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Procedimentos e tendências da tradução na Alemanha no século XVII; Translation procedures and tendencies in 17th century Germany

Paschoal, Stéfano
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/03/2007 Português
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O presente trabalho, intitulado Procedimentos e tendências da tradução na Alemanha no século XVII, demonstra, sobretudo através da análise da tradução da obra Los siete libros de la Diana, de Jorge de Montemayor, escrita originalmente em 1559 e traduzida sob o título de Die sieben Bücher der schönen Diana, por Johann Ludwig von Kuefstein, em 1619, e através de considerações das discussões sobre tradução em cinco Poéticas alemãs escritas no século XVII, que houve uma intensa discussão sobre o tema tradução na Alemanha no século XVII. A discussão sobre tradução está contida em obras (Poéticas) que se dedicam a um programa político e cultural no século XVII: o cultivo da língua, cujo principal intuito era a fundação de um instrumento comum de identificação cultural entre os povos de língua alemã. A necessidade política da fundação de um instrumento comum de identificação cultural na Alemanha no século XVII relaciona-se ao contexto histórico e social deste país, em que se sentiam os prejuízos da Guerra dos Trinta Anos (1618-1648) e da peste, assim como os dissabores do relativo "atraso" literário em comparação com outros países da Europa Ocidental. O ideal político-cultural de uma língua e literatura alemã de alcance nacional propiciou aos intelectuais alemães...

Management of primary and metastasized melanoma in Germany 1976–2005. An analysis of the Central Malignant Melanoma Registry of the German Dermatological Society.; Operationsverfahren primärer und metastasierter Melanome in Deutschland in den Jahren 1976-2005. Eine Analyse des Zentralregisters Malignes Melanom der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft.

Schwager, Silke
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
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PURPOSE: The present study analysed the changes of excision margins in correlation with tumour thickness as recorded over the last three decades in Germany. The study also evaluated surgical management in different geographical regions and treatment options for metastasized melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 42,625 patients with invasive primary cutaneous melanoma (CM), recorded by the German Central Malignant Melanoma Registry between 1976 and 2005 were included. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate time trends of excision margins adjusted for tumour thickness. RESULTS: Excision margins of 5.0 cm were widely used in the late 1970s but were since then replaced by smaller margins dependent on tumour thickness. Concerning primary melanoma one step surgery dominated until 1985 and was mostly replaced by two step excisions since the early 1990s. In Eastern Germany one step management remained common until the late 1990s. During the last three decades loco-regional metastases were predominantly treated by surgery (up to 80%), whereas systemic therapy decreased. The primary treatment of distant metastases has consistently been systemic chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The present descriptive retrospective study revealed a significant decrease of excision margins to a maximum of 2.00 cm. A significant trend towards two step excisions in primary CM was observed throughout Germany. Management of metastasized melanoma showed a tendency towards surgical procedures in limited disease and an ongoing trend to systemic treatment in advanced disease.; Ziel der Publikation war es...

Importierte Parasitosen bei Kindern in Deutschland; Parasitic infections in children in Germany

Debus, Kaija
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
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Bei zunehmendem Reiseverkehr in subtropische und tropische Länder sowie Migrationen aus diesen Regionen könnte ein Anstieg von importierten Parasitosen bei Kindern erwartet werden. Vor Reisen in entsprechende Endemiegebiete werden Vorsichtsmassnahmen, wie Malariaprophylaxe empfohlen, es ist jedoch unbekannt, in welchem Umfang diesbezügliche Beratungen in Anspruch genommen werden und welchen Einfluss diese auf parasitäre Erkrankungen bei Kindern in Deutschland haben. Anhand der Ergebnisse einer 2-jährigen Studie werden Daten zu den wichtigsten, weil mit erheblichen Gesundheitsstörungen einhergehenden und weltweit häufigen Parasitosen, Malaria, viszerale Leishmaniasis und Schistosomiasis bei Kindern in Deutschland im Rahmen dieser Arbeit erstmalig vorgestellt, diskutiert und bewertet. Mittels eines anonymisierten Datenerhebungsbogens wurden über die ESPED (Erhebungseinheit für seltene pädiatrische Erkrankungen im Kindesalter) von Juli 2001 bis Juni 2003 Daten zu importierter Malaria, Schistosomiasis und viszeraler Leishmaniasis bei stationär in Kinderkliniken behandelten Kindern erhoben. Diese wurden mit Hilfe des Statistikprogramms SAS bezüglich ihrer Signifikanz überprüft. Die Kinder wurden entsprechend ihrer ethnischen Herkunft in die Gruppen Immigranten...

