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Family types and the persistence of regional disparities in Europe

Duranton, Gilles; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés; Sandall, Richard
Fonte: Spatial Economics Research Centre (SERC), London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Spatial Economics Research Centre (SERC), London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2008 Português
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89.32828%
This paper examines the association between one of the most basic institutional forms, the family, and a series of demographic, educational, social, and economic indicators across regions in Europe. Using Emmanuel Todd’s classification of medieval European family systems, we identify potential links between family types and regional disparities in household size, educational attainment, social capital, labor participation, sectoral structure, wealth, and inequality. The results indicate that medieval family structures seem to have influenced European regional disparities in virtually every indicator considered. That these links remain, despite the influence of the modern state and population migration, suggests that either such structures are extremely resilient or else they have in the past been internalized within other social and economic institutions as they developed.

Book review: untying the knot: marriage, the state and the case for their divorce

Watson, Amy
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/05/2011 Português
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Amy Watson reviews a theoretically rigorous and intellectually compelling argument for the renegotiation of the liberal state’s definition of marriage, although we shouldn’t expect to see David Cameron discussing the possibility anytime soon.

Increasing water intake of children and parents in the family setting: a randomized, controlled intervention using installation theory

Lahlou, Saadi; Boesen-Mariani, Sabine; Franks, Bradley; Guelinckx, Isabelle
Fonte: Karger Publicador: Karger
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Children and adults in developed countries on average consume too little water, which can lead to negative health consequences. In a one-year longitudinal field experiment in Poland, we compared the impact of three home-based interventions on helping children and their parents/carers to develop sustainable increased plain water consumption habits. Fluid consumption of 334 children and their carers were recorded over one year using on-line specific fluid dietary record. They were initially randomly allocated to three conditions: Control, Information (child and carer received information on the health benefits of water), Placement (in addition to information, free small bottles of still water for a limited time period were delivered at home). After three months, half of the non-controls were randomly assigned to Community (child and carer engaged in an on-line community forum providing support on water consumption). All conditions significantly increased water consumption of children (by 219-567%) and adults (by 22%-89%). Placement + Community generated the largest effects. Community enhanced the impact of Placement for children and parents, and the impact of Information for parents but not children. The results suggest that the family setting offers considerable scope for successful installation interventions encouraging children and carers to develop healthier consumption habits...

Supreme Court rules in favor of same-sex marriage across the U.S.: USAPP experts react

Kreitzer, Rebecca; Long, Doan; Chatfield, Sara
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/06/2015 Português
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89.47774%
On Friday, the Supreme Court ruled that state bans on gay marriage were unconstitutional in the case Obergefell v. Hodges. We asked our expert contributors for their reactions to the ruling.

Public attitudes on the gay marriage debate are divided along party lines

Clements, Ben
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/12/2012 Português
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89.59663%
The Minister for Women and Equalities, Maria Miller, made a statement to Parliament yesterday about gay marriage. Following this Ben Clements analyses the attitudes towards gay marriage among party supporters and finds that party affiliation is a clear dividing line in public opinion on this issue.

Chinese student migration, gender and family

Kajanus, Anni
Fonte: Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Palgrave Macmillan
Tipo: Book; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2015 Português
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89.65378%
Chinese Student Migration, Gender and Family is a study of the sons and daughters of Chinese single-child families who go abroad to study and in particular explores the increase of familial investment in daughters' education within the wider socio-moral transformation of China. The relationships of support in the family are renegotiated, and lines of generational and gendered power are changing. While this generation of young women have been raised in an environment that fosters individual achievement and competition, they must eventually find their place in the marriage and job markets that are highly gendered. Women are directed towards less demanding career paths and are wary of becoming 'too successful' to marry. Both female and male student migrants draw from their cosmopolitan experiences and resources when negotiating these tensions. Through their individual journeys of migration, they are at the forefront of the current transformation of the Chinese symbolic markets.

