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Accessibility and Affordability of Tertiary Education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru within a Global Context

Murakami, Yuki; Blom, Andreas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper examines the financing of tertiary education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, comparing the affordability and accessibility of tertiary education with that in high-income countries. To measure affordability, the authors estimate education costs, living costs, grants, and loans. Further, they compute the participation rate, attainment rate, and socio-economic equity index in education and the gender equity index as indicators of accessibility. This is the first study attempting to estimate affordability of tertiary education in Latin America within a global context. The analysis combines information from household surveys, expenditure surveys, and administrative and institutional databases. The findings show that families in Latin America have to pay 60 percent of per-capita income for tertiary education per student per year compared with 19 percent in high-income countries. Living costs are significant, at 29 percent of gross domestic product per capita in Latin America (19 percent in high-income countries). Student assistance through grants and loans plays a marginal role in improving affordability. Moreover...

Strategic Gender Assessment of Mali

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Bamako Publicador: World Bank, Bamako
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This issues paper discusses a gender assessment exercise carried out in April-June 2005. It provides the government of Mali and its partners with proposals aimed at improving policies and activities that promote gender equity and equality (GEE). The study is divided into four sections: Section 1 presents the national context within which the study falls; Section 2 deals with the gender profile in Mali; Section 3 addresses the institutional framework for gender implementation in Mali; and Section 4 gives the conclusions and recommendations of the study. Based on the findings of the study, advocacy will be carried out among decision-makers to inform them about gender-specific developmental challenges, and encourage them to give concrete support to gender mainstreaming.

Enhancing the Role of Women in Water User Associations in Azerbaijan

Merkle, R.; Meerbach, D.; Akhmedova, A.; Bagirzadeh, M.; Dideron, S.; Javazadeh, L.; Rustamova, S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The purpose of this report on enhancing the role of women in water user associations in Azerbaijan is to provide guidance for mainstreaming gender in irrigation management projects in Azerbaijan and in the wider Caucasus and Central Asian regions in order to foster efficient and equitable development in irrigation management. The paper is divided in three chapters. Chapter one sets the background relating the themes of gender to water users associations (WUAs) and irrigation agriculture. It provides both the general sector background as well as an introduction of the overall study and research that was undertaken at the end of Irrigation Distribution System and Management Improvement Project (IDSMIP). Chapter two provides the informative basis for enhancing the role of women in irrigation management. It analyses and discusses the role of men and women in irrigation agriculture in Azerbaijan by synthesizing the findings of the gender survey. Chapter three provides lessons for WUAs in Azerbaijan on how to promote gender equity and for World Bank projects on how to operationalize gender mainstreaming in irrigation agriculture in the country. It also provides guidance in establishing an enabling environment that will foster gender equity in similar irrigation sector programs in the wider Caucasus and Central Asian region.

Transformative Resilience Guide : Gender, Violence, and Education

Reyes, Joel E.; Kelcey, Jo; Diaz Varela, Andrea
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The Education Resilience Approaches (ERA) program is developing frameworks and tools to understand the role and impact of education in conflict- and violence-affected contexts. This guide is for researchers, evaluators, and planners supporting education policy and program development in contexts of gender-related violence. It outlines a conceptual framework to support the collection, interpretation, and use of gender- and resilience-related information. In addition, it also includes how-to advice to think through crucial issues, which may arise when assessing areas of protection for people in all levels of an education system who experience gender-related violence, as well as to promote improved educational outcome. This guide is divided into two parts, plus an initial chapter on general aspects of gender and resilience in situations of conflict and violence. Together, the parts present, respectively, core guidance on gender-related risks and assets, and the ways that schools, communities, and education systems can respond to protect education actors from gender-related violence...

