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Suscetibilidade para a cultura de consumo global sob a ótica de marcas globais: um estudo de características comuns entre culturas baseado na teoria clássica e na teoria de resposta ao item; Susceptibility to global consumer culture under the perspective of global brands: a study of common features based between cultures in classical theory and theory of response to item

Merino, Martin Nelson Hernani
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/02/2014 Português
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Mais da metade da população no mundo vive em povoados e cidades. Estes lugares correspondem àqueles que têm sido imediata e diretamente influenciados pela globalização. Nesse cenário, muitas empresas multinacionais estão alterando seus portfólios de marcas em favor de marcas globais; essa situação faz com que surja o conceito de cultura de consumo global - conjunto de símbolos relacionados ao consumo e comportamentos que são comumente entendidos, mas não, necessariamente, compartilhados pelos consumidores e negócios ao redor do mundo. Isso dependeria da suscetibilidade para a cultura de consumo global (SCCG), uma característica ou traço latente dos consumidores que varia através dos indivíduos e é refletido no desejo dos consumidores ou tendências para a aquisição e uso de marcas globais. Esse traço, pela literatura revisada, compreenderia a conformidade com a tendência de consumo global, percepção de qualidade, prestígio social, responsabilidade social, credibilidade de marca, risco percebido e custo de informação armazenada. É nesse contexto, portanto, que se insere a presente tese, ao caracterizar e verificar o impacto dos traços latentes da suscetibilidade para a cultura de consumo global (SCCG) de consumidores em distintas culturas (países) na aquisição de marcas globais. A pesquisa empírica consistiu de um survey com uso de questionário pela Internet...

Avaliação da resposta imune inata de ouriços-do-mar antárticos Sterechinus neumayeri e tropicais Lytechinus variegatus e Echinometra lucunter frente ao aquecimento global.; Evaluation of innate imune response of Antarctic Sterechinus neumayeri and tropical sea urchins Lytechinus variegatus e Echinometra lucunter in response to global warming.

Branco, Paola Cristina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/04/2014 Português
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O aquecimento global é uma realidade e seus efeitos são bastante estudados atualmente. No entanto, pouca atenção tem-se dado para as alterações que ocorrem com invertebrados marinhos em decorrência dessa alteração climática. Sabe-se que uma das alterações que ocorrem em consequência do aumento da temperatura da água do mar, é o aumento do aparecimento de doenças no ambiente marinho. Para tanto, é importante que se avalie sua resposta imune inata frente a esse fator estressor. Os ouriços-do-mar foram escolhidos como modelo por serem considerados bons biondicadores ambientais, além de serem filogeneticamente próximos aos cordados, partilhando com estes, amplo repertório de genes e receptores envolvidos no sistema imune inato. O presente trabalho avaliou a resposta imune inata de ouriços-do-mar antárticos (S. neumayeri) e tropicais (L. variegatus e E. lucunter) frente ao estresse térmico por diferentes temperaturas e períodos de exposição. No que se refere aos ouriços-do-mar tropicais, foram estudadas duas espécies, uma que habita regiões menos submetidas a variações de marés (L. variegatus) e outra constantemente exposta a variações de maré (E. lucunter). Constatou-se uma diferença entre a resposta ao estresse térmico nas três espécies estudadas. A espécie antártica demonstrou alterações mais significativas de aumento na porcentagem de esferulócitos vermelhos (EV) e da capacidade fagocítica no período agudo de exposição (24h) quando submetidos a temperaturas intermediárias. Por outro lado...

Using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to characterize carbon steel in biodiesel medium

Akita, A. H.; Fugivara, C. S.; Aoki, I. V.; Benedetti, A. V.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 71-77
Português
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Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements using two carbon steel electrodes in soybean biodiesel medium, produced by methylic route, were performed in an electrochemical cell that allows positioning the two electrodes face-to-face. To retain the biodiesel between the electrodes and prevent its leakage a porous membrane soaked in biodiesel was used. The amplitude of the AC potential and the area of the electrodes were varied. The linearity between disturbance and response signals was observed for tests when the amplitude of the AC potential was lower than 1500 mV (rms). The electrical resistance of biodiesel dominates the global response and carbon steel presents low corrosion, which is observed only at low frequency, and was confirmed by chemical tests performed in the membrane. In conclusion the electrical resistance of biodiesel can be estimated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with two electrodes set up. ©The Electrochemical Society.