Clinical effectiveness of a manual based coping strategy programme (START, STrAtegies for RelaTives) in promoting the mental health of carers of family members with dementia: pragmatic randomised controlled trial

Livingston, Gill; Barber, Julie; Rapaport, Penny; Knapp, Martin; Griffin, Mark; King, Derek; Livingston, Debbie; Mummery, Cath; Walker, Zuzana; Hoe, Juanita; Sampson, Elizabeth L.; Cooper, Claudia
Fonte: British Medical Association Publicador: British Medical Association
Tipo: Article; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Objective: To assess whether a manual based coping strategy compared with treatment as usual reduces depression and anxiety symptoms in carers of family members with dementia. Design: Randomised, parallel group, superiority trial. Setting: Three mental health community services and one neurological outpatient dementia service in London and Essex, UK. Participants: 260 carers of family members with dementia. Intervention: A manual based coping intervention comprising eight sessions and delivered by supervised psychology graduates to carers of family members with dementia. The programme consisted of psychoeducation about dementia, carers’ stress, and where to get emotional support; understanding behaviours of the family member being cared for, and behavioural management techniques; changing unhelpful thoughts; promoting acceptance; assertive communication; relaxation; planning for the future; increasing pleasant activities; and maintaining skills learnt. Carers practised these techniques at home, using the manual and relaxation CDs. Main outcome measures: Affective symptoms (hospital anxiety and depression total score) at four and eight months. Secondary outcomes were depression and anxiety caseness on the hospital anxiety and depression scale; quality of life of both the carer (health status questionnaire...

Book review: The meaning of matrimony: debating same sex marriage

Knrishnan, Sneha
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2013 Português
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"The Meaning of Matrimony: Debating Same Sex Marriage." Anastasia de Waal (ed). CIVITAS Publications. June 2013. --- The Meaning of Matrimony attempts to capture the key arguments for and against marriage for gay couples in England and Wales. The contributors consider whether the Government’s legislation for same-sex marriage is liberal or illiberal; whether marriage should embody ‘tradition’ or social change; who speaks for the support and opposition of same-sex marriage; and importantly, the function marriage performs in society. Sneha Knrishnan feels that a more diverse selection of voices should have been included, and that issues intricately connected to the debate on gay marriage – such as immigration and social welfare – should not have been sidelined.

The more the merrier? The effect of family size and birth order on children's education

Black, Sandra; Devereux, Paul; Salvanes, Kjell
Fonte: Centre for the Economics of Education, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for the Economics of Education, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2005 Português
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89.32828%
There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich dataset on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the educational attainment of children. While we find a negative correlation between family size and children's education, when we include indicators for birth order and/or use twin births as an instrument, family size effects become negligible. In addition, birth order has a significant and large negative effect on children's education. We also study adult earnings, employment, and teenage childbearing, and find strong evidence for birth order effects with these outcomes, particularly among women. These findings suggest the need to revisit economic models of fertility and child 'production', focusing not only on differences across families but differences within families as well.

Book review: untying the knot: marriage, the state and the case for their divorce

Watson, Amy
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/07/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
99.61632%
Amy Watson reviews a theoretically rigorous and intellectually compelling argument for the renegotiation of the liberal state’s definition of marriage, although we shouldn’t expect to see David Cameron discussing the possibility anytime soon. Untying the Knot: Marriage, The State and The Case for Their Divorce. Tamara Metz. Princeton University Press.

The record of gender policies in Greece 1980-2010: legal form and economic substance

Lyberaki, Antigone
Fonte: The Hellenic Observatory, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The Hellenic Observatory, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2010 Português
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99.19207%
Reforms promoting gender equality in Greece are held by many to be one of the few real success stories of the post-1974 period. Indeed, there has been considerable activity in changes in employment, family, social insurance and other legislation all centered around the constitutional provision on equal treatment which came into force in 1983. This activism, however, was mainly about statutory changes and lacked a feminist analysis of women’s real position in the Greek economy and society. The main argument of the paper is that gender equality-promoting policies, laws and measures - ‘Legalistic Formalism’- failed because they ignored the dual nature of the labour market and the economics of the family. By focusing on legal form and ignoring reality it allowed the reform momentum to be hijacked.