Leiharbeit in Deutschland und Japan. Ein interkultureller Vergleich einer atypischen Beschäftigungsform; Temporary Agency Employment in Germany and Japan. An Intercultural Comparison of an Atypical Form of Employment

Hennings, Matthias
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
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Seit der weltweiten Finanz- und Wirtschaftskrise 2008/2009, in der Tausende Leiharbeiter in kürzester Zeit ihre Jobs verloren, ist Leiharbeit zu einem gesellschaftspolitischen Thema geworden über das breit diskutiert und heftig debattiert wird. Während Leiharbeit einerseits das Flexibilitätspotential der Betriebe erweitert, gilt diese Beschäftigungsform andererseits als risikoreicher und minderwertiger als ein Normalarbeitsverhältnis. Die folgende Dissertation untersucht, in wie weit diese Aussage für Deutschland und Japan zutrifft. Dazu wird verglichen, wie Leiharbeit in beiden Ländern genutzt und geregelt wird, welche Chancen und Risiken dadurch für Leiharbeiter entstehen und welche strukturellen Unterschiede es zwischen deutschen und japanischen Leiharbeitern gibt. Die zentrale Fragestellung dabei ist, wie Leiharbeit von den Betroffenen in unterschiedlichen kulturellen Kontexten wahrgenommen wird. Dazu wurden in einer Fallstudie bei einem großen Fahrzeughersteller in Deutschland und Japan über 100 Leiharbeiter befragt und die Ergebnisse statistisch ausgewertet. Die Untersuchung zeigt, dass diese Beschäftigungsform, entgegen dem Bild in den Medien, von Leiharbeitern in Deutschland weitaus positiver wahrgenommen wird, während japanische Leiharbeiter...

Determinants of successful immigrant entrepreneurship in the Federal Republic of Germany; Determinanten der erfolgreichen Unternehmertätigkeit von Immigranten in Deutschland

Fertala, Nikolinka
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
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Self-employment and entrepreneurship are economic phenomena of significant importance, which are increasingly addressed in the social science research and, on the other hand, in the mass media. Governments all over the world extol its benefits and implement policies designed to promote the venturing activities in their respective countries. There are several reasons for this interest in, and enthusiasm for, entrepreneurship. Owner-managers of small enterprises, for instance, run the majority of businesses in most countries. These enterprises are credited with providing specialised goods and services that are ignored by the largest companies. In addition, they intensify competition, thereby growing economic efficiency. Some entrepreneurs pioneer new markets for innovative products and services, creating job opportunities and enhancing economic growth. But only in a few cases, today’s small owner-managed enterprises do grow to become tomorrow’s industrial giants. Even those that do not may create positive externalities, like the development of supply chain that help attract inward investments, or greater social inclusion. It is often claimed that the decentralisation of economic production into a large number of small firms is good for society and democracy...

Transforming Memories: Workers’ Recollection of the Socialist Regimes in East Germany and Hungary

BARTHA, Eszter
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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This paper analyzes and compares workers’ memories of the late socialist regimes in East Germany and Hungary. It presents the results of an oral history project conducted in two factories, Rába MVG in Győr (Hungary) and Carl Zeiss in Jena (Germany) between 2002 and 2003. Both factories were large enterprises of the socialist period and both were considered to be “model” factories. The two enterprises survived systemic change but with considerably reduced personnel. Forty life-history interviews were made in both factories with an equal number of people who were still employed there, and with those who had lost their jobs during re-structuring. The selection of the interviewees had two main criteria: 1) an equal number of men and women; 2) the age of at least 40 so that the interviewees had work experience under the socialist regime. To find interviewees, I used the snowball method and newspaper advertisements. The partly similar, partly different experiences of transformation influenced the construction of the memories of socialism in the two countries. Although it cannot be said that the socialist system left only negative memories behind in East Germany – in fact, most of the interviewees argued that the school system, health care system and child care institutions were better...

