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Regional change in the Algarve: A Geographic Information System approach

Vaz, Erich Moreira de Noronha
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 26/09/2011 Português
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Thesis submitted to the Instituto Superior de Estatística e Gestão de Informação da Universidade Nova de Lisboa in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Information Management – Geographic Information Systems; The debate on sustainable development has led to an increasing interest covering the effects of the human beings on the natural environment. The development of information and communication technologies (ICT) allowed a better analysis of the drivers of environmental change. With the increase of ICT, especially related to monitoring of sustainable choices, methodologies for analysis of regional and local impact have made a significant contribution to the development of regional strategies at a policy level, but also contributed to the development of regional sciences. One of the main issues has been addressed by the analysis of carrying capacity and availability of scarce resources, resulting from a growing demand, leading to loss of vulnerable natural and historical areas. Much of the work of regional sciences has had a direct relation to space, due to the nature of socio-economic data. This thesis offers an integrated spatial assessment of the results of regional change brought by socio-economic growth. The Algarve region in Portugal is used as a laboratory to understand the current pressures and attempts to provide a framework for the future of socio-economic growth in the region and a systematic analysis of current pressures. While urban sprawl due to increasing tourist activity is an increasing concern...

Health and Environment Information Systems for Exposure and Disease Mapping, and Risk Assessment

Jarup, Lars
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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57.198926%
A large number of chemicals are used on a regular basis in modern society. Thousands of new chemicals are added each year, many of which may have toxic properties constituting potential health hazards. Rapid assessment of the risk associated with the use of these chemicals is therefore essential to protect people from exposure to potentially harmful substances. Exposures to chemicals (and physical agents) are typically unevenly distributed geographically as well as temporally. Disease occurrence also shows geographically varying patterns. Geographic information systems (GIS) may be used to produce maps of exposure and/or disease to reveal spatial patterns. Exposure mapping using advanced GIS modeling may enhance exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology studies. Disease maps can be valuable tools in risk assessment to explore changes in disease patterns potentially associated with changes in environmental exposures. Spatial variations in risk and trends related to distance from pollution sources may be studied using software tools such as the Rapid Inquiry Facility, developed by the U.K. Small Area Health Statistics Unit and enhanced in the European Health and Environment Information System project, for an initial quick evaluation of any potential health hazards associated with an environmental pollutant.

Spatial Epidemiology: Current Approaches and Future Challenges

Elliott, Paul; Wartenberg, Daniel
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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47.74058%
Spatial epidemiology is the description and analysis of geographic variations in disease with respect to demographic, environmental, behavioral, socioeconomic, genetic, and infectious risk factors. We focus on small-area analyses, encompassing disease mapping, geographic correlation studies, disease clusters, and clustering. Advances in geographic information systems, statistical methodology, and availability of high-resolution, geographically referenced health and environmental quality data have created unprecedented new opportunities to investigate environmental and other factors in explaining local geographic variations in disease. They also present new challenges. Problems include the large random component that may predominate disease rates across small areas. Though this can be dealt with appropriately using Bayesian statistics to provide smooth estimates of disease risks, sensitivity to detect areas at high risk is limited when expected numbers of cases are small. Potential biases and confounding, particularly due to socioeconomic factors, and a detailed understanding of data quality are important. Data errors can result in large apparent disease excess in a locality. Disease cluster reports often arise nonsystematically because of media...

Using Geographic Information Systems for Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

Nuckols, John R.; Ward, Mary H.; Jarup, Lars
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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67.46654%
Geographic information systems (GIS) are being used with increasing frequency in environmental epidemiology studies. Reported applications include locating the study population by geocoding addresses (assigning mapping coordinates), using proximity analysis of contaminant source as a surrogate for exposure, and integrating environmental monitoring data into the analysis of the health outcomes. Although most of these studies have been ecologic in design, some have used GIS in estimating environmental levels of a contaminant at the individual level and to design exposure metrics for use in epidemiologic studies. In this article we discuss fundamentals of three scientific disciplines instrumental to using GIS in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies: geospatial science, environmental science, and epidemiology. We also explore how a GIS can be used to accomplish several steps in the exposure assessment process. These steps include defining the study population, identifying source and potential routes of exposure, estimating environmental levels of target contaminants, and estimating personal exposures. We present and discuss examples for the first three steps. We discuss potential use of GIS and global positioning systems (GPS) in the last step. On the basis of our findings...

Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals

Pompa, Sandra; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ceballos, Gerardo
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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47.75069%
We identified 20 global key conservation sites for all marine (123) and freshwater (6) mammal species based on their geographic ranges. We created geographic range maps for all 129 species and a Geographic Information System database for a 46,184 1° x 1° grid-cells, ∼10,000-km2. Patterns of species richness, endemism, and risk were variable among all species and species groups. Interestingly, marine mammal species richness was correlated strongly with areas of human impact across the oceans. Key conservation sites in the global geographic grid were determined either by their species richness or by their irreplaceability or uniqueness, because of the presence of endemic species. Nine key conservation sites, comprising the 2.5% of the grid cells with the highest species richness, were found, mostly in temperate latitudes, and hold 84% of marine mammal species. In addition, we identified 11 irreplaceable key conservation sites, six of which were found in freshwater bodies and five in marine regions. These key conservation sites represent critical areas of conservation value at a global level and can serve as a first step for adopting global strategies with explicit geographic conservation targets for Marine Protected Areas.

Predicting Chronic Fine and Coarse Particulate Exposures Using Spatiotemporal Models for the Northeastern and Midwestern United States

Yanosky, Jeff D.; Suh MacIntosh, Helen H.; Paciorek, Christopher Joseph
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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57.37511%
Background: Chronic epidemiologic studies of particulate matter (PM) are limited by the lack of monitoring data, relying instead on citywide ambient concentrations to estimate exposures. This method ignores within-city spatial gradients and restricts studies to areas with nearby monitoring data. This lack of data is particularly restrictive for fine particles (PM with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm; PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM with aerodynamic diameter 2.5–10 μm; PM10–2.5), for which monitoring is limited before 1999. To address these limitations, we developed spatiotemporal models to predict monthly outdoor PM2.5 and PM10–2.5 concentrations for the northeastern and midwestern United States. Methods: For PM2.5, we developed models for two periods: 1988–1998 and 1999–2002. Both models included smooth spatial and regression terms of geographic information system-based and meteorologic predictors. To compensate for sparse monitoring data, the pre-1999 model also included predicted PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm) and extinction coefficients (km−1). PM10–2.5 levels were estimated as the difference in monthly predicted PM10 and PM2.5, with predicted PM10 from our previously developed PM10 model. Results: Predictive performance for PM2.5 was strong (cross-validation R2 = 0.77 and 0.69 for post-1999 and pre-1999 PM2.5 models...

Synergistic effects of traffic-related air pollution and exposure to violence on urban asthma etiology

Clougherty, Jane E.; Suglia, Shakira Franco; Canner, Marina Jacobson; Levy, Jonathan Ian; Kubzansky, Laura Diane; Ryan, P. Barry; Wright, Rosalind Jo
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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57.37511%
Background: Disproportionate life stress and consequent physiologic alteration (i.e., immune dysregulation) has been proposed as a major pathway linking socioeconomic position, environmental exposures, and health disparities. Asthma, for example, disproportionately affects lower-income urban communities, where air pollution and social stressors may be elevated. Objectives: We aimed to examine the role of exposure to violence (ETV), as a chronic stressor, in altering susceptibility to traffic-related air pollution in asthma etiology. Methods: We developed geographic information systems (GIS)–based models to retrospectively estimate residential exposures to traffic-related pollution for 413 children in a community-based pregnancy cohort, recruited in East Boston, Massachusetts, between 1987 and 1993, using monthly nitrogen dioxide measurements for 13 sites over 18 years. We merged pollution estimates with questionnaire data on lifetime ETV and examined the effects of both on childhood asthma etiology. Results: Correcting for potential confounders, we found an elevated risk of asthma with a 1-SD (4.3 ppb) increase in NO2 exposure solely among children with above-median ETV [odds ratio (OR) = 1.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14–2.33)]. Among children always living in the same community...