Addressing Gender Inequalities in Curriculum and Education : Review of Literature and Promising Practices to Inform Education Reform Initiatives in Thailand

Levtov, Ruti
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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In Thailand and worldwide, despite increases in educational enrollment, rigid gender norms dictating appropriate roles and behaviors contribute to the persistence of the gender inequalities. Since education systems are embedded in the broader social context, they reflect the inequalities that exist in society. The structure and content of schooling, textbooks, curricular choices, sex distribution of teachers and administrators, teacher attitudes and behaviors, classroom and discipline practices, and the presence of violence, reflect discriminatory and harmful social norms about the appropriate roles and opportunities for boys and girls (Connell, 1996, 2000, 2010). At the same time, schools have enormous potential to effect social change, transform gender relations, expanding the range of possibilities for both boys and girls (UNGEI, 2012a). This report provides a brief review of the literature and of interventions to promote gender equity through education in several specific areas: textbooks and curriculum; teacher distribution...

Gender Inclusion Strategies in PNPM

Azarbaijani-Moghaddam, Sippi
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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The Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM) or National Community Empowerment Program is the world’s largest program of its kind with long term goals to reduce poverty by making development planning more inclusive, accountable, and reflective of local needs. PNPM currently covers about 70,000 rural and urban communities across Indonesia. PNPM works by giving communities block grants to spend on projects developed through a participatory, bottom-up planning process, facilitated by social and technical specialists who provide advice to communities without controlling funds. PNPM is supported by a multi-donor trust fund called the PNPM Support Facility (PSF). Part of PSF’s role is to provide more effective strategic support to the government’s objectives, especially by improving the effectiveness of PNPM’s gender action plan. Increasing women’s voice in community planning and decision-making has been an explicit goal of PNPM since its founding, and since 2007 PNPM Rural has had an overarching gender action plan to guide actions to involve women in all procedures. A maximum of 25 per cent of all PNPM funds are reserved to support proposals from village women’s groups for RLF groups referred to in this report as SPP. Women play increasingly central roles in PNPM’s kecamatan and village administration. The PSF engaged a gender specialist with expertise in working in challenging rural contexts to review the system and provide a short critical report and practical recommendation on gender sensitive approaches in the overall implementation of PNPM Rural. A PSF operational analyst with in depth knowledge of PNPM accompanied the specialist to the field. Objectives and outputs are laid out in full in described in Appendix 6. The report below lays out the findings and recommendations of the mission.

Gender equity in theories of fertility transition

McDonald, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Conference paper Formato: 64475 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development placed issues of gender at the centre of discussion of population and development (United Nations 1995). The leading theme of the conference was that, in less developed countries, higher levels of gender equity are a necessary component in the achievement of lower fertility. In apparent contradiction with the 1994 ICPD, I have postulated that very low fertility in advanced countries today is the outcome of a conflict or inconsistency between high gender equity in individual oriented social institutions and sustained gender inequity in family-oriented social institutions (McDonald 1997). The implication is that higher levels of gender equity in family-oriented social institutions are necessary to avoid very low fertility. Thus, on one hand, a higher level of gender equity in social institutions is claimed to lead to lower fertility while, on the other hand, a reorientation of social institutions towards a higher level of gender equity is claimed to prevent very low fertility. The paper addresses this apparent contradiction through consideration of more generalised theory of gender equity in fertility transition.; no

Gender equity, social institutions and the future of fertility

McDonald, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 70069 bytes; 353 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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Sustained very low levels of fertility in advanced countries can be explained by incoherence between the levels of gender equity applying in different social institutions. In countries with very low levels of fertility, high levels of gender equity are postulated in institutions that deal with people as individuals, while low levels of gender equity apply in institutions that deal with people as members of families.; no

Comparative evaluation of indicators for gender equity and health

Lin, V.; Gruszin, S.; Ellickson, C.; Glover, J.; Silburn, K.; Wilson, G.; Poljski, C.
Fonte: Birkhauser Verlag Ag Publicador: Birkhauser Verlag Ag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Objectives: This paper reports on a comparative evaluation of indicators that are in use, or proposed for use, by leading international organizations to assess their adequacy for the purpose of monitoring key issues related to gender, equity and health. Methods: A comprehensive health information framework was developed on a generic framework by the ISO (2001) to use for the analysis of gender equity within mainstream health systems. A sample of 1 095 indicators used by key international organizations were mapped to this framework and assessed for technical quality and gender sensitivity. Results: The evaluation found deficiencies in the indicators currently in use, from the viewpoint of both technical quality and underlying conceptual bases, as well as in their coverage of the framework, and especially in relation to health system performance. Conclusions: Routine administrative reporting offered large numbers of indicators but these did not allow for monitoring of gender equity and health. The paper concludes that there is merit in developing a core set of leading indicators that can be used for comparisons across peer countries and communities.; Vivian Lin, Su Gruszin, Cara Ellickson, John Glover, Kate Silburn, Gai Wilson and Carolyn Poljski; © Birkhäuser Verlag...