Response of pseudomonas putida KT2440 to phenol at the level of membrane proteome

Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Santos, Pedro; Benndorf, Dirk; Rapp, Erdmann; Correia, Isabel Sá
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2010 Português
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This study led to the extension and refinement of our current model for the global response of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to phenol by getting insights into the adaptive response mechanisms involving the membrane proteome. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis based protocol was optimized to allow the quantitative comparison of membrane proteins, by combining inner and outer membrane fractionation with membrane protein solubilization using the detergent dodecylmaltoside. Following phenol exposure, a coordinate increased content of protein subunits of known or putative solvent efflux pump systems (e.g. TtgA, TtgC, Ttg2A, Ttg2C, and PP_1516-7) and a decreased content of porins OprB, OprF, OprG and OprQ was registered, consistent with an adaptive response to reduce phenol intracellular concentration. This adaptive response may in part be mediated by post-translational modifications, as suggested by the relative content of the multiple forms identified for a few porins and efflux pump subunits. Results also suggest the important role of protein chaperones, of cell envelope and cell surface and of a more active respiratory chain in the response to phenol. All these mechanistic insights may be extended to Pseudomonas adaptation to solvents...

Beyond the first 25 years: The International AIDS Society and its role in the global response to AIDS

Cahn, Pedro; McClure, Craig
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2006 Português
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Dr. Pedro Cahn, International AIDS Society (IAS) President and Mr. Craig McClure, IAS Executive Director, provide their thoughts and analysis on the current and future role of the IAS as part of the global response to HIV/AIDS.

Exceptional epidemics: AIDS still deserves a global response

Whiteside, Alan; Smith, Julia
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/11/2009 Português
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There has been a renewed debate over whether AIDS deserves an exceptional response. We argue that as AIDS is having differentiated impacts depending on the scale of the epidemic, and population groups impacted, and so responses must be tailored accordingly. AIDS is exceptional, but not everywhere. Exceptionalism developed as a Western reaction to a once poorly understood epidemic, but remains relevant in the current multi-dimensional global response. The attack on AIDS exceptionalism has arisen because of the amount of funding targeted to the disease and the belief that AIDS activists prioritize it above other health issues. The strongest detractors of exceptionalism claim that the AIDS response has undermined health systems in developing countries.

Spatially Extended fMRI Signal Response to Stimulus in Non-Functionally Relevant Regions of the Human Brain: Preliminary Results

Kornak, John; Hall, Deborah A; Haggard, Mark P
Fonte: Bentham Open Publicador: Bentham Open
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/05/2011 Português
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The blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) haemodynamic response function (HDR) in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a delayed and indirect marker of brain activity. In this single case study a small BOLD response synchronised with the stimulus paradigm is found globally, i.e. in all areas outside those of expected activation in a single subject study. The nature of the global response has similar shape properties to the archetypal BOLD HDR, with an early positive signal and a late negative response typical of the negative overshoot. Fitting Poisson curves to these responses showed that voxels were potentially split into two sets: one with dominantly positive signal and the other predominantly negative. A description, quantification and mapping of the global BOLD response is provided along with a 2 × 2 classification table test to demonstrate existence with very high statistical confidence. Potential explanations of the global response are proposed in terms of 1) global HDR balancing; 2) resting state network modulation; and 3) biological systems synchronised with the stimulus cycle. Whilst these widespread and low-level patterns seem unlikely to provide additional information for determining activation in functional neuroimaging studies as conceived in the last 15 years...

The Global Response Regulator ExpA Controls Virulence Gene Expression through RsmA-Mediated and RsmA-Independent Pathways in Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193

Broberg, M.; Lee, G. W.; Nykyri, J.; Lee, Y. H.; Pirhonen, M.; Palva, E. T.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2014 Português
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ExpA (GacA) is a global response regulator that controls the expression of major virulence genes, such as those encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) in the model soft rot phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193. Several studies with pectobacteria as well as related phytopathogenic gammaproteobacteria, such as Dickeya and Pseudomonas, suggest that the control of virulence by ExpA and its homologues is executed partly by modulating the activity of RsmA, an RNA-binding posttranscriptional regulator. To elucidate the extent of the overlap between the ExpA and RsmA regulons in P. wasabiae, we characterized both regulons by microarray analysis. To do this, we compared the transcriptomes of the wild-type strain, an expA mutant, an rsmA mutant, and an expA rsmA double mutant. The microarray data for selected virulence-related genes were confirmed through quantitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR). Subsequently, assays were performed to link the observed transcriptome differences to changes in bacterial phenotypes such as growth, motility, PCWDE production, and virulence in planta. An extensive overlap between the ExpA and RsmA regulons was observed, suggesting that a substantial portion of ExpA regulation appears to be mediated through RsmA. However...

