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Genetic analysis of the bone morphogenetic protein-related gene, gbb, identifies multiple requirements during Drosophila development.

Wharton, K A; Cook, J M; Torres-Schumann, S; de Castro, K; Borod, E; Phillips, D A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1999 Português
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We have isolated mutations in the Drosophila melanogaster gene glass bottom boat (gbb), which encodes a TGF-beta signaling molecule (formerly referred to as 60A) with highest sequence similarity to members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subgroup including vertebrate BMPs 5-8. Genetic analysis of both null and hypomorphic gbb alleles indicates that the gene is required in many developmental processes, including embryonic midgut morphogenesis, patterning of the larval cuticle, fat body morphology, and development and patterning of the imaginal discs. In the embryonic midgut, we show that gbb is required for the formation of the anterior constriction and for maintenance of the homeotic gene Antennapedia in the visceral mesoderm. In addition, we show a requirement for gbb in the anterior and posterior cells of the underlying endoderm and in the formation and extension of the gastric caecae. gbb is required in all the imaginal discs for proper disc growth and for specification of veins in the wing and of macrochaete in the notum. Significantly, some of these tissues have been shown to also require the Drosophila BMP2/4 homolog decapentaplegic (dpp), while others do not. These results indicate that signaling by both gbb and dpp may contribute to the development of some tissues...

Cysteine repeat domains and adjacent sequences determine distinct bone morphogenetic protein modulatory activities of the Drosophila Sog protein.

Yu, Kweon; Kang, Kyung-Hwa; Heine, Petra; Pyati, Ujwal; Srinivasan, Shaila; Biehs, Brian; Kimelman, David; Bier, Ethan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2004 Português
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The Drosophila short gastrulation gene (sog) encodes a large extracellular protein (Sog) that inhibits signaling by BMP-related ligands. Sog and its vertebrate counterpart Chordin contain four copies of a cysteine repeat (CR) motif defined by 10 cysteine residues spaced in a fixed pattern and a tryptophan residue situated between the first two cysteines. Here we present a structure-function analysis of the CR repeats in Sog, using a series of deletion and point mutation constructs, as well as constructs in which CR domains have been swapped. This analysis indicates that the CR domains are individually dispensable for Sog function but that they are not interchangeable. These studies reveal three different types of Sog activity: intact Sog, which inhibits signaling mediated by the ligand Glass bottom boat (Gbb), a more broadly active class of BMP antagonist referred to as Supersog, and a newly identified activity, which may promote rather than inhibit BMP signaling. Analysis of the activities of CR swap constructs indicates that the CR domains are required for full activity of the various forms of Sog but that the type of Sog activity is determined primarily by surrounding protein sequences. Cumulatively, our analysis suggests that CR domains interact physically with adjacent protein sequences to create forms of Sog with distinct BMP modulatory activities.

The Dystrophin Dp186 Isoform Regulates Neurotransmitter Release at a Central Synapse in Drosophila

Fradkin, Lee G.; Baines, Richard A.; van der Plas, Mariska C.; Noordermeer, Jasprina N.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/05/2008 Português
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The Dystrophin protein is encoded by the gene whose mutation in humans underlies Duchennes muscular dystrophy, a disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting. A number of Duchenne patients also exhibit poorly understood mental retardation, likely associated with loss of a brain-specific isoform. Furthermore, although Dystrophin isoforms and the related Utrophin protein have long been known to localize at synapses, their functions remain largely unknown. In Drosophila, we find that the CNS-specific Dp186 isoform localizes to the embryonic and larval neuropiles, regions rich in synaptic contacts. In the absence of Dp186, evoked, but not spontaneous, presynaptic release is significantly enhanced. Increased presynaptic release can be fully rescued to wildtype levels by expression of a Dp186 transgene in the postsynaptic motoneuron, indicating that Dp186 likely regulates a retrograde signaling pathway. Potentiation of synaptic currents in the mutant also occurs when cholinergic transmission is inhibited or in the absence of Glass Bottom Boat (Gbb) or Wishful Thinking (Wit), a TGF-β ligand and receptor respectively, both previously implicated in synaptic retrograde signaling. These results are consistent with the possibility that Dp186 modulates other...