Classical opera under authoritarian rule: A comparative study of cultural policy in the USSR, Italy and Germany

KOTKINA, Irina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
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The aim of this thesis is to analyze and compare the operatic culture of Stalinist USSR, Nazi Germany, and Fascist Italy. This task implies analyzing and comparing the operatic cultures, and scrutinizing governmental policies as they affected opera in the USSR, Germany, and Italy in the period of authoritarian rule. The most important focus is on the impact which these three regimes had on opera. And we start our analysis from the paradoxical fact that opera managed to retain its high quality during the time of strictest repression; Defense date: 15/12/2008; Examining Board: Prof. Edward Arfon Rees (EUI, and European Research Institute, University of Birmingham) - supervisor Prof. Heinz-Gerhard Haupt (EUI) Prof. Svetlana Savenko (Moscow State P.I. Tchaikovsky Conservatory, and Russian State Institute for Art Studies) Prof. Hans Erich Bödeker (Max Planck Institute for History, Göttingen, and Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin)

Concepts of Social Justice in the Welfare State. Great Britain and Germany since 1945

TORP, Cornelius
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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Concepts of social justice are at the very heart of the welfare state. From the perspective of the history of institutions, the article reconstructs the principles of justice which underlie the architecture of the social security systems in Great Britain and Germany and analyses how they have changed since 1945. It turns out that in general both welfare states are based on mixtures of different concepts of justice. Parallels can be found above all in the health care systems, which in both countries are based on a combination of two principles – equality of access on the one side and treatment according to one’s needs on the other side. There are more significant differences, in contrast, in regard to insuring against unemployment and to pension systems, whereby the British welfare state entails a link between the norms of equality and of neediness, whereas in Germany the principle of the equivalence between contributions and benefits is deeply rooted. All path-dependencies notwithstanding, a convergence in the institutional arrangements of both welfare states can be traced over the last decades. In Britain as well as in Germany means-tested benefits and thus the principle of neediness became increasingly important, most notably in the field of unemployment benefits. At the same time...

Inherited Conflicts: Spaces of contention between second-generation Turkish and Kurdish diasporas in Sweden and Germany

BASER, Bahar
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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This thesis aims to contribute to a broader understanding of spill-over of homeland conflicts the host country by diaspora groups and analyses how the repercussions of the Kurdish question in Turkey are reflected in the interactions between second-generation Turks and Kurds in Sweden and Germany. It is argued that the on-going conflict adversely affects the relationship between the two ethnic groups, but that the tensions and conflict dynamics are not an exact reflection of the situation in the homeland, and instead take a different form in each hostland. The contentions between the groups and their grievances are dependent on several factors that are rooted in the hostland and directly or indirectly affect how these groups establish contact with one another. These include: the profile of the migrants; the size of the ethnic communities; the ratio of one ethnic community to another in the hostland; the political and discursive opportunity structures in the hostland; and the relations between the homeland and the hostland. The second generation were selected as the sample group in this thesis as they offer a clearer picture of the host country impact, as well as the persistence of conflict dynamics in the diaspora spaces. The arguments that this thesis makes are based largely on field research...

