" by providing them with access to protected land rights, there has been disagreement over where the members of this category are to be found, and how their security can be best safeguarded. Countering the position that this is best achieved through "tenure reform" in the former homelands, some argue, for example, that those most in need of security are the labourers on white farms, whose residence rights are tied to their employment and for whom dismissal would mean instant homelessness. Recent "land invasions"...

Ambition, human capital acquisition and the metropolitan escalator

Gordon, Ian
Fonte: Spatial Economics Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Spatial Economics Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
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This paper examines the relation between ambition, as a form of dynamic human capital, and the escalator role of high order metropolitan regions, as originally identified by Fielding (1989). It argues that occupational progression in such places particularly depends on concentrations both of people with more of this asset and of jobs offering preferential access to valued elements of tacit knowledge, interacting in thick, competitive labour markets. This is partially confirmed with analyses of BHPS data on long term progression showing that only the more ambitious gain from residence in the extended London region, and that they only progress faster there.

Book review: Land by Derek Hall

Wilcox, Susannah
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/02/2013 Português
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Land is one of the world’s most emotionally resonant resources, and control over it is fundamental to almost all human activity. In Land, Derek Hall develops a framework for understanding the geopolitics of land today. Drawing on a wide range of cases and examples – from the Afghanistan–Pakistan border to the Canadian Arctic, China’s urban fringe to rural Honduras – Hall provides an enlightening glimpse into the many conceptual, empirical, financial, political and emotional struggles around land and geopolitics, finds Susannah Wilcox.

Book review: Cities, nature and development: the politics and production of urban vulnerabilities

Cowan, Oliver
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/03/2013 Português
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Bringing together an interdisciplinary team of scholars, this book seeks to illustrate how and why cities contain a mosaic of vulnerable human and ecological communities. Case studies ranging across various international settings reveal how “urban vulnerabilities” is an effective metaphor and analytic lens for advancing political ecological theories on the relationships between cities, nature and development. Oliver Cowan finds provocative perspectives on a wide range of urban issues.

Book review: The world until yesterday: what can we learn from traditional societies?

Yorke, Michael
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/03/2013 Português
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In this book, Jared Diamond reveals how tribal societies offer an extraordinary window into how our ancestors lived for millions of years and how they provide unique, often overlooked insights into human nature. Diamond argues the West achieved global dominance due to specific environmental and technological advantages, but Westerners do not necessarily have superior ideas about how to live well. Michael Yorke is impressed by the book’s beautifully crafted prose style but has doubts about its methodological validity.

Calcutta botanic garden and the colonial re-ordering of the Indian environment

Axelby, Richard
Fonte: Edinburgh University Press on behalf of the Society for the History of Natural History Publicador: Edinburgh University Press on behalf of the Society for the History of Natural History
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
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This article examines three hand-painted colour maps that accompanied the annual report of the Calcutta Botanic Garden for 1846 to illustrate how the Garden’s layout, uses and functions had changed over the previous 30 years. The evolution of the Calcutta Botanic Garden in the first half of the nineteenth-century reflects a wider shift in attitudes regarding the relationship between science, empire and the natural world. On a more human level the maps result from, and illustrate, the development of a vicious personal feud between the two eminent colonial botanists charged with superintending the garden in the 1840s.

Book Review: the accidental species: misunderstandings of human evolution by Henry Gee

Gray-Sharp, Katarina
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/02/2014 Português
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As a senior editor at Nature, Henry Gee has published a number of articles which question the place of Homo sapiens as rightful inheritors of the Earth. In The Accidental Species, he develops this question more fully. Detailed and thought-provoking examples from palaeontology are well-supported by others from diverse fields like cell biology and linguistics. Katarina Gray-Sharp recommends the book to any social scientist (and children of) with even a passing interest in evolution.

When rabbits became humans (and humans, rabbits): stability, order, and history in the study of populations

Erickson, Paul; Mitman, Gregg
Fonte: Department of Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2007 Português
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“Population” is often a significant unit of analysis, and a point of passage for facts and models moving between the natural and social sciences, and between animals and humans. But the very existence of a population is a “fact” fraught with challenges: What distinguishes a population from an economy, an ecosystem, a society? Are populations simply memory-less aggregates of solitary individuals, or do they constitute groups with unique histories and agency? Looking at how populations of humans and populations of rabbits were thought of in terms of one another, this paper examines several interlinked episodes in the history of “population” as an organizing concept in 20th century science, tracking the transfer of facts from rabbit populations to human populations (and vice versa) through economics, infectious disease modelling, and macro-histories. What happens when rabbits become human, and when humans become rabbits?

Accessibility in cities: transport and urban form

Rode, Philipp; Floater, Graham; Thomopoulos, Nikolas; Docherty, James; Schwinger, Peter; Mahendra, Anjali; Fang, Wanli
Fonte: LSE Cities, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE Cities, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/11/2014 Português
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This paper focusses on one central aspect of urban development: transport and urban form and how the two shape the provision of access to people, goods and services, and information in cities. The more efficient this access, the greater the economic benefits through economies of scale, agglomeration effects and networking advantages. This paper discusses how different urban accessibility pathways impact directly on other measures of human development and environmental sustainability. It also presents the enabling conditions for increasing accessibility and low-carbon mobility in cities. This paper is one of three papers by LSE Cities that form part of the cities research programme of the New Climate Economy (NCE) project for the Global Commission on the Economy and Climate. The two other contributing papers cover ‘Cities and the New Climate Economy: the Transformative Role of Global Urban Growth’ (NCE Paper 01) and ‘Steering Urban Growth: Governance, Policy and Finance’ (NCE Paper 02).