Discovering the spatial coverage of the documents through the SpatialCIM Methodology.

VARGAS, R. N. P.; REZENDE, S. de O.; MOURA, M. F.; SPERANZA, E. A.; RODRIGUEZ, E.
Fonte: In: AGILE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCE, 15., 2012, Avignon. Bridging the geographic information sciences: proceedings. [S.l.: s.n.], 2012. Publicador: In: AGILE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCE, 15., 2012, Avignon. Bridging the geographic information sciences: proceedings. [S.l.: s.n.], 2012.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Formato: p. 181-186.
Português
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The main focus of this paper is to present the SpatialCIM methodology to identify the spatial coverage of the documents in the Brazilian geographic area. This methodology uses a linguistic tool to assist in the entity recognition process. The linguistic tool classifies the recognized entities as person, organization, time and localization, among others. The localization entities are checked using a geographic information system (GIS) in order to extract the Brazilian entity geographic paths. If there are multiple geographic paths for a single entity, the disambiguation process is carried out. This process attempts to locate the best geographic path for an entity considering all the geographic entities in the text. Another important objective of this paper is to show that the disambiguation process improves the geographic classification of the documents considering the obtained geographic paths. The validation process considers a set of news previously labeled by an expert and compared with the results of the disambiguated and non-disambiguated geographic paths. The results showed that the disambiguation process improves the classification compared with the classification without disambiguation. Keywords: Ambiguity problem resolution...

Environnement alimentaire local et son association avec les habitudes alimentaires de personnes âgées

Mercille, Geneviève
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Contexte : Un accès adéquat aux aliments sains dans les environnements résidentiels peut contribuer aux saines habitudes alimentaires. Un tel accès est d’autant plus important pour les personnes âgées, où les changements associés au vieillissement peuvent accentuer leur dépendance aux ressources disponibles dans le voisinage. Cependant, cette relation n’a pas encore été établie chez les aînés. Objectifs : La présente thèse vise à quantifier les associations entre l’environnement alimentaire local et les habitudes alimentaires de personnes âgées vivant à domicile en milieu urbain. La thèse s’est insérée dans un projet plus large qui a apparié les données provenant d’une cohorte d’aînés québécois vivant dans la région métropolitaine montréalaise avec des données provenant d’un système d’information géographique. Trois études répondent aux objectifs spécifiques suivants : (1) développer des indices relatifs de mixité alimentaire pour qualifier l’offre d’aliments sains dans les magasins d’alimentation et l’offre de restaurants situés dans les quartiers faisant partie du territoire à l’étude et en examiner la validité; (2) quantifier les associations entre la disponibilité relative de magasins d’alimentation et de restaurants près du domicile et les habitudes alimentaires des aînés; (3) examiner l’influence des connaissances subjectives en nutrition dans la relation entre l’environnement alimentaire près du domicile et les habitudes alimentaires chez les hommes et les femmes âgés. Méthodes : Le devis consiste en une analyse secondaire de données transversales provenant de trois sources : les données du cycle 1 pour 848 participants de l’Étude longitudinale québécoise « La nutrition comme déterminant d’un vieillissement réussi » (2003-2008)...

Analysis of fractured terrain using remote sensing and geographic information systems : establishing a correlation between fracture network properties and vegetation

Aich, Sumanjit
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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57.37511%
This research analyzed the spatial relationship between a mega-scale fracture network and the occurrence of vegetation in an arid region. High-resolution aerial photographs of Arches National Park, Utah were used for digital image processing. Four sets of large-scale joints were digitized from the rectified color photograph in order to characterize the geospatial properties of the fracture network with the aid of a Geographic Information System. An unsupervised landcover classification was carried out to identify the spatial distribution of vegetation on the fractured outcrop. Results of this study confirm that the WNW-ESE alignment of vegetation is dominantly controlled by the spatial distribution of the systematic joint set, which in turn parallels the regional fold axis. This research provides insight into the spatial heterogeneity inherent to fracture networks, as well as the effects of jointing on the distribution of surface vegetation in desert environments.

