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## One-dimensional models for the spacial behaviour of tapered thin-walled bars with open cross sections : static, dynamic and buckling analyses

Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra
Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra

Tipo: Tese de Doutorado

Português

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Tapered thin-walled bars are extensively used in the fields of civil, mechanical and aeronautical
engineering. The competitiveness of tapered structural members is hindered by the fact
that their spatial behaviour is still poorly understood and by the lack of rational and
efficient methods for their analysis and design. The present thesis aims at providing a
contribution to overcome these drawbacks, by (i) developing one-dimensional models (i.e.,
models having a single independent spatial variable) to perform linear static, dynamic and
lateral-torsional buckling analyses of tapered thin-walled bars with open cross-sections,
(ii) supplying physical interpretations for the key behavioural features implied by these
models and (iii) offering a detailed examination of several illustrative examples that will be
useful for benchmarking purposes.
The first part of the thesis is devoted to bars whose shape allows them to resist biaxial
bending by the membrane action of their walls (I-section or C-section bars, for instance). It
starts with the development, based on the induced-constraint approach, of a linear onedimensional
model for the stretching, bending and twisting of tapered thin-walled bars with
arbitrary open cross-sections under general static loading conditions. A two-dimensional
linearly elastic membrane shell model is adopted as parent theory. The Vlasov assumptions...

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## Aprimoramento de formulação do MEF para barra geral laminada tridimensional pela consideração da cinemática de empenamento para seção qualquer; An improved finite element formulation for the analysis of general three-dimensional laminated bars with consideration of warping for any cross-section

Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP

Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Formato: application/pdf

Publicado em 20/03/2008
Português

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#Barras gerais#Elementos finitos#Empenamento#Finite elements#General bars#Laminados#Laminated#Warping

O presente trabalho consiste no aprimoramento de formulação do Método dos Elementos Finitos (MEF) para barra geral laminada tridimensional pela consideração da cinemática de empenamento para seção qualquer. Desenvolve-se um código computacional para se solucionar o empenamento, considerando-se uma derivada do giro em relação ao eixo longitudinal de valor unitário, do problema de torção livre de Saint-Venant para uma seção transversal de geometria qualquer, homogênea e não-homogênea. Posteriormente o código desenvolvido é adaptado de forma a ser acoplado a um programa com formulação de barra geral tridimensional laminada, que segue a cinemática de Reissner-Timoshenko generalizada, enriquecendo-o com a consideração do empenamento. A primeira contribuição significativa do desenvolvimento do trabalho é a inclusão de geometrias quaisquer para a seção transversal, possibilitando, por exemplo, a consideração de núcleos estruturais mistos em edifícios, abertos e fechados por trechos. A segunda contribuição é referente à consideração de material laminado, possibilitando considerar núcleos estruturais de materiais compostos. Exemplos gerais são resolvidos para a verificação e validação da formulação proposta e implementada.; In the present work an improved finite element formulation for the analysis of three-dimensional laminated bars is presented. The improvement is made by introducing the warping mode into the previous model that follows a general Reissner-Timoshenko kinematics hypotesis. In order to do so...

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## Varões embebidos para o reforço ao corte de vigas de betão armado; Embedded bars for shear strengthening of RC beams

Fonte: IBRACON 2011
Publicador: IBRACON 2011

Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência

Publicado em /11/2011
Português

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#Materiais adesivos#Varões embebidos#NSM#Reforço ao corte#Técnica ETS#Adhesive materials#Embedded bars#NSM#Shear strengthening#ETS technique

Um programa experimental em curso, formado por faixas de laje contínuas reforçadas à flexão com
laminados de CFRP aplicados segundo a técnica NSM (Near Surface Mounted), demonstra ser possível
aumentar significativamente a capacidade de carga desses elementos, mantendo elevados níveis de
ductilidade. No entanto, a ocorrência de rotura por corte em algumas das faixas de laje contínuas reforçadas
tem limitado os níveis de eficácia desta técnica. Em geral, a rotura por corte é acompanhada pelo
destacamento precoce do betão de recobrimento que inclui os laminados de FRP. No caso das vigas,
laminados de CFRP podem ser aplicados segundo a técnica NSM em entalhes abertos no betão de
recobrimento das faces laterais da viga. No entanto, no caso das lajes o reforço ao corte segundo a técnica
NSM não tem aplicabilidade, pelo que no presente trabalho foi desenvolvida uma técnica de reforço que
evita a ocorrência de rotura por corte.
De acordo com a estratégia de reforço, furos são abertos na espessura de vigas/lajes, com as inclinações
desejadas, e varões são introduzidos nesses furos e fixos ao substrato de betão com materiais adesivos.
Para avaliação da eficácia desta técnica, um amplo programa experimental foi executado...