Gbb/BMP signaling is required to maintain energy homeostasis in Drosophila

Ballard, Shannon L.; Jarolimova, Jana; Wharton, Kristi A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The coordination of animal growth and development requires adequate nutrients. During times of insufficient food, developmental progression is slowed and stored energy is utilized to ensure that cell and tissue survival are maintained. Here, we report our finding that the Gbb/BMP signaling pathway known to play an important role in many developmental processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates, is critical in the Drosophila larval fat body for regulating energy homeostasis. Animals with mutations in the Drosophila BMP-5,7 orthologue, glass bottom boat (gbb), or in its signaling components, display phenotypes similar to nutrient-deprived and Tor mutant larvae. These phenotypes include a developmental delay with reduced overall growth, a transparent appearance, and altered total lipid, glucose and trehalose levels. We find that Gbb/BMP signaling is required in the larval fat body for maintaining proper metabolism, yet interestingly, following nutrient deprivation larvae in turn show a loss of BMP signaling in fat body cells indicating that Gbb/BMP signaling is a central player in homeostasis. Finally, despite strong phenotypic similarities between nutrient-compromised animals and gbb mutants, distinct differences are observed in the expression of a group of starvation responsive genes. Overall...

Crimpy inhibits the BMP homolog Gbb in motoneurons to enable proper growth control at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction

James, Rebecca E.; Broihier, Heather T.
Fonte: Company of Biologists Publicador: Company of Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/2011 Português
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The BMP pathway is essential for scaling of the presynaptic motoneuron arbor to the postsynaptic muscle cell at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Genetic analyses indicate that the muscle is the BMP-sending cell and the motoneuron is the BMP-receiving cell. Nevertheless, it is unclear how this directionality is established as Glass bottom boat (Gbb), the known BMP ligand, is active in motoneurons. We demonstrate that crimpy (cmpy) limits neuronal Gbb activity to permit appropriate regulation of NMJ growth. cmpy was identified in a screen for motoneuron-expressed genes and encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein with sequence homology to vertebrate Cysteine-rich transmembrane BMP regulator 1 (Crim1). We generated a targeted deletion of the cmpy locus and find that loss-of-function mutants exhibit excessive NMJ growth. In accordance with its expression profile, tissue-specific rescue experiments indicate that cmpy functions neuronally. The overgrowth in cmpy mutants depends on the activity of the BMP type II receptor Wishful thinking, arguing that Cmpy acts in the BMP pathway upstream of receptor activation and raising the possibility that it inhibits Gbb activity in motoneurons. Indeed, the cmpy mutant phenotype is strongly suppressed by RNAi-mediated knockdown of Gbb in motoneurons. Furthermore...

A Targeted Glycan-Related Gene Screen Reveals Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Sulfation Regulates WNT and BMP Trans-Synaptic Signaling

Dani, Neil; Nahm, Minyeop; Lee, Seungbok; Broadie, Kendal
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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A Drosophila transgenic RNAi screen targeting the glycan genome, including all N/O/GAG-glycan biosynthesis/modification enzymes and glycan-binding lectins, was conducted to discover novel glycan functions in synaptogenesis. As proof-of-product, we characterized functionally paired heparan sulfate (HS) 6-O-sulfotransferase (hs6st) and sulfatase (sulf1), which bidirectionally control HS proteoglycan (HSPG) sulfation. RNAi knockdown of hs6st and sulf1 causes opposite effects on functional synapse development, with decreased (hs6st) and increased (sulf1) neurotransmission strength confirmed in null mutants. HSPG co-receptors for WNT and BMP intercellular signaling, Dally-like Protein and Syndecan, are differentially misregulated in the synaptomatrix of these mutants. Consistently, hs6st and sulf1 nulls differentially elevate both WNT (Wingless; Wg) and BMP (Glass Bottom Boat; Gbb) ligand abundance in the synaptomatrix. Anterograde Wg signaling via Wg receptor dFrizzled2 C-terminus nuclear import and retrograde Gbb signaling via synaptic MAD phosphorylation and nuclear import are differentially activated in hs6st and sulf1 mutants. Consequently, transcriptional control of presynaptic glutamate release machinery and postsynaptic glutamate receptors is bidirectionally altered in hs6st and sulf1 mutants...

Integration of a Retrograde Signal during Synapse Formation by Glia-Secreted TGF-β Ligand