An interface between the GRASS geographic information system and ORACLE relational detabase management system

Buker, David Gordon
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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A query and display interface has been developed between the GRASS geographic information system and the SQL-based ORACLE relational database management system (DBMS) . This interface enables multiple non-spatial attributes of GRASS map features to be maintained with the DBMS. GRASS alone is capable of storing only one attribute per feature. The interface allows the user to provide both spatial (GRASS) and non-spatial (SQL) selection criteria for any query. Spatial selection methods include picking items from the GRASS map with a mouse, and specifying areas of interest with user-drawn (via a mouse) polygons and transects. The results of the combined query are displayed both graphically (the selected GRASS map features are highlighted in a graphics window) and textually (the DBMS attribute data are shown in a text display window). Options include creating reclassified maps based on the DBMS output, and updating the attributes retrieved by a query.

An Interactive Web Information Management System (IMS) for Managing Water Information

Fu, Zhaohui Jennifer
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Presentation on the development of an interactive management system (IMS) for Managing Water Information.

Miami- Dade Urban Tree Canopy Analysis

Benjamin, Adam R.; Hochmair, Hartwig H.; Gann, Daniel; Fu, Zhaohui Jennifer
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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57.37511%
Two of the Florida state universities, University of Florida (UF) and Florida International University (FIU), collaborated in assessing urban tree cover (UTC) for part of northwestern Miami-Dade County, covering an area of approximately 380 km2 (147 mi2). The analysis estimated the area with current tree canopy (existing UTC), the area of potential tree canopy (possible UTC), and various other land cover categories. The assessment used two methods to establish those estimates. The first method utilized the i-Tree canopy assessment tool provided by the USDA Forest Service. The second method used a combination of multispectral satellite data and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) datasets for detection and classification of land cover. Classification results were further analyzed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to relate land cover distribution patterns (obtained from the second land cover classification method) to surface temperatures, land use patterns, and socioeconomic factors.

Everglades R-EMAP 2005

Florida International University
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The Everglades R-EMAP project for year 2005 produced large quantities of data collected at 232 sampling sites. Data collection and analysis is an on-going long-term activity conducted by scientists of different disciplines at irregular intervals of several years. The data sets collected for 2005 include bio-geo-chemical (including mercury and hydro period), fish, invertebrate, periphyton, and plant data. Each sampling site is associated with a location, a description of the site to provide a general overview and photographs to provide a pictorial impression. The Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing Center(GISRSC) at Florida International University (FIU) has designed and implemented an enterprise database for long-term storage of the project�s data in a central repository, providing the framework of data storage for the continuity of future sampling campaigns and allowing integration of new sample data as it becomes available. In addition GISRSC provides this interactive web application for easy, quick and effective retrieval and visualization of that data.

Information operations (IO) organizational design and procedures

Caldwell, Russell J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 163 p. : col. ill.
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; Multi National Force (MNF) operations recognize the existence of shared national interests in a specific geographic region. Furthermore, MNF operations seek to standardize some basic concepts and processes that will promote habits of cooperation, increased dialogue, and provide for baseline Coalition/Combined Task Force (CCTF) operational concepts. This thesis and its' recommendation for a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) are aimed at improving interoperability and CCTF operational readiness. The SOP will focus on the spectrum of Information Operations (IO) with regards to Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW) and Small Scale Contingencies (SSC) during MNF operations. First, existing doctrine and cases will be analyzed to develop a foundation for this study. This thesis will seek to identify the existing IO procedures to be utilized during MNF operations. Next, exercise observations and lessons learned reviews serve as the basis for IO SOP Annex development to support the MNF SOP.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Semantic geographic information system

Alvarez, Elma L.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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57.37511%
This thesis research describes the design and implementation of a Semantic Geographic Information System (GIS) and the creation of its spatial database. The database schema is designed and created, and all textual and spatial data are loaded into the database with the help of the Semantic DBMS's Binary Database Interface currently being developed at the FIU's High Performance Database Research Center (HPDRC). A friendly graphical user interface is created together with the other main system's areas: displaying process, data animation, and data retrieval. All these components are tightly integrated to form a novel and practical semantic GIS that has facilitated the interpretation, manipulation, analysis, and display of spatial data like: Ocean Temperature, Ozone(TOMS), and simulated SeaWiFS data. At the same time, this system has played a major role in the testing process of the HPDRC's high performance and efficient parallel Semantic DBMS.