Global analysis of the immune response

Ribeiro, Leonardo Costa; Dickman, Ronald; Bernardes, Am?rico Trist?o
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto Publicador: Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto
Tipo: Artigo publicado em periodico
Português
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The immune system may be seen as a complex system, characterized using tools developed in the study of such systems, for example, surface roughness and its associated Hurst exponent. We analyze densitometric (Panama blot) profiles of immune reactivity, to classify individuals into groups with similar roughness statistics. We focus on a population of individuals living in a region in which malaria endemic, as well as a control group from a disease-free region. Our analysis groups individuals according to the presence, or absence, of malaria symptoms and number of malaria manifestations. Applied to the Panama blot data, our method proves more effective at discriminating between groups than principal-components analysis or super-paramagnetic clustering. Our findings provide evidence that some phenomena observed in the immune system can be only understood from a global point of view. We observe similar tendencies between experimental immune profiles and those of artificial profiles, obtained from an immune network model. The statistical entropy of the experimental profiles is found to exhibit variations similar to those observed in the Hurst exponent.

Building Response Strategies to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems in Latin America

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This report, Building Response Strategies to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems in Latin America, reports the results of action research to identify and prioritize stakeholder driven, locally relevant response options to climate change in Latin American agriculture. The study has three primary objectives. The first is to develop and apply a pilot methodology for assessing agricultural vulnerability to climate change and for formulating adaptation response strategies to inform private and public sector decisions in the Latin America region. The study is principally concerned with adaptation responses to climate change, rather than mitigation. The second objective is to formulate recommendations for investments in each of the selected agro-ecosystems in a range of areas including agricultural technology adaptation, infrastructure investments, public and private sector support activities, and institutional and policy changes. The final objective is to disseminate the study results in the Latin America region and other parts of the world to help increase understanding of the impacts of climate change and alternative adaptation response strategies. This methodology can be used by the Bank to support client countries in defining response strategies...

Global Program for Avian Influenza Control and Human Pandemic Preparedness and Response : Project Accomplishments

Jonas, Olga; Warford, Lucas
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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This report reviews some of the accomplishments of the Global Program for Avian Influenza Control and Human Pandemic Preparedness and Response (GPAI). This multisectoral program comprised 72 projects in 60 developing countries in all regions and received $1.3 billion in financing from the World Bank. This support for GPAI projects was one of the World Bank s contributions to a coordinated global response to the threats of avian and pandemic influenzas, which benefited from financing of $4 billion from 35 donors in 2006-2013. Thanks to this support, developing countries strengthened their capacity for early and effective disease control, bringing substantial public health and economic benefits to the countries and to the world. According to Harvard University Professor and former US Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers, "[veterinary and human public health systems are] probably the single most important area for productive investment on behalf of mankind." Indeed, circulation of the highly pathogenic avian flu virus was reduced...

Validation of Simplified Procedures for Predicting Global Response in the Context of DBD of Bridges, Including the Flexibility of Foundations / Case Study Comparison of DBD Iterative Procedures for Bridges

TAUCER FABIO; AYALA Gustavo; PAULOTTO Carlo
Fonte: OPOCE Publicador: OPOCE
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: CD-ROM
Português
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The present report collects the work performed in Deliverable 112 "Validation of simplified procedures for predicting global response in the context of DBD of bridges, including the flexibility of foundations" and in the chapter corresponding to Displacement Based Design of Deliverable 113 "Case study comparison of DBD iterative procedures for bridges" of the LESSLOSS Project, dealing with three main subjects: verifying that the concept of the Substitute Structure constitutes a valid means of predicting the response of a bridge structure undergoing plastic deformations; formulating a procedure for the displacement based design performance of bridges; defining the parameters of a Takeda Model to be used within the context of non-linear time history analysis of bridges with RC rectangular hollow columns.; JRC.G.5-European laboratory for structural assessment

Defining CP-CML patient subsets associated with poor imatinib uptake and response.

Watkins, Dale Benjamin
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014 Português
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The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, specifically imatinib, has dramatically improved the treatment outcome for the majority of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukaemia (CP-CML) patients. Although most patients will achieve excellent clinical (haematological, cytogenetic and molecular) responses on imatinib, it is clear that a subset of patients will respond poorly, or fail imatinib therapy. Currently, up to 35% of patients treated with imatinib fit into this subset, displaying either primary or acquired resistance, leading to sub-optimal response or imatinib failure. The organic cation transport-1 (OCT-1) protein is the major active protein involved in imatinib transport. Measuring the function of OCT-1 in leukaemic mononuclear cells prior to imatinib therapy, expressed as OCT-1 activity (OA), has been demonstrated to be a strong prognostic indicator. Notably, low OA is strongly associated with patients at significant risk of poor molecular response, mutation development and leukaemic transformation during imatinib therapy. It is important to therefore determine what factors underlie the range of OA levels observed in CP-CML patients, and whether patients with very low OA and poor response to imatinib have different overall disease characteristics associated with alternative biological mechanisms. The present study sought to 1) determine the variation in CP-CML patient immunophenotype at diagnosis...