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## Structure and evolution trends of the external load in uneven bars. Analysis of the flight elements in competition routines.

Fonte: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Publicador: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro

Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência

Português

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Introduction
Specific literature in Artistic Gymnastics is rich in considerations about evolution trends of flight elements in uneven bars routines. Based on the analyses of total participants in world championships and Olympic Games we can observe that gymnasts performed more flight elements in last Olympic cycle compared with preceding cycles. In this way, the purpose of the present study was to analyse the trends in number, difficulty and direct combinations of flight elements in uneven bars routines in elite gymnasts.
Methods
Through the observational methodology, we constructed and validated an observation category comprising seven variables considered as indicators of the external load concerning flight elements in uneven bars. We observed 83 uneven bars routines from world championships and Olympic Games finals between 1989 and 2004. 12 competitions were framed in 4 Olympic cycles with 2 world championships and 1 Olympic Games each one. It was observed the total number of flight elements, direct combination of 2 and 3 flight elements, dificulty, number of preparation elements and body position in this kind of elements. Data was analysed with descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation). Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare general significant differences in all cycles and Mann-Whitney teste with Bonferroni correction to analyse differences between each cycle. The level of significance was established in 5% or 1.25% depending of the tests used.
Results As main results we observed significant decrease in number of preparation elements from 0.15 in first cycle to 0.00 in last one. Concerning all other variables observed...

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## Development of a Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS) Based on a Modified Form of the ICARS

Fonte: PubMed
Publicador: PubMed

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 15/09/2009
Português

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To develop a brief ataxia rating scale (BARS) for use by movement disorder specialists and general neurologists. Current ataxia rating scales are cumbersome and not designed for clinical practice. We first modified the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) by adding seven ataxia tests (modified ICARS, or MICARS), and observed only minimally increased scores. We then used the statistics package R to find a five-test subset in MICARS that would correlate best with the total MICARS score. This was accomplished first without constraints and then with the clinical constraint requiring one test each of Gait, Kinetic Function-Arm, Kinetic Function-Leg, Speech, and Eye Movements. We validated these clinical constraints by factor analysis. We then validated the results in a second cohort of patients; evaluated inter-rater reliability in a third cohort; and used the same data set to compare BARS with the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). Correlation of ICARS with the seven additional tests that when added to ICARS form MICARS was 0.88. There were 31,481 five-test subtests (48% of possible combinations) that had a correlation with total MICARS score of ≥0.90. The strongest correlation of an unconstrained five-test subset was 0.963. The clinically constrained subtest validated by factor analysis...

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## Journey Beyond the Schwarzschild Black Hole Singularity

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 12/10/2015
Português

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We present the geodesical completion of the Schwarzschild black hole in four
dimensions which covers the entire space in (u,v) Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates,
including the spacetime behind the black and white hole singularities. The
gravitational constant switches sign abruptly at the singularity, thus we
interpret the other side of the singularity as a region of antigravity. The
presence of such sign flips is a prediction of local (Weyl) scale invariant
geodesically complete spacetimes which improve classical general relativity and
string theory. We compute the geodesics for our new black hole and show that
all geodesics of a test particle are complete. Hence, an ideal observer, that
starts its journey in the usual space of gravity, can reach the other side of
the singularity in a finite amount of proper time. As usual, an observer
outside of the horizon cannot verify that such phenomena exist. However, the
fact that there exist proper observers that can see this, is of fundamental
significance for the construction of the correct theory and the interpretation
of phenomena pertaining to black holes and cosmology close to and beyond the
singularities.; Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures

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## Golden Bars of Consensus and the Truth Quark