Using GPS, GIS & remote sensing to understand Niagara Terroir : Pinot noir in the Four Mile Creek & St. David's Bench sub-appellations

Ledderhof, David
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Português
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57.46654%
The relationships between vine water status, soil texture, and vine size were observed in four Niagara, Ontario Pinot noir vineyards in 2008 and 2009. The vineyards were divided into water status zones using geographic information systems (GIS) software to map the seasonal mean midday leaf water potential (,P), and dormant pruning shoot weights following the 2008 season. Fruit was harvested from all sentinel vines, bulked by water status zones and made into wine. Sensory analysis included a multidimensional sorting (MDS) task and descriptive analysis (DA) of the 2008 wines. Airborne multispectral images, with a spatial resolution of 38 cm, were captured four times in 2008 and three times in 2009, with the final flights around veraison. A semi-automatic process was developed to extract NDVI from the images, and a masking procedure was identified to create a vine-only NDVI image. 2008 and 2009 were cooler and wetter than mean years, and the range of water status zones was narrow. Yield per vine, vine size, anthocyanins and phenols were the least consistent variables. Divided by water status or vine size, there were no variables with differences between zones in all four vineyards in either year. Wines were not different between water status zones in any chemical analysis...

Volunteered Geographic Information and Computational Geography: New Perspectives

Jiang, Bin
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/12/2012 Português
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57.71988%
Volunteered geographic information (VGI), one of the most important types of user-generated web content, has been emerging as a new phenomenon. VGI is contributed by numerous volunteers and supported by web 2.0 technologies. This chapter discusses how VGI provides new perspectives for computational geography, a transformed geography based on the use of data-intensive computing and simulations to uncover the underlying mechanisms behind geographic forms and processes. We provide several exemplars of computational geography using OpenStreetMap data and GPS traces to investigate the scaling of geographic space and its implications for human mobility patterns. We illustrate that the field of geography is experiencing a dramatic change and that geoinformatics and computational geography deserve to be clearly distinguished, with the former being a study of engineering and the latter being a science. Keywords geoinformatics, openstreetmap, scaling of geographic space, spatial heterogeneity; Comment: 13 pages, 5 figures

Australian Geography and Geographic Information Systems

Lees, Brian G
Fonte: Pergamon Press Publicador: Pergamon Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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67.63618%
In Australian universities geography has had traditional links with geology, environmental science and the social sciences. Human geographers' pursuit of links into the humanities has distracted many of them from understanding the implications of the increasing interest shown by computer science, geomatics and other disciplines in geography. The emergence of a dialogue overseas between the humanities and the geographic information systems community is an important development which may result in this new grouping colonising some of the traditional disciplinary areas of human geography. It is clear that although this emerging cross-disciplinary linkage has not had any influence on the current phase of mergers and cross-disciplinary linkages in Australia, it will undoubtedly become important locally in the future.

Modelagem de dados espaciais para Sistemas de Informações Geográficas: pesquisa na emergência médica; Spatial data modeling for Geographic Information Systems: research in medical emergency

Sá, Lucilene Antunes Correia Marques de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/03/2001 Português
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Os sistemas de Informações Geográficas foram desenvolvidos com os avanços das Ciências da Computação, com base nos conceitos das Ciências Geodésicas, para serem aplicados em áreas onde os dados espaciais são utilizados. Procura-se obter uma otimização desta tecnologia, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de sistemas aplicativos interativos. Abordam-se conceitos relativos a modelagem de dados espaciais. Analisam-se a aplicação no mundo real e no modelo conceitual decorrentes. Formula-se um modelo físico com base na Emergência Médica, obtendo-se um sistema que integra programas de saúde para localização de pacientes.; The Geographic Information Systems has been developed based on the progress of the computer sciences, using concepts of the geodesic sciences, to by applied where spatial data are need. This technology is optimized and interactive systems are made. Concepts relative to spatial data modeling are discussed. The application on the real world and the conceptual model is analyzed. The physical model is formulated based on the medical emergency, to obtain a system that integrates health programs to find patients.