Investing in Communities Achieves Results : Findings from an Evaluation of Community Responses to HIV and AIDS

Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Bonnel, René; Wilson, David; N'Jie, N'Della
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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The overview summarizes the evaluation of community responses (15 studies, including 11 evaluations carried out in 8 countries). It presents the evaluation questions, the methodology, the key results achieved by community responses along the continuum of prevention, treatment, care and support, and the resulting policy and programmatic implications. Before the scale-up of the international response to the AIDS pandemic, community responses in developing countries played a crucial role in providing services and care for those affected. This study is the first comprehensive, mixed-method evaluation of the impact of that response. The evaluation finds that community response can be effective at increasing knowledge of HIV, promoting social empowerment, increasing access to and use of HIV services, and even decreasing HIV incidence, all through the effective mobilization of limited resources. By effectively engaging with this powerful community structure, future HIV and AIDS programs can ensure that communities continue to contribute to the global response to HIV and AIDS.

Financing Vietnam's Response to Climate Change; Ngân sách cho ứng phó với biến đổi khí hậu ở Việtnam : dầu tư thông minh vì tương lai bền vững; Smart Investment for a Sustainable Future

Vietnam Ministry of Planning and Investment; World Bank Group; United Nations Development Programme
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Public Environmental Expenditure Review (PEER)
Português
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Climate-related hazards have adverse effects on national growth and poverty reduction, affecting the poor and several sectors of the economy simultaneously. At its current rate of growth, Vietnam will become a major global greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter. The Government of Vietnam initiated the Climate Public Expenditure and Investment Review (CPEIR) to advance an understanding of the current policy and institutional architecture as well as to assess current spending on its climate change response to help guide future climate change-related expenditures and policy implementation. The report has three components: (i) a policy, institutional and methodological review; (ii) an analysis of climate change response (CC-response) spending in five line ministries and three provinces; and (iii) recommendations and an action plan. The main goal of the CPEIR is to provide an overview of the current CC-response activities and formulate recommendations for how to improve priority setting, capacity building, coordination, expenditure management...

The Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization American-College-of-Rheumatology provisional criteria for the evaluation of response to therapy in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus: Prospective validation of the definition of improvement

Ruperto, N.; Ravelli, A.; Oliveira, S.; Alessio, M.; Mihaylova, D.; Pasic, S.; Cortis, E.; Apaz, M.; Burgos-Vargas, R.; Kanakoudi-Tsakalidou, F.; Norambuena, X; Corona, F.; Gerloni, V; Hagelberg, S.; Aggarwal, A.; Dolezalova, P.; Saad, C. M.; Bae, S.; Ves
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 355-363
Português
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Objective. To use the Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization (PRINTO) core set of outcome measures to develop a validated definition of improvement for the evaluation of response to therapy in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Methods. Thirty-seven experienced pediatric rheumatologists from 27 countries, each of whom had specific experience in the assessment of juvenile SLE patients, achieved consensus on 128 patient profiles as being clinically improved or not improved. Using the physicians' consensus ratings as the gold standard measure, the chi-square, sensitivity, specificity, false-positive and false-negative rates, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and kappa level of agreement for 597 candidate definitions of improvement were calculated. Only definitions with a kappa value greater than 0.7 were retained. The top definitions were selected based on the product of the content validity score multiplied by its kappa statistic.Results. The definition of improvement with the highest final score was at least 50% improvement from baseline in any 2 of the 5 core set measures, with no more than 1 of the remaining worsening by more than 30%.Conclusion. PRINTO proposes a valid and reproducible definition of improvement that reflects well the consensus rating of experienced clinicians and that incorporates clinically meaningful change in core set measures in a composite end point for the evaluation of global response to therapy in patients with juvenile SLE. The definition is now proposed for use in juvenile SLE clinical trials and may help physicians to decide whether a child with SLE responded adequately to therapy.