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

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Scientists are imprisoned by Golden Bars of Consensus, says Burton Richter
(hep-ex/0001012). A case in point is the mass of the Truth Quark. The consensus
analysis of the experimental data indicates that the mass of the Truth Quark is
about 170 GeV. On the other hand, an alternative analysis of the same data
indicates that the mass of the Truth Quark is about 130 GeV. If the design of
future experiments, including trigger, event selection, data analysis
procedures, error analysis, etc., takes into account only the consensus value,
and if the consensus value happens to be incorrect, then results of future
experiments might be compromised.; Comment: 14 pages, pdf format, note added 25 Feb 2002 on pp. 11-13, put two
CDF dilepton figures in proper order

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## Physical Interpretation of Antigravity

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

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Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string
theory. The Weyl invariant Standard Model coupled to General Relativity
(SM+GR), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that
are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there
must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through
gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and
cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of
ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown
that unitarity is not violated but there may be an instability associated with
negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show
that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the
theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such
observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity
directly, but can only detect in and out signals that interact with the
antigravity region. This is no different than a spacetime black box for which
the information about its interior is encoded in scattering amplitudes for
in/out states at its exterior. Through examples we show that negative kinetic
energy in antigravity presents no problems of principles but is an interesting
topic for physical investigations of fundamental significance.; Comment: 39 pages...

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## The bar-mode instability in differentially rotating neutron stars: Simulations in full general relativity

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 18/05/2000
Português

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We study the dynamical stability against bar-mode deformation of rapidly
spinning neutron stars with differential rotation. We perform fully
relativistic 3D simulations of compact stars with $M/R \geq 0.1$, where $M$ is
the total gravitational mass and $R$ the equatorial circumferential radius. We
adopt an adiabatic equation of state with adiabatic index $\Gamma=2$. As in
Newtonian theory, we find that stars above a critical value of $\beta \equiv
T/W$ (where $T$ is the rotational kinetic energy and $W$ the gravitational
binding energy) are dynamically unstable to bar formation. For our adopted
choices of stellar compaction and rotation profile, the critical value of
$\beta = \beta_{dGR}$ is $\sim 0.24-0.25$, only slightly smaller than the
well-known Newtonian value $\sim 0.27$ for incompressible Maclaurin spheroids.
The critical value depends only very weakly on the degree of differential
rotation for the moderate range we surveyed. All unstable stars form bars on a
dynamical timescale. Models with sufficiently large $\beta$ subsequently form
spiral arms and eject mass, driving the remnant to a dynamically stable state.
Models with moderately large $\beta \gtrsim \beta_{dGR}$ do not develop spiral
arms or eject mass but adjust to form dynamically stable ellipsoidal-like
configurations. If the bar-mode instability is triggered in supernovae collapse
or binary neutron star mergers...

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## Stability of general relativistic Miyamoto-Nagai galaxies

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 26/07/2007
Português

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The stability of a recently proposed general relativistic model of galaxies
is studied in some detail. This model is a general relativistic version of the
well known Miyamoto-Nagai model that represents well a thick galactic disk. The
stability of the disk is investigated under a general first order perturbation
keeping the spacetime metric frozen (no gravitational radiation is taken into
account). We find that the stability is associated with the thickness of the
disk. We have that flat galaxies have more not-stable modes than the thick ones
i.e., flat galaxies have a tendency to form more complex structures like rings,
bars and spiral arms.; Comment: 11 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS

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## Constraints on nested bars - implications for gas inflow

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 05/02/2002
Português

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A wide-spread belief that nested bars enhance gas inflow to the galactic
centre has recently been contradicted by dynamical models in which inner bars
seem to prohibit such inflow. Can the existing models of dynamically possible
double bars be modified to enable strong inflow in the secondary bar? I present
here simple dynamical arguments which imply that in general, double bars in
resonant coupling do not enhance gas inflow. However, stronger inflow with
straight shocks in the inner bar can occur if there is no resonant coupling of
the commonly assumed form between the bars.; Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, to appear in "Disks of Galaxies : Kinematics,
Dynamics and Perturbations" (ASP Conference Series), eds E.Athanassoula and
A.Bosma