The family gap in pay: evidence from seven industrialised countries

Harkness, Susan; Waldfogel, Jane
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
99.38133%
In this paper we use microdata on employment and earnings from a variety of industrialised countries to investigate the family gap in pay - the differential in hourly wages between women with children and women without children. We present results from seven countries: Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, Finland, and Sweden. We find that there is a good deal of variation across our sample countries in the effects of children on women's employment. We also find large differences in the effects of children on women's hourly wages even after controlling for differences between women with children and women without children in characteristics such as age and education. Among the seven countries we study here, the United Kingdom displays the largest wage penalties to children. The family gap in pay is larger in the U.K. than in other countries because of the higher propensity of U.K. mothers to work in low-paid part-time jobs but also because even among full-timers, women with children in the U.K. are lower paid relative to other women than are mothers in other countries. Why does the family gap in pay vary so much across countries? We find that the variation in the family gap in pay across countries is not primarily due to differential selection into employment or to differences in wage structure. We therefore suggest that future research should examine the impact of family policies such as maternity leave and child care on the family gap in pay.

Existential field 8: Media, communication and information technologies in the European family

Livingstone, Sonia; Das, Ranjana
Fonte: Family Platform Project Publicador: Family Platform Project
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
99.3974%
Media, communication and information technologies in the European family examines the existential field of Family, Media, Family Education and Participation as part of the work programme of the Family Platform project. The Existential Field 8 (EF8) report is written at a time of substantial technological and social change, resulting in a simultaneously diverging and converging media environment, strongly shaped by processes of globalisation and the recent advent of widespread access to the internet and mobile technologies. Structured according to four central themes – the changing place of the media in the European home; digital interactive and mobile technologies; parenting, media, everyday and socialisation; and mediating relations between family and wider society – the review also includes five special focus pieces on diasporic media consumptions, mobile media, new technologies and intimate relationships, digital exclusion and girl culture. Six key trends emerge: 1. New, interactive, individualised and personalised media technologies are rapidly contributing to a diverse media environment in Europe. Across Europe, young people are staying at home for longer periods of time – perhaps appropriately termed an extended adolescence...

Support for same-sex marriage in the US Senate is growing, but additional gains will be difficult to achieve

Theriault, Sean; Thomas , Herschel
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/11/2014 Português
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89.69753%
In the last few years, state after state and senator after senator have declared their support for full marriage equality. Such momentum suggests that the goals of same-sex marriage advocates will be realized sooner rather than later. In new research, Sean Theriault and Herschel Thomas analyze when senators announce their support for same-sex marriage. Contrary to the popularly held belief that their decisions will quickly snowball into filibuster-proof numbers, they find that most of the easy successes have already been achieved.

The effect on fertility of the 2003-2011 war in Iraq

Cetorelli, Valeria
Fonte: Wiley on behalf of the Population Council, Inc. Publicador: Wiley on behalf of the Population Council, Inc.
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
89.81057%
This article provides the first detailed account of recent fertility trends in Iraq, with a particular focus on the changes resulting from the 2003–2011 war and the factors underlying them. The study is based on retrospective birth history data from the 2006 and 2011 Iraq Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (I-MICS). Estimates from the two surveys indicate that total fertility remained stable from 1997 to 2010, at about 4.5 children per woman. However, examination of the age patterns of fertility reveals an abrupt shift in the timing of births, with adolescent fertility rising by over 30 percent soon after the onset of the war. A decomposition analysis shows that the rise in early childbearing is due to an increased prevalence of early marriage among less-educated women. The prevalence of early marriage and childbearing among women with secondary or higher education is relatively low and has not increased after 2003.

Half a century of television in the lives of our children

Livingstone, Sonia
Fonte: SAGE Publicador: SAGE
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2009 Português
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89.33521%
The quintessential image of the television audience is of the family viewing at home—sitting together comfortably in front of the lively set. Accompanying this happy image is its negative—a child viewing alone while real life goes on elsewhere. This article reviews evidence over five decades regarding the changing place of television in children’s lives. It argues that, notwithstanding postwar trends that have significantly changed adolescence, the family home, and wider consumer society, there was time for the 1950s family experiment to spawn the 1960s and 1970s family television experiment, thereby shaping normative expectations—academic, policy, and popular—regarding television audiences for years to come. At the turn of the twenty-first century, we must recognize that it was the underlying long-term trend of individualization, and its associated trends of consumerism, globalization, and democratization, that, historically and now, more profoundly frame the place of television in the family.