Das Elterngeld : Deutschland auf dem Weg zu Geschlechtergerechtigkeit?; The Elterngeld : Germany on its way to gender equity?

Peukert, Almut
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: ResearchPaper
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Zum Januar 2007 wird das Elterngeld in Deutschland eingeführt. Im Vorfeld gab es innerhalb der Großen Koalition heftige politische Kontroversen über "Papamonate", "Wickelvolontariate" und "Einschränkungen der Wahlfreiheit von Familien". Der erzielte Kompromiss zum Elterngeld wurde als innovative sozialstaatliche Reform und Paradigmenwechsel propagiert. In diesem Beitrag soll der Frage nachgegangen werden, wie das Elterngeld aus einer Perspektive der Geschlechtergerechtigkeit zu beurteilen ist und in diesem Sinne tatsächlich einen Paradigmenwechsel darstellt. Dazu wird auf das Modell einer Gerechtigkeitsutopie von Nancy Fraser zurückgegriffen und das Elterngeld anhand dessen einer normativen Bewertung unterzogen. Ist Deutschland durch das Elterngeld einer Geschlechtergerechtigkeit näher gekommen? Die Autorin kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass das Elterngeld, da es auf eine geschlechtsstrukturierte Realität trifft, die vorhandene Arbeitsteilung eher verfestigt als diese aufzubrechen. Es kann als zaghafter, jedoch nicht gänzlich überzeugender Schritt in Richtung Geschlechtergerechtigkeit gewertet werden.; To the first January 2007 the Elterngeld will be implemented in Germany. Beforehand there was a intense political dispute about leave arrangements especially for fathers. The achieved compromise was announced as an innovative welfare reform and paradigm change. This paper analyses the Elterngeld in terms of its gender equity and tries to answer...

Dimensions of gender relations and reproductive health inequity perceived by female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a qualitative exploration

Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M.; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Tran, Ly TH; Nguyen, Huong TH; Le, Thach Ngoc
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Introduction Increasing evidence indicates that gender equity has a significant influence on women’s health; yet few culturally specific indicators of gender relations exist which are applicable to health. This study explores dimensions of gender relations perceived by female undergraduate students in southern Vietnamese culture, and qualitatively examines how this perceived gender inequity may influence females’ sexual or reproductive health. Methods Sixty-two female undergraduate students from two universities participated in eight focus group discussions to talk about their perspectives regarding national and local gender equity issues. Results Although overall gender gaps in the Mekong Delta were perceived to have decreased in comparison to previous times, several specific dimensions of gender relations were emergent in students’ discussions. Perceived dimensions of gender relations were comparable to theoretical structures of the Theory of Gender and Power, and to findings from several reports describing the actual inferiority of women. Allocation of housework and social paid work represented salient dimensions of labor. The most salient dimension of power related to women in positions of authority. Salient dimensions of cathexis related to son preference...

Gender Equity Promotion in the Private Sector in Mexico : The Development of a Successful Model

Elena, Maria Castro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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Worldwide, most countries recognize equal rights between men and women. Many have produced regulations intended to fight discrimination and programs granting women access to health, education, and economic rights such as land ownership. However, the fact remains that women have fewer opportunities than men to benefit from economic development, with lower participation in the labor force. Even in the most advanced countries, their wages average 73 percent of those of men. International programs such as the millennium development goals point out the benefits of addressing gender inequality and the positive impact this can have on poverty reduction. This and other similar initiatives have been successful in improving the social conditions of women but have been less effective in enhancing women's participation in economic activities. In the private sector in particular, the advantages of giving equal opportunities to men and women have not been fully assessed. While the principle of gender equity in the workplace is generally accepted...

