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Housing Futures: our homes and communities: a report for the Federation of Master Builders

Power, Anne; Lane, Laura
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2010 Português
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Forward by Ron Storer, President, Federation of Master Builders: The housing system is intrinsically linked to almost every major area of government policy from the economy and taxation to the environment and education. It is driven by a huge range of factors from the behaviour of individuals to global economic forces. It is also in most cases the greatest asset and debt held by a household. There is a wide variation in the amount of money people spend on their housing ranging from those who own their property outright to an estimated one million households who spend more than two thirds of their income on housing costs. And yet despite its importance economically, socially and environmentally the current housing system is in crisis; namely housing supply is failing to meet demand and the current stock is unsuitable without major adaption to meet future needs. There is now an urgent need to take action to make our existing homes greener and more energy efficient. Given that our homes contribute 27 per cent of the UK's total carbo emissions and that 85 per cent of our homes will be still be in use in 2050 it is imperative if the Government is to meet its legal requirement to cut carbon emissions that a more concerted effort is made to transform our existing housing stock. A large scale programme of retrofitting is required to transform our 26 million homes. Such a programme could have a significant role in helping to reduce fuel poverty...

From studying communities to focusing on temporary collectives: research-in-progress on Web 2.0 in the travel sector

Baka, Vasiliki; Scott, Susan V.
Fonte: Information Systems and Innovation Group, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Information Systems and Innovation Group, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2008 Português
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In this research-in-progress paper, we suggest that methodology is lagging behind innovation in the Web 2.0 environment. While prior art on virtual communities (VC) provides some helpful coordinates for our study of User-Generated Content (UCG) sites in the travel sector, there are some important conceptual differences between these phenomena that raise methodological challenges. To illustrate this, we identify the dominant methodological approaches in the VC literature and consider their value for studying UGC. Having noted key differences between the virtual community ethnographic tradition and the mainly quantitative UGC literature, we examine the potential of integrating different streams of methods in Web 2.0 studies. We suggest that exploring a broader range of options during the research design process presents opportunities for IS scholars to advance studies of social media such as User-Generated Content and increases our capacity to make significant contributions during this important period of their development.

HIV-positive African-American women’s perspectives on engaging communities in the response to HIV/AIDS in Washington, D.C.

Sanicki, Anne; Mannell, Jenevieve
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/07/2015 Português
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The number of African-American women infected with HIV in Washington, D.C. is growing at an alarming rate. However, the perspectives of these women on engaging communities in the response to HIV/AIDS have been lacking in the literature. To fill this gap, in-depth interviews with 18 HIV-positive African-American women living in D.C. were conducted and analyzed using thematic network analysis. Three key themes emerged from these interviews: (1) the importance of the church in building HIV/AIDS community competence; (2) women’s interest in HIV/AIDS advocacy; and (3) the negative effects of stigma and limited social bonds on community engagement. We conclude by suggesting that more research is needed on the role of African-American women in community capacity building, as well as greater involvement of churches in HIV/AIDS responses.

The impact of the Olympics: making or breaking communities in East London

Davis, Juliet
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/07/2012 Português
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Juliet Davis investigates the challenge of creating a positive legacy from the Olympics for communities in East London. She argues that how impacts on East London are measured depends on how existing and future ‘communities’ are viewed and defined.

Conceptualising social capital for health promotion in small local communities : a micro-qualitative study

Campbell, Catherine; Gillies, Pamela
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Publicador: John Wiley & Sons
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2001 Português
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This paper reports on a micro-qualitative case study of peoples’ experiences of local community life in a south east English town. This material is used as the basis for a critical discussion of the suitability of Putnam’s notion of social capital as a conceptual tool for the design and evaluation of ‘community strengthening’ policies and interventions. The study was motivated by a concern that too much debate about social capital has been conducted by academics and policy-makers in a top-down manner, with inadequate attention to the realities of life in the local communities that they refer to. Three-hour semi-structured interviews were conducted with 37 residents in two less affluent wards in our town of interest. Informants - half men and half women, and spread across the 15-75 age group - were encouraged to talk about their personal experiences of local community life. Interview findings are presented within the 'norm' categories of trust, neighbourliness and reciprocal help and support, and the 'network' categories of participation in informal networks, voluntary groupings and community activist groupings. Our case study points to a number of ways in which Putnam's concept needs to be refined if it is to inform 'community strengthening' policies and interventions in England. Far more notice needs to be taken of the role played by informal networks of friends and neighbours in the construction of local community life. Attention also needs to be given to the complex and shifting geographical spread of peoples’ significant social networks. Putnam’s conceptualisation of cohesive local communities and his unitary notions of trust and local identity may also be unduly essentialist. In our particular communities of interest...