Evolution of security identity of domestic antimilitarism and\roles of political parties: case studies of Japan and Germany

An, Hyoju
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xiv, 141 p. ; 28 cm.
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; Both Japan and Germany have presented security identities of domestic antimilitarism throughout their postwar political histories. Remnants of war memories made peoples of both nations strongly antipathetic to waging a war as a way of pursuing national security. They institutionalized such means as constitutions, laws, and civilian control of military means. Among several tenets of security identities, the most basic and core tenet was no use of force in foreign war. Up until the Cold War period, the bans remained intact. However, as changes in the security environment appeared along with the end of the Cold War, Japan and Germany relied on the circumstances to consider modifying their long-standing antimilitarist approaches to security policies. This thesis examines how Japan's and Germany's political parties contributed to developing new security identities of domestic antimilitarism under the changing security environment and foreign expectations. The main focus of this thesis is finding out the answers to how the political parties' role as representatives of the public, policy makers based on their inherent security policy stances, and competitors over the preferred policies exerted influence on the evolution of the Japan's and Germany's security identity of domestic antimilitarism. Both nations faced international criticism in the Gulf War due mainly to their failures to properly meet the new expectations of the international community. In consideration of lessons learned from the Gulf War...

Postcard of the Neues Rathaus in Leipzig, Germany collected during the Lovett World Tour for Rice Institute

Fonte: Rice University Publicador: Rice University
Tipo: postcards; Image
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Trolley trains, horse carriages and a large group of pedestrians can be seen crossing the street across of the Neues Rathaus in Leipzig, Germany. Original resource is a Sepia-tone postcard.; This item was collected on the world tour taken by Rice Institute President Edgar Odell Lovett, his wife Mary Hale Lovett, and Secretary for Rice's Board of Trustees, Carrington Weems. The mission of the tour was to research the best characteristics of the world's top universities and plan the academic, administrative, student and physical structure of the Rice Institute.

The Domestic Impact of Europe: Institutional adaptation in Germany and Spain

BORZEL, Tanja A.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
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Defence date: 1 March 1999; Examining Board: Prof. Adrienne Héritier (EUI, Supervisor) ; Prof. Yves Mény (EUI, Co-supervisor) ; Prof. Alberta Sbragia (University of Pittsburgh) ; Prof. Fritz W. Scharpf (Max-Planck-Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung); Tanja Borzel argues that the effect of Europeanization on the politics and institutions of the EU's member states depends on the degree of conflict between European and domestic norms and rules. The thesis examines the relationship between the central state and regions in Germany and Spain, showing how Europeanization has served to weaken the powers of the regions. In both countries, the regions were forced to cooperate more closely with the centre, but the institutional impact in the two countries has been strikingly different. In Germany the existing cooperative Federal system was reinforced, but in Spain the traditional competitive relationship between the levels of government could not continue. Europeanization has led to a significant change in the pattern of Spanish politics, turning rivalry into cooperation. This thesis thus presents an important analysis of the impact of Europeanization on domestic politics, and on the relationship between states and regions in particular.

Path-dependency or Convergence? The emergence of labour market institutions in the media production industries in the UK and Germany

BAUMANN, Arne
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper; application/pdf
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Defence date: 14 February 2003; Examining Board: Prof. Uschi BACKES-GELLNER (University of Zurich) Prof. Colin CROUCH (EUI, Supervisor) Prof. David MARSDEN (London School of Economics and Political Science) Prof. Philippe C. SCHMITTER (EUI); This study compares labour market institutions and their emergence in the media production industries of Great Britain and Germany. The two principal institutions examined are vocational education and training patterns on the one hand and recruitment channels on the other hand. The former manage the labour market entry at the start of an individual's career while the latter govern the repeated labour market transactions between company and employee that occur throughout an individual's career. The comparison of these institutions in the two industries is based on novel labour market data for both companies' and individuals' training and employment behaviour in Germany and the UK. On a theoretical level, the comparison analyses dynamics of institutional formation and contributes to the literature on varieties of capitalism and socio-economic institutions. The examination of labour market institutions in the media industries of two countries that are generally classified as belonging to opposite types of market economy allows us to study dynamics of institutional reproduction and change. In order to map difference and similarity in institutional formation...