Ambition, human capital acquisition and the metropolitan escalator

Gordon, Ian R.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
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This paper examines the relation between ambition, as a form of dynamic human capital, and the escalator role of high-order metropolitan regions, as originally identified by A. J. Fielding. It argues that occupational progression in such places particularly depends on concentrations both of people with more of this asset and of jobs offering preferential access to valued elements of tacit knowledge, interacting in thick, competitive labour markets. This is partially confirmed with analyses of British Household Panel Study (BHPS) data on long-term progression showing that only the more ambitious gain from residence in the extended London region, and that they only progress faster there.

How far do England's second-order cities emulate London as human-capital ‘escalators’?

Champion, Tony; Coombes, Mike; Gordon, Ian
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2014 Português
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In the urban resurgence accompanying the growth of the knowledge economy, second-order cities appear to be losing out to the principal city, especially where the latter is much larger and benefits from substantially greater agglomeration economies. The view that any city can make itself attractive to creative talent seems at odds with the idea of a country having just one 'escalator region' where the rate of career progression is much faster, especially for in-migrants. This paper takes the case of England, with its highly primate city-size distribution, and tests how its second-order cities (in size order, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Newcastle, Bristol, Sheffield, Liverpool, Nottingham, and Leicester) compare with London as human-capital escalators. The analysis is based on the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Survey of linked census records for 1991-2001 and uses one key indicator of upward social mobility - the transition from White Collar Non-core to White Collar Core. For non-migrants, the transition rate for the second-order cities combined is found to fall well short of London's, but in one case - Manchester - the rate is significantly higher than the rest of the country outside the Greater South East. Those moving to the second-order cities during the decade experienced much stronger upward social mobility than their non-migrants...

Understanding the origins and pace of Africa’s urban transition

Fox, Sean
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
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In this paper the author argues that urbanisation should be understood as a global historical process driven primarily by population dynamics stimulated by technological and institutional change. In particular, disease control and expanded access to surplus energy supplies are necessary and sufficient conditions for urbanisation to occur given historical evidence of an inherent human propensity to agglomerate. Economic development, which has traditionally been viewed as the primary driving force behind urbanisation, can accelerate the process but is not a necessary condition for it to occur. Informed by this historically-grounded theory of urbanisation, a range of qualitative and quantitative evidence is used to explain the stylised facts of sub-Saharan Africa's urban transition, namely the late onset of urbanisation in Africa vis-a-vis other major world regions, the widely noted but inadequately explained phenomenon of 'urbanisation without growth' observed in Africa in the 1980s and 1990s, and the historically unprecedented rates of urban population growth seen in the region throughout the late twentieth century.

Social rights and natural resources

Dean, Hartley
Fonte: Edward Elgar Publicador: Edward Elgar
Tipo: Book Section; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2014 Português
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This chapter considers the competing ways in which human beings socially construct their claims upon natural resources. The axis around which conventional thinking tends to revolve is a distinction between anthropocentrism on the one hand and eco-centrism on the other. The former entails a set of assumptions about the primacy of humanity over Nature: assumptions that are challenged by the latter. The foundations of anthropocentrism run deep. The Biblical account of the Earth's creation conceptualises the Earth as an environment created for humanity: a world created for a free-willed species supposedly made in the creator's image. The Genesis narrative has not only informed the major religions of the world, but its allegorical potential has resonated with Western Enlightenment thinking, insinuating itself into the conceptual ethos and cultural norms of believers and non-believers alike. The challenge to this orthodoxy has equally ancient roots in Greek mythology, which on the one hand warns humanity against the hubris of Prometheus, who stole fire from the Gods to give to mere mortals, while on the other celebrating Gaia, the primordial Earth Mother, whose name has been appropriated by a contemporary hypothesis that the Earth as a self-sustaining organism will defend itself against the reckless encroachments of mortal humanity.

Patterns of contentious politics concentration as a 'spatial contract'; a spatio-temporal study of urban riots and violent protest in the neighbourhood of Exarcheia, Athens, Greece (1974-2011)

Vradis, Antonios
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: text
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Existing studies of urban riots, violent protest and other instances of contentious politics in urban settings have largely tended to be either event- or time-specific in their scope. The present thesis offers a spatial reading of such politics of contention in the city of Athens, Greece. Tracing the pattern of the occurrence of these instances through time, the research scope of the thesis spans across Greece’s post-dictatorial era (i.e. post-1974, the Greek Metapolitefsi), concluding shortly after the first loan agreement between the country’s national government and the so-called ‘troika’ of lenders (IMF/ECB/EU). The thesis includes a critical overview of literature on riots in a historical and geographical context; questions on methodology and ethics in researching urban riots; a discourse analysis of violence concentration in Exarcheia; ethnographic accounts on everyday life in the neighbourhood and a ‘rhythmanalysis’ of the Exarcheia contention concentration during the period of research. Seeking to explain this concentration the thesis introduces the notion of the 'spatial contract': rather than signalling a type of discord, the concentration of mass violence in Exarcheia through time is hereby conceived as the spatial articulation of a certain form of consensus between Greek authorities and their subjects. In this way...