Fuentes-Medel, Yuly; Ashley, James; Barria, Romina; Maloney, Rachel; Freeman, Marc; Budnik, Vivian
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Glial cells are crucial regulators of synapse formation, elimination, and plasticity [1, 2]. In vitro studies have begun to identify glial-derived synaptogenic factors [1], but neuronglia signaling events during synapse formation in vivo remain poorly defined. The coordinated development of pre- and postsynaptic compartments at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) depends on a muscle-secreted retrograde signal, the TGF-β/BMP Glass bottom boat (Gbb) [3, 4]. Muscle-derived Gbb activates the TGF-β receptors Wishful thinking (Wit) and either Saxophone (Sax) or Thick veins (Tkv) in motor neurons [3, 4]. This induces phosphorylation of Mad (P-Mad) in motor neurons, its translocation into the nucleus with a co-Smad, and activation of transcriptional programs controlling presynaptic bouton growth [5]. Here we show that NMJ glia release the TGF-β ligand Maverick (Mav), which likely activates the muscle activin-type receptor Punt to potently modulate Gbb-dependent retrograde signaling and synaptic growth. Loss of glial Mav results in strikingly reduced P-Mad at NMJs, decreased Gbb transcription in muscle, and in turn reduced muscle-to-motor neuron retrograde TGF-β/BMP signaling. We propose that by controlling Gbb release from muscle...

A Large Bioactive BMP Ligand with Distinct Signaling Properties Is Produced by Alternative Proconvertase Processing

Akiyama, Takuya; Marqués, Guillermo; Wharton, Kristi A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/04/2012 Português
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Dimers of conventional transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) ligands are composed of two 100– to 140–amino acid peptides that are produced through the proteolytic processing of a proprotein precursor by proconvertases, such as furin. We report the identification of an evolutionarily conserved furin processing site in the amino terminus (NS) of the Glass bottom boat (Gbb; the Drosophila ortholog of vertebrate BMP5, 6, and 7) proprotein that generates a 328–amino acid, active BMP ligand distinct from the conventional 130–amino acid ligand. Gbb38, the large ligand form of Gbb, exhibited greater signaling activity and a longer range than the shorter form Gbb15. The abundance of Gbb15 and Gbb38 varied among different tissues, raising the possibility that differential processing could account for tissue-specific behaviors of BMPs. In human populations, mutations that abolished the NS cleavage site in BMP4, BMP15, or anti-Müllerian hormone were associated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (BMP4), premature ovarian failure (BMP15), and persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (anti-Müllerian hormone), suggesting the importance of NS processing during development. The identification of this large BMP ligand form and the functional differences between large and small ligands exemplifies the potential for differential proprotein processing to substantially affect BMP and TGF-β signaling output in different tissue and cellular contexts.

Evolution and expression of BMP genes in flies

Wotton, Karl R.; Alcaine Colet, Anna; Jaeger, Johannes; Jimenez-Guri, Eva
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play key roles in development. In Drosophila melanogaster, there are three BMP-encoding genes: decapentaplegic (dpp), glass bottom boat (gbb) and screw (scw). dpp and gbb are found in all groups of insects. In contrast, the origin of scw via duplication of an ancestral gbb homologue is more recent, with new evidence placing it within the Diptera. Recent studies show that scw appeared basal to the Schizophora, since scw orthologues exist in aschizan cyclorrhaphan flies. In order to further localise the origin of scw, we have utilised new genomic resources for the nematoceran moth midge Clogmia albipunctata (Psychodidae). We identified the BMP subclass members dpp and gbb from an early embryonic transcriptome and show that their expression patterns in the blastoderm differ considerably from those seen in cyclorrhaphan flies. Further searches of the genome of C. albipunctata were unable to identify a scw-like gbb duplicate, but confirm the presence of dpp and gbb. Our phylogenetic analysis shows these to be clear orthologues of dpp and gbb from other non-cyclorrhaphan insects, with C. albipunctata gbb branching ancestrally to the cyclorrhaphan gbb/scw split. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that scw is absent from all Nematocera...

Fragile X mental retardation protein regulates trans-synaptic signaling in Drosophila

Friedman, Samuel H.; Dani, Neil; Rushton, Emma; Broadie, Kendal
Fonte: The Company of Biologists Limited Publicador: The Company of Biologists Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.65552%
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited determinant of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders, is caused by loss of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene product (FMRP), an mRNA-binding translational repressor. A number of conserved FMRP targets have been identified in the well-characterized Drosophila FXS disease model, but FMRP is highly pleiotropic in function and the full spectrum of FMRP targets has yet to be revealed. In this study, screens for upregulated neural proteins in Drosophila fmr1 (dfmr1) null mutants reveal strong elevation of two synaptic heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs): GPI-anchored glypican Dally-like protein (Dlp) and transmembrane Syndecan (Sdc). Our recent work has shown that Dlp and Sdc act as co-receptors regulating extracellular ligands upstream of intracellular signal transduction in multiple trans-synaptic pathways that drive synaptogenesis. Consistently, dfmr1 null synapses exhibit altered WNT signaling, with changes in both Wingless (Wg) ligand abundance and downstream Frizzled-2 (Fz2) receptor C-terminal nuclear import. Similarly, a parallel anterograde signaling ligand, Jelly belly (Jeb), and downstream ERK phosphorylation (dpERK) are depressed at dfmr1 null synapses. In contrast...