How can we escape from 'terrorism'? The disappearance of the political violence in France and West Germany in 1970-1990

REQUATE, Jörg; ZESSIN, Philipp
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Research on political violence and terrorism is usually focused on the origins and the dynamics of violence. This article attempts to overcome the neglect of ways of leaving terrorism. One important hypothesis of this article is that terrorism should be understood as a strategy of communication. How did states and societies face the `communicative challenge' posed by terrorism? This question will be applied to the cases of left-wing terrorism in 1970s and 1980s West Germany and France. In the 1970s, in West Germany, a political dialogue with the left-wing group RAF (Rote Armee Fraktion) seemed to be impossible, whereas in France violent groups engaged with the wider public through public communication. By this way an escalation of violence could be avoided, but in the 1980s French terrorist groups such as Action Directe modelled themselves on the West German RAF: as a consequence, any communication with the state or society was interrupted. At the same time, in West Germany, the question of whether a dialogue with the RAF should be started was at the core of public discussion. Some stated that it would be the only possibility to make them give up, while others rejected any idea of communicating with terrorists. The West German and French cases show us that the communicational situation...

Die Rezeption V. S. Solov'evs in Deutschland; The reception of V. S. Solovyov in Germany

Belkin, Dmitrij
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
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Die Dissertation gibt einen Einblick in die Geschichte und den Ablauf der Rezeption des russischen Philosophen, Theologen und Dichters Vladimir Solov'ev (1853 - 1900) in Deutschland. Erforscht wird die Geschichte der Veröffentlichungen der Texte von und über Solov'ev. Außerdem wird die Beziehung von Wissenschaftlern und Nichtwissenschaftlern zum Werk des russischen Denkers im Lichte ihrer eigenen weltanschaulichen und wissenschaftlichen Positionen betrachtet. Die Ideen Vladimir Solov'evs wurden in Deutschland von den katholischen und evangelischen Theologen, von Philosophen, Historikern, Slawisten, von den Anthroposophen wahrgenommen. Neben der Einführung und dem Schlußteil besteht die Arbeit aus vier Teilen, die der Periodisierung der deutschen Rezeption Solov'evs entsprechen. Zum wichtigsten Ergebnis dieser Rezeption wurde die Deutsche Gesamtausgabe der Werke Solov'evs (1953 - 1980). Die Dissertation vereinigt Elemente der Historiographie (im Sinne der Geschichte der Geschichtswissenschaft) und der Ideengeschichte. Die Arbeit enthält eine Deutsche Solov'ev-Bibliographie, die sich vor allem mit den Veröffentlichungen von 1978 bis heute beschäftigt.; The dissertation looks into the history and the development of the reception of the Russian philosopher...

Ex Oriente Lux : music from India, Iran, Austria, Germany and Argentina

Fartach-Naini, O.; Nielsen, T.
Fonte: Kreuzberg Records; Germany Publicador: Kreuzberg Records; Germany
Tipo: Recorded work
Publicado em //2004 Português
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http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/8413919; Ravi Shankar: 1. L'Aube Enchantée- sur le Raga "Todi" (13:41) Majid Derakhshani: 2. Mehhr (5:17) 3. Sahar (3:16) 4. Karavhn (5:36) Thomas Wallisch: 5. Looking ahead (5:02) Ludger Vollmer: Steadfast against the sun; 6. I ̳ 88 (3:00) II Molto Cantabile (9:45) II In rasendem Zeitmaβ. gehetzt. mit hämmerndem Puls Coco NeLegatti: Tres Temas Argentinos; 9. Un Motivo De Vals (2:47) 10. Milonga Del Serafin (3:15) 11. El Cronopio (2:56); Ludger Vollmer, composition; Thea Nielsen (Germany), flute; Oliver Fartach-Naini (Germany), guitar. Extent: 61 minutes, 20 seconds Recorded in Berlin, Germany, August 20th 2003 Oliver Fartach-Naini role in the performance was Editing in collaboration with composer Ludger Vollmer, Performing and Recording with flautist Thea Nielsen CD “Ex Oriente Lux” 11 track CD commercially released by Kreuzberg Records (KR 10091)2004 with world premiere recordings of works by Vollmer, NeLegatti and Derakhshani. Broadcasting network Various e.g. SFB (Germany) and WDPR (USA)

National energy policies of the Federal Republic of Germany and Canada in the 1970s and 1980s: are economic and/or environmental concerns responsible for change?