Needed : a realistic strategy for global warming

Fonte: MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Publicador: MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change
Formato: 8 p.; 28911 bytes; application/pdf
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Through a brief look at the science and economics of climate, the authors show that if climate change turns out to be a serious threat, an effective response will require a substantial and very long-term global effort. Today's focus on near-term emissions reductions will be counter-productive if it delays development of the institutions and policy architectures that would be necessary to mount and sustain such an effort over much of the next century. The authors discuss three legacies that our generation could leave that would make this struggle to devise a global response easier: (1) an international climate agreement that could, if necessary, reduce greenhouse gas emissions substantially, at least cost, while being responsive both to changes in our scientific understanding and to evolving political and economic conditions, (2) enhanced technical options that could, if necessary, ease the task of maintaining economic growth while controlling greenhouse gas emissions, and (3) an international system that could, if necessary, transfer substantial sums to developing countries to assist their participation in an emissions control effort. Building these legacies is a huge challenge, but this task merits at least the same sense of urgency that has motivated pre-Kyoto negotiations about short-term CO2 emissions reductions.; Abstract in HTML and technical report in HTML and PDF available on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change website (http://mit.edu/globalchange/www/).

The acid adaptive tolerance response in Campylobacter jejuni induces a global response, as suggested by proteomics and microarrays

Varsaki, Athanasia; Murphy, Caroline; Barczynska, Alicja; Jordan, Kieran; Carroll, Cyril
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Publicador: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Campylobacter jejuni CI 120 is a natural isolate obtained during poultry processing and has the ability to induce an acid tolerance response (ATR) to acid + aerobic conditions in early stationary phase. Other strains tested they did not induce an ATR or they induced it in exponential phase. Campylobacter spp. do not contain the genes that encode the global stationary phase stress response mechanism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genes that are involved in the C. jejuni CI 120 early stationary phase ATR, as it seems to be expressing a novel mechanism of stress tolerance. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to examine the expression profile of cytosolic proteins during the C. jejuni CI 120 adaptation to acid + aerobic stress and microarrays to determine the genes that participate in the ATR. The results indicate induction of a global response that activated a number of stress responses, including several genes encoding surface components and genes involved with iron uptake. The findings of this study provide new insights into stress tolerance of C. jejuni, contribute to a better knowledge of the physiology of this bacterium and highlight the diversity among different strains.

Carbon and Water Relations in Pinus Taeda: Bridging the Gap across Plant Physiology, Genomics, and Global Climate Change

Moura, Catarina
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 5968147 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 23/06/2008 Português
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Plants respond to changes in their local environment and, at the same time, influence the environment at a global scale. The molecular and physiological mechanisms regulating this interaction are not completely understood and this limits our capacity to predict the response of vegetation to future environmental changes. This dissertation combined tools from genomics, physiology, and ecology to examine the response of plants to environmental change. Specifically, it focused on processes affecting carbon and water exchange in forest trees because (1) trees are long-lived species that might face repeated environmental challenges; (2) relatively little information exists about the genes and the molecular mechanisms regulating structural and physiological traits in adult, long-lived woody plants; and (3) forest trees exchange a significant amount of carbon and water with the atmosphere and are therefore major players in the global carbon and water cycles.

Water flux through forests depends both on environmental conditions (e.g., soil moisture) and on the hydraulic architecture of individual trees. Resistance to xylem cavitation is an important hydraulic trait that is often associated with drought tolerance but potentially at the cost of reduced carbon uptake. The second chapter of this dissertation evaluated the variation in resistance to xylem cavitation...

Global and Mexican analytical review of the state of the art on ecosystem and environmental services: A geographical approach

Perevochtchikova,Maria; Oggioni,Julia
Fonte: Instituto de Geografía, UNAM Publicador: Instituto de Geografía, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
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Within a strong international movement for conservation of natural resources, the term of Ecosystem Services (ES) which refers to all benefits that nature offers to society, was introduced at Rio Conference, 1992. After this, the first compensation scheme for ES, as one of the tools of the new environmental policy directed towards the principles of sustainable development, was proposed in Kyoto Protocol, 1997. Its objective is to prevent the reduction of natural resources' availability, and to improve human well-being by means of monetary compensation for conservation activities. Since then, the theme of ES found a global response, which was reflected in the implementation of payment programs and development of studies in many countries worldwide, where it's possible to note the different perspectives of analysis and aspects included, as well as methodology used. In this regard, this paper presents the state of art on ES and Environmental Services research (specific term adopted in public policy) in global and Mexican perspectives. It is based on the review of 1 781 scientific papers published in international peer-viewed journals between 1992 and 2012 (twenty years since Rio Conference). Furthermore, the work provides a sound geographical overview of the main ES topics studied and the relative contribution of papers per region...