Family ties: women’s work and family histories and their association with incomes in later life in the UK

Sefton, Tom; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
89.76186%
This paper examines the relationship between the family and work histories of older women in the UK and their individual incomes in later life, using retrospective data from the first fifteen waves of the British Household Panel Survey. The associations between women’s family histories and their incomes later in life are relatively weak, and in many cases insignificant. Divorce, early widowhood and re-marriage are not associated with significant differences in older women’s incomes, whilst motherhood is only associated with a small reduction in incomes later in life – and not at all for certain sub-groups of the population. Whilst there are significant differences in the work histories of older women with different family histories, this does not translate into large differences in their personal incomes, because work history-related income differentials are also relatively small. Even long periods in employment are not associated with significantly higher incomes in later life if these periods were in predominantly part-time or ‘mixed’ employment. Our analysis demonstrates how effective public transfers have been in dampening work history-related differentials in older women’s incomes, especially for widows and those towards the bottom of the income distribution. On the one hand...

Reading list: 7 USAPP articles to help understand the Supreme Court’s same-sex marriage cases

Gilson, Chris
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/04/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
89.27373%
This week the Supreme Court will hear cases from Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee on whether those states’ bans on same-sex marriages are constitutional, and if they must recognize same-sex marriages performed in other states. USAPP editor, Chris Gilson, compiles a selection of articles from our archive which cover the debate over the constitutionality and recognition of same-sex marriages, and on public attitudes to such unions, which has led to the current cases before the Supreme Court.

Justice, children and family

Reshef, Yehonathan
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2012 Português
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Taking as a starting point the assumption that justice is the first virtue of the family, my main aim in this dissertation is to offer an account of what justice requires of parents. Grappling with this issue, however, sheds some light on related questions that are wider in scope: How should we think about justice in general? What is the distinctive value of the family? What would a society of just families look like? In answering these questions, the following thesis is advanced: Demands of justice are best understood contextually. They arise from the characteristics of the specific relationship in the context within which they are meant to apply. An account of justice in the family should thus appeal to the parent–child relationship itself. This is an intimate fiduciary relationship that normally constitutes the primary site of upbringing. Yet what makes it distinctively valuable is its element of identity, i.e., a sense of interconnectedness and continuity generated through the transmission of beliefs, practices and more idiosyncratic attributes from parent to child. Corresponding to this understanding of the parent–child relationship, justice requires parents to provide their children with the conditions to achieve a set of functionings up to the level that allows them to lead a decent life in terms of the parents’ social and cultural context. As this account of justice in the family is not strictly political...

Why not marry them? History, essentialism and the condition of slave descendants among the southern Betsileo (Madagascar)

Regnier, Denis A. P.
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
89.7147%
The thesis investigates the condition of slave descendants among the southern Betsileo of Madagascar. Unlike previous research, which has focused on the dependency of those slave descendants who stayed as share-croppers on their former masters’ land and on the discrimination against slave descent migrants, the present study focuses on a group of slave descendants, the Berosaiña, who own their land and have acquired autonomy and wealth. Based on fieldwork in a rural area south of Ambalavao, the thesis presents an ethnographic study of the ambivalent relations between the Berosaiña and their neighbours of free descent. It shows that the Berosaiña’s knowledge of local history and of their ancestor’s role in the region’s settlement is one of their key stakes in local politics, while the free descendants’ refusal to marry them is the most serious obstacle to their integration. A close study of slave descendants’ genealogies and of local marriage practices suggests that, although a few ‘unilateral’ marriages occurred, no ‘bilateral’ marriage between commoner descendants and the Berosaiña ever took place. After suggesting an explanation for the avoidance of marriage with the Berosaiña, the thesis proceeds by showing that the category ‘slaves’ is essentialized by commoner descendants. The essentialist construal of ‘slaves’...