Pfleger, Anita Angelika.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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The thesis presents a comparison of the national energy policies of the Federal Republic of Germany and Canada from 1973 until the late 1980s. The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether economic and/or environmental concerns were responsible for changes in the· West-German and Canadian national energy policies. Furthermore, the feasibility of implementing a soft energy path in West-Germany and Canada is examined. For better comprehension of the policy-making process and implemented changes in the national energy policies of the two states, the West-German and Canadian parliamentary systems and the political cultures were compared. For the analysis, several events with international impact were taken as guidelines. Furthermore, based on statistical data, the West-German and Canadian energy production and consumption were analyzed. With reference to these results the degree of the de facto changes in the national energy policies were analyzed. In addition, the thesis discusses the possibilities which a soft energy path offers to both national governments to renounce themselves from the dependencies on a few energy resources. The thesis reveals that changes in the West-German and Canadian national energy policies...

"Great Technology, Football and...": Malaysian Language Learners' Stereotypes about Germany

Nikitina,Larisa; Don,Zuraidah Binti Mohd; Loh,Sau Cheong
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo/Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas/; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Língua e Literatura Alemã Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo/Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas/; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Língua e Literatura Alemã
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
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This study focuses on stereotypes about Germany, its culture and people, held by learners of German in a big public university in Malaysia. It examines not only the stereotypical representations of the target language country but also assesses its favourability and salience, which has not been done previously. The findings revealed that the students' stereotypes about Germany were varied and diverse. Also, they were overwhelmingly positive. The top three salient categories of images about Germany were related to technology, famous personalities - for the most part football players and scientists - and cars. The findings also indicated that very few references had been made to German culture and to its great cultural figures. The results of the present study suggest that students could benefit from a wider and deeper exposure to German culture in the language classroom.

Reforming Federal Systems: Insights from Australia, Canada, Germany and Switzerland

Broschek, Jörg
Fonte: CÉRIUM Publicador: CÉRIUM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Reform represents a distinct mode of change within federal systems that can be distinguished from passive adaptation. Through reform, political actors deliberately seek to alter parts of the federal institutional architecture so as to modify or even reverse an established historical trajectory. This study systematically explores the variety of reform patterns in federal systems by looking at instances of institutional reforms in four federations (Australia, Canada, Germany and Switzerland) since the early 1990s. It demonstrates that reform patterns exhibit interesting similarities and differences. To a great extent, these are largely contingent on the nature of problems that different types of federalism tend to produce. The study detects similarities between Australia and Canada, where federal reforms sought to strengthen mechanisms of collaboration and to address the vertical fiscal imbalance, and between Germany and Switzerland, where dis-entanglement occurred as the leitmotiv of federal reforms. At the same time, the study finds no systematic connection between one of the two identified reform patterns on the one hand, the sustainability of federal reforms on the other hand. While Australia and Switzerland seem to represent examples of rather sustainable reform pathways...

Was Germany ever united?: evidence from intra- and international trade 1885-1933

Wolf, Nikolaus
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2008 Português
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This paper asks whether Germany was ever an economically integrated area. I explore the geography of trade costs in a new data set of about 40,000 observations on regional trade flows within and across the borders of Germany over the period 1885 – 1933. There are three key results. First, the German Empire before 1914 was a poorly integrated economy, both relative to integration across the borders of the German state and internally. Second, this internal fragmentation had its origins in administrative borders within Germany, in a geographical barrier that divided Germany roughly along natural trade routes into east and west, and in a considerable cultural heterogeneity within Germany prior to 1919. Third, internal integration improved along with external disintegration in the wake of the war, partly due to border changes along the lines of ethno-linguistic heterogeneity and again with the Great Depression. By the end of the Weimar Republic in 1933, Germany was reasonably well integrated.