Gender Equity in Junior and Senior Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

Sutherland-Addy, Esi
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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This thematic study is about gender equity in junior and senior secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It consists of case studies of Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda, as well as, a review of studies undertaken over the past ten years on education in Africa with particular attention to girls' and secondary education. Gender equity at the primary level has been the focus of considerable attention within the education for all frameworks of action, but much less so at the secondary level. Evidence of gender inequity and inequality in terms of access, retention and performance in secondary education in SSA raises many questions. While transition rates from primary to secondary are higher for girls than boys, and the repetition rates are lower, girls still significantly trail behind boys in terms of secondary gross enrollment rate (GER). The purpose of this study is to document and analyze the extent and nature of gender disadvantage in junior and senior secondary education, to analyze the causes of this disadvantage and to identify strategies that may be effective in reducing or eliminating it. This thematic study will make a timely and useful contribution to the debate on Secondary Education and Training in Africa (SEIA) issues.

Girls' Education in the 21st Century : Gender Equality, Empowerment, and Economic Growth

Tembon, Mercy; Fort, Lucia
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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Gender equality is not just a women's issue, it is a development issue. Women's economic empowerment is essential for economic development, growth, and poverty reduction not only because of the income it generates, but also because it helps to break the vicious cycle of poverty. Educating girls and women is critical to economic development. Research conducted in a variety of countries and regions has established that educating girls is one of the most cost-effective ways of spurring development. Female education creates powerful poverty-reducing synergies and yields enormous intergenerational gains. It is positively correlated with increased economic productivity, more robust labor markets, higher earnings, and improved societal health and well-being. This book is based on the background papers developed for the symposium. Although the papers have been edited, their key messages remain intact, and the theme of the symposium respected. The overview chapter is a thematic paper prepared by the World Bank that brings out the main messages of the symposium. The subsequent chapters reflect the current state of education from a gender perspective and highlight the importance of and challenges to female education as well as the interdependence of education and development objectives. The final chapter presents five strategic directions for advancing gender equity in education.

Argentina : Gender Equity in the Private Sector; Argentina - Equidad de genera en el sector privado

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA)
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First tested in Mexico in 2003, and most recently applied in 2009 in Argentina, the World Bank has developed a model to incorporate gender equity into private sector organizations while simultaneously enhancing their business. Under the model, participating organizations conduct a self-diagnosis to identify gender biases and gaps in the operations. This baseline is then used to create and subsequently implement an action plan to address these gender inequalities in their organization. Successful application of this gender equity model is certified by an independent auditing agency and the firm is awarded a seal they can publicly use and display, enhancing their reputation. Since the first experience in Mexico, the model has been adapted to fit other countries' realities, and each experience has improved the tools and process of the model. This paper summarizes the World Bank's experiences with the gender equity certification model and explores the primary features and factors of success through careful examination of the most recent application in Argentina. The successful experiences and ease of adaptability of the model point towards the feasibility of applying this model as standard World Bank "brand" certifiable international Gender Equity Model...

Improving Basic Services for the Bottom Forty Percent : Results of the Poverty and Social Impact Assessment of Decentralized Basic Service Delivery in Ethiopia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study
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This report is part of a programmatic knowledge series which will include future reports which will go further on the issues covered. These reports will include among others studies based on services delivery quality in health and education based on on-going surveys as well detailed survey based impact assessment the Promotion of Basic Services (PBS) program. This program based on multi-round surveys over the next three years, an impact assessment of the social accountability component of PBS program for which baseline survey has taken place and a full report is due in two years, all of these studies will further elucidate the findings in this report. This report is structured with a section describing the PBS program and inter-government fiscal transfers underlying Ethiopia's decentralized federal structure. That section will be followed by a section on study approach and then a section on the governance and accountability framework underlying the program. After that there will be a section on the effectiveness of Ethiopia's intergovernmental transfers program (IGFT) on development results in education...