Retrograde BMP Signaling at the Synapse: A Permissive Signal for Synapse Maturation and Activity-Dependent Plasticity

Berke, Brett; Wittnam, Jessica; McNeill, Elizabeth; Van Vactor, David L.; Keshishian, Haig
Fonte: Society for Neuroscience Publicador: Society for Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/11/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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At the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the loss of retrograde, trans-synaptic BMP signaling causes motoneuron terminals to have fewer synaptic boutons, whereas increased neuronal activity results in a larger synapse with more boutons. Here, we show that an early and transient BMP signal is necessary and sufficient for NMJ growth as well as for activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. This early critical period was revealed by the temporally controlled suppression of Mad, the SMAD1 transcriptional regulator. Similar results were found by genetic rescue tests involving the BMP4/5/6 ligand Glass bottom boat (Gbb) in muscle, and alternatively the type II BMP receptor Wishful Thinking (Wit) in the motoneuron. These observations support a model where the muscle signals back to the innervating motoneuron's nucleus to activate presynaptic programs necessary for synaptic growth and activity-dependent plasticity. Molecular genetic gain- and loss-of-function studies show that genes involved in NMJ growth and plasticity, including the adenylyl cyclase Rutabaga, the Ig-CAM Fasciclin II, the transcription factor AP-1 (Fos/Jun), and the adhesion protein Neurexin, all depend critically on the canonical BMP pathway for their effects. By contrast...

Rol del neuropéptido PDF en la adquisición y el mantenimiento de la estructura del circuito PDF; Role of the PDF neuropeptide in the acquisition and maintenance of the PDF circuit structure

Gorostiza, Ezequiel Axel
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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La ritmicidad comportamental en Drosophila es sostenida por una red neuronal que en el cerebro adulto comprende alrededor de 150 neuronas. Entre éstas, las sLNv han demostrado ser esenciales para el control de la actividad rítmica. Desde el punto de vista circadiano, las sLNv tienen dos características sobresalientes: expresan el neuropéptido PDF, y atraviesan cambios estructurales circadianos en sus terminales axonales, proceso denominado plasticidad estructural. En esta tesis estudiamos qué otros cambios ocurrían concomitantes con la plasticidad estructural. Encontramos que ésta es acompañada por aumentos en el número de sinapsis y disponibilidad de vesículas en momentos de mayor complejidad del árbol axonal, que luego caen durante la fase de menor complejidad. Además demostramos que la plasticidad estructural depende de los niveles de PDF y a raíz de este análisis descubrimos un nuevo rol para PDF durante el desarrollo de las sLNv. La arquitectura adulta de las sLNv necesita que PDF actúe sobre su postsinapsis temprano en el desarrollo larval, proceso que requiere su receptor canónico. Sin embargo, la ausencia de PDF produce defectos presinápticos evidentes luego de la metamorfosis. Comprobamos que previo a la metamorfosis la postsinapsis libera GBB...

Rol del neuropéptido PDF en la adquisición y el mantenimiento de la estructura del circuito PDF; Role of the PDF neuropeptide in the acquisition and maintenance of the PDF circuit structure

Gorostiza, Ezequiel Axel
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: Tesis Doctoral Formato: text; pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
60.65526%
La ritmicidad comportamental en Drosophila es sostenida por una red neuronal que en el cerebro adulto comprende alrededor de 150 neuronas. Entre éstas, las sLNv han demostrado ser esenciales para el control de la actividad rítmica. Desde el punto de vista circadiano, las sLNv tienen dos características sobresalientes: expresan el neuropéptido PDF, y atraviesan cambios estructurales circadianos en sus terminales axonales, proceso denominado plasticidad estructural. En esta tesis estudiamos qué otros cambios ocurrían concomitantes con la plasticidad estructural. Encontramos que ésta es acompañada por aumentos en el número de sinapsis y disponibilidad de vesículas en momentos de mayor complejidad del árbol axonal, que luego caen durante la fase de menor complejidad. Además demostramos que la plasticidad estructural depende de los niveles de PDF y a raíz de este análisis descubrimos un nuevo rol para PDF durante el desarrollo de las sLNv. La arquitectura adulta de las sLNv necesita que PDF actúe sobre su postsinapsis temprano en el desarrollo larval, proceso que requiere su receptor canónico. Sin embargo, la ausencia de PDF produce defectos presinápticos evidentes luego de la metamorfosis. Comprobamos que previo a la metamorfosis la postsinapsis libera GBB...