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## Gravity in 2T-Physics

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

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The field theoretic action for gravitational interactions in d+2 dimensions
is constructed in the formalism of 2T-physics. General Relativity in d
dimensions emerges as a shadow of this theory with one less time and one less
space dimensions. The gravitational constant turns out to be a shadow of a
dilaton field in d+2 dimensions that appears as a constant to observers stuck
in d dimensions. If elementary scalar fields play a role in the fundamental
theory (such as Higgs fields in the Standard Model coupled to gravity), then
their shadows in d dimensions must necessarily be conformal scalars. This has
the physical consequence that the gravitational constant changes at each phase
transition (inflation, grand unification, electro-weak, etc.), implying
interesting new scenarios in cosmological applications. The fundamental action
for pure gravity, which includes the spacetime metric, the dilaton and an
additional auxiliary scalar field all in d+2 dimensions with two times, has a
mix of gauge symmetries to produce appropriate constraints that remove all
ghosts or redundant degrees of freedom. The action produces on-shell classical
field equations of motion in d+2 dimensions, with enough constraints for the
theory to be in agreement with classical General Relativity in d dimensions.
Therefore this action describes the correct classical gravitational physics
directly in d+2 dimensions. Taken together with previous similar work on the
Standard Model of particles and forces...

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## Geodesically Complete Universe

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

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This talk is about solving cosmological equations analytically without
approximations, and discovering new phenomena that could not be noticed with
approximate solutions. We found all the solutions of the Friedmann equations
for a specific model, including all the zero-size-bounce solutions that do not
violate the null energy condition, as well as all the finite-size-bounce
solutions, and then discovered model independent phenomena. Among them is the
notion of geodesic completeness for the geometry of the universe. From this we
learned a few new general lessons for cosmology. Among them is that anisotropy
provides a model independent attractor mechanism to some specific initial
values for cosmological fields, and that there is a period of antigravity in
the history of the universe. The results are obtained only at the classical
gravity level. Effects of quantum gravity or string theory are unknown, they
are not even formulated, so there are new theoretical challenges.; Comment: 11 pages, 9 figures, LaTeX

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## On Dark Matter, Spiral Galaxies, and the Axioms of General Relativity

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 22/04/2010
Português

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Beginning with a geometric motivation for dark matter going back to the
axioms of general relativity, we show how scalar field dark matter, which
naturally forms dark matter density waves due to its wave nature, may cause the
observed barred spiral pattern density waves in many disk galaxies and triaxial
shapes with plausible brightness profiles in many elliptical galaxies. If
correct, this would provide a unified explanation for spirals and bars in
spiral galaxies and for the brightness profiles of elliptical galaxies. We
compare the results of preliminary computer simulations with photos of actual
galaxies.; Comment: 64 pages, 30 figures

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## Pattern Speeds of Bars and Spiral Arms From H-alpha Velocity Fields

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 09/09/2009
Português

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We have applied the Tremaine-Weinberg method to 10 late-type barred spiral
galaxies using data cubes, in H-alpha emission, from the GHAFAS and FANTOMM
Fabry-Perot spectrometers. We have combined the derived bar (and/or spiral)
pattern speeds with angular frequency plots to measure the corotation radii for
the bars in these galaxies. We base our results on a combination of this method
with a morphological analysis designed to estimate the corotation radius to
bar-length ratio using two independent techniques on archival near infrared
images, and although we are aware of the limitation of the application of the
Tremaine-Weinberg method using ionised gas observations, we find consistently
excellent agreement between bar and spiral arm parameters derived using
different methods. In general, the corotation radius, measured using the
Tremaine-Weinberg method, is closely related to the bar length, measured
independently from photometry and consistent with previous studies. Our
corotation/bar-length ratios and pattern speed values are in good agreement
with general results from numerical simulations of bars. In systems with
identified secondary bars, we measure higher H-alpha velocity dispersion in the
circumnuclear regions, whereas in all the other galaxies...