Argentina - Women Weaving Equitable Gender Relations; Argentina - Mujeres tejiendo relaciones de genero equitativas

Stubbs, Josefina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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In 2001, after a long period of recession, Argentina faced the greatest economic, political, and institutional crisis in its history. Unemployment reached levels nearing 18 percent and the poverty rate reached a peak of 58 percent in 2002, increasing twofold the number of people living the poverty line and impacting in a disproportionate manner the most vulnerable and poverty stricken families. The crisis also had a tremendous impact on Argentina's middle-class. Increased unemployment and the freezing of wages and bank deposits forced many families to face poverty for the first time, and to seek new survival strategies. The crisis caused the rupture of traditional roles within the household, forcing many women into the workforce, many young people to leave school in search of a job, and many traditional breadwinners to remain at home. In many cases, these changes challenged not just the economic viability of households but the role of families. Recognizing the potential impact of the situation, the Government of Argentina approached the World Bank for a small loan ($5 million)...

Roads towards gender equity in Latin America and the Caribbean

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
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Includes bibliography; Edición en español ingresada en Biblioteca (97150); The last two decades have witnessed far-reaching changes wrought by the influx of women into the public sphere. The results of these events include shifts in the labour market, educational achievements, significant decreases in fertility rates and a resulting modification in relationships within the family and major -though still insufficient- progress in terms of women's participation in decision-making. Nevertheless, most men still do not share in household work or in the array of unpaid care-giving activities entailed by membership in a community and society, and the outcome is that women still bear most of the burden of domestic work. Reconciling the public and private spheres poses challenges in terms of values and behaviours, and public policies are therefore required to promote the redistribution of family responsibilities between men and women. On another front, new institutions have been created as part of complex processes of State reform. Legislative changes have given rise to opportunities and challenges, particularly in terms of the genuine and integral exercise of women's human rights. New knowledge and a wide range of policy experiences demonstrate that gender equality has positive effects on development. In this regard...

Reconhecimento, redistribuição e equidade de gênero : o trabalho doméstico na teoria social contemporânea; Recognition, redistribution and gender equity : domestic labor and care work in contemporary social theory

Julia de Souza Abdalla
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/03/2015 Português
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partir de uma reconstrução de argumentos em três linhas distintas, analisarei, nessa dissertação, as soluções propostas ao dilema do trabalho familiar. A divisão sexual do trabalho, que atribui às mulheres as tarefas domésticas e de cuidados e aos homens as ocupações situadas na esfera pública, remuneradas e reconhecidas como contribuições relevantes à sociedade, torna-se ainda mais onerosa às mulheres a partir de sua entrada no mercado de trabalho ao longo das últimas décadas. Desse momento em diante, elas passam a realizar duplas jornadas, sendo sobrecarregadas, ao mesmo tempo, com o trabalho remunerado na esfera pública e a manutenção de sua responsabilidade quase exclusiva pelas atividades referentes ao lar e à família. Frente a esse problema, uma série de propostas foram realizadas no âmbito da teoria social e dos estudos de gênero, tendo por objetivo dar conta da necessidade de reconhecimento desse trabalho e, ao mesmo tempo, preocupadas com a busca de emancipação das mulheres. Nesse trabalho, reconstruo criticamente esses argumentos, analisando em que medida dão conta da necessidade de reconhecimento e, ao mesmo tempo, das demandas emancipatórias femininas. Em primeiro lugar, tratarei das propostas de feministas igualitárias...

Opening the gender diversity black box: causality of perceived gender equity and locus of control and mediation of work engagement in employee well-being

Sharma, Radha R.; Sharma, Neha P.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/10/2015 Português
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The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout). Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females) from the public and private sectors representing manufacturing and service industry in India. The study bridges the knowledge gap by operationalizing the construct of perceived gender equity and studying its role in the work engagement and employee well-being. Conceptualization of the well-being in an unconventional way covering both the positive and the negative aspects extends the understanding of the emerging concept of well-being. It has practical implications for talent management and work engagement besides promoting gender equity at the workplace for employee well-being. It opens vistas for the gender based theory and cross cultural research on gender equity.