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## A general reconstruction of the recent expansion history of the universe

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

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Distance measurements are currently the most powerful tool to study the
expansion history of the universe without specifying its matter content nor any
theory of gravitation. Assuming only an isotropic, homogeneous and flat
universe, in this work we introduce a model-independent method to reconstruct
directly the deceleration function via a piecewise function. Including a
penalty factor, we are able to vary continuously the complexity of the
deceleration function from a linear case to an arbitrary $(n+1)$-knots spline
interpolation. We carry out a Monte Carlo (MC) analysis to determine the best
penalty factor, evaluating the bias-variance trade-off, given the uncertainties
of the SDSS-II and SNLS supernova combined sample (JLA), compilations of baryon
acoustic oscillation (BAO) and $H(z)$ data. The bias-variance analysis is done
for three fiducial models with different features in the deceleration curve.
For each fiducial model, we test different reconstructions using, in each case,
more than $10^4$ catalogs in a total of about $5\times 10^5$. This
investigation proved to be essential in determining the best reconstruction to
study these data. We show that, evaluating a single fiducial model, the
conclusions about the bias-variance ratio are misleading. We determine the
reconstruction method in which the bias represents at most $10\%$ of the total
uncertainty. Finally...

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## Traversing Cosmological Singularities, Complete Journeys Through Spacetime Including Antigravity

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

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A unique description of the Big Crunch-Big Bang transition is given at the
classical gravity level, along with a complete set of homogeneous, isotropic,
analytic solutions in scalar-tensor cosmology, with radiation and curvature.
All solutions repeat cyclically; they have been obtained by using conformal
gauge symmetry (Weyl symmetry) as a powerful tool in cosmology, and more
generally in gravity. The significance of the Big Crunch-Big Bang transition is
that it provides a model independent analytic resolution of the singularity, as
an unambiguous and unavoidable solution of the equations at the classical
gravitational physics level. It is controlled only by geometry (including
anisotropy) and only very general features of matter coupled to gravity, such
as kinetic energy of a scalar field, and radiation due to all forms of
relativistic matter. This analytic resolution of the singularity is due to an
attractor mechanism created by the leading terms in the cosmological equation.
It is unique, and it is unavoidable in classical relativity in a geodesically
complete geometry. Its counterpart in quantum gravity remains to be understood.; Comment: 14 pages, 9 figures, minor corrections in v2

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## Local Conformal Symmetry in Physics and Cosmology

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

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#High Energy Physics - Theory#Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics#General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology#High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We show how to lift a generic non-scale invariant action in Einstein frame
into a locally conformally-invariant (or Weyl-invariant) theory and present a
new general form for Lagrangians consistent with Weyl symmetry. Advantages of
such a conformally invariant formulation of particle physics and gravity
include the possibility of constructing geodesically complete cosmologies. We
present a conformal-invariant version of the standard model coupled to gravity,
and show how Weyl symmetry may be used to obtain unprecedented analytic control
over its cosmological solutions. Within this new framework, generic FRW
cosmologies are geodesically complete through a series of big crunch - big bang
transitions. We discuss a new scenario of cosmic evolution driven by the Higgs
field in a \textquotedblleft minimal\textquotedblright% \ conformal standard
model, in which there is no new physics beyond the standard model at low
energies, and the current Higgs vacuum is metastable as indicated by the latest
LHC data.; Comment: 34 pages, 1 figure, v2 improves the presentation

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## Constraints on Interacting Scalars in 2T Field Theory and No Scale Models in 1T Field Theory

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

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In this paper I determine the general form of the physical and mathematical
restrictions that arise on the interactions of gravity and scalar fields in the
2T field theory setting, in d+2 dimensions, as well as in the emerging shadows
in d dimensions. These constraints on scalar fields follow from an underlying
Sp(2,R) gauge symmetry in phase space. Determining these general constraints
provides a basis for the construction of 2T supergravity, as well as physical
applications in 1T-field theory, that are discussed briefly here, and more
detail elsewhere. In particular, no scale models that lead to a vanishing
cosmological constant at the classical level emerge naturally in this setting.; Comment: 22 pages. Footnote 14 added in v2

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## Solution of the inverse problem in spherical gravitational wave detectors using a model with independent bars

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

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The direct detection of gravitational waves will provide valuable
astrophysical information about many celestial objects. The SCHENBERG has
already undergone its first test run. It is expected to have its first
scientific run soon. In this work a new data analysis approach is presented,
called method of independent bars, which can be used with SCHENBERG's data . We
test this method through the simulation of the detection of gravitational
waves. With this method we find the source's direction without the need to have
all six transducers operational. Also we show that the method is a
generalization of another one, already described in the literature, known as
the mode channels method.; Comment: 21 pages, 3 figures

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