Gated communities, heterotopia and a “rights” of privilege: a ‘heterotopology' of the South African security-park

Hook, Derek; Vrdoljak, Michele
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2002 Português
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This paper attempts a two-tiered analysis of what has come to be referred to as the ‘security-park', i.e., that South African variation of the ‘gated community' which combines Blakely and Snyder's [Fortress America: Gated communities in the United States, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, 1999] typically separable ‘lifestyle', ‘prestige' and ‘security zone' gated community types. The first part of this analysis reviews the existing literature on gated communities and relates it back to the South African situation. The second part, both theoretical and empirical, draws on Foucault's [Utopias and heterotopias, in: N. Leach (Ed.), Rethinking Architecture: A Reader in Cultural Theory, Routledge, London, 1997] notion of the heterotopia, and on a variety of textual representations of Dainfern. The heterotopia, as an ‘analytics of difference' becomes a particularly important means of critique here, drawing attention to security-parks as: (1) possessing a precise and well-defined function within society (a function which typically coalesces around points of social crisis), (2) operating distinctive systems of admission and exclusion, (3) containing certain ‘juxtaposed incompatibilities' (of which a paradoxical ‘heterochroneity' is one of the most pronounced elements)...

Change and continuity among minority communities in Britain

Georgiadis, Andreas; Manning, Alan
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2009 Português
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There is widespread concern currently that some ethnic minority communities within Britain, especially Muslim, are not following the stereotypical immigrant path of economic and cultural assimilation into British society. Indeed, many seem to have the impression that differences between Muslims and non-Muslims are widening. In this paper we compare the two largest Muslim communities in Britain (Pakistanis and Bangladeshis) with other ethnic minorities to ask the questions ‘are Muslims different?’ and ‘is their behaviour changing over time?’ The indicators we look at are the gender gap in education, age at marriage, cohabitation and inter-marriage, fertility and the employment of women. In all these dimensions we find that the Muslim communities are different but we also find evidence of change. This is partly because those born in Britain generally have markedly different behaviours from those born in the country of origin, but also because there is change within both the UK-born and foreign-born communities. The evidence suggests there is, along almost all dimensions, a movement towards convergence in behaviour.

Interaction, feedback, reinforcement and collective identity: the role of zine making in the formation and sustaining of informal communities

Bryant, Peter
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Conference or Workshop Item; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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This paper will explore the roles played in the formation and operation of zine communities. Utilising data from thirty-two interviews with zine makers in three continents, information sharing roles within informal networks, as discussed by Cross and Prusak (2002), are used to codify the roles within zine communities. The paper identifies that within zine communities there are two additional information sharing roles (emancipator and change agent) suggesting an emerging approach to information interaction. Further, I argue that knowledge transfer and experience sharing processes, which are fundamental to innovation and creativity within a community are potentially compromised within zine communities,leading to a further disaggregation of membership, and ultimately to an increasing and difficult to breach gap between these disparate zine communities.

Broadband adoption in low-income communities

Dharma, Dailey; Amelia, Bryne; Powell, Alison; Joe, Karaganis; Jaewon, Chung
Fonte: Social Science Research Council Publicador: Social Science Research Council
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2010 Português
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The social function of the Internet has changed dramatically in recent years. What was, until recently, a supplement to other channels of information and communication has become increasingly a basic requirement of social and economic inclusion. Educational systems, employers, and government agencies at all levels have shifted services online—and are pushing rapidly to do more. Price remains only one factor shaping the fragile equilibrium of home broadband adoption, and library and community organizations fill the gap by providing critical training and support services while under severe economic pressures. Commissioned by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to analyze the factors shaping low rates of adoption of home broadband services in low-income and other marginalized communities, this SSRC study is one of the only large-scale qualitative investigations of barriers to adoption in the US and complements FCC survey research on adoption designed to inform the 2010 National Broadband Plan. The study draws on some 170 interviews of non-adopters, community access providers, and other intermediaries conducted across the US in late 2009 and early 2010 and identifies a range of factors that make broadband services hard to acquire and even harder to maintain in such communities.

Multiculturalism should be about bringing communities and individuals into relations of respect.

Modood, Tariq
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/11/2011 Português
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Is multiculturalism dead? Some commentators, including David Cameron have proclaimed that it is, and that we need a more ‘muscular liberalism’ in our society. However, Tariq Modood argues that multiculturalism is a fact of our society. Our challenge now is to ensure that we emphasise what we have in common, in order to remake a new, ongoing ‘We’ out of all the communities that make up the country.

Can local communities 'sustain' HIV/AIDS programmes? A South African example

Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine; Maimane, Sbongile
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/10/2015 Português
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Globally, there is a renewed interest in building the local sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes to ensure that once funders withdraw, local communities can sustain programmes. While the ‘local sustainability assumption’ is widespread, little research has assessed this. In this article, we assess the sustainability of the Entabeni Project, a community-based intervention that sought to build women's local leadership and capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS through a group of volunteer carers, 3 years after external support was withdrawn. Overall, the sustainability of the Entabeni Project was limited. The wider social and political context undermined volunteer carers' sense that they could affect change, with little external support for them from government and NGOs, who struggled to engage with local community organizations. At the community level, some church leaders and community members recognized the important role of health volunteers, many continued to devalue the work of the carers, especially once there was no external organization to support and validate their work. Within the health volunteer group, despite extensive efforts to change dynamics, it remained dominated by a local male leader who denied others active participation while lacking the skills to meaningfully lead the project. Our case study suggests that the local-sustainability assumption is wishful thinking. Small-scale local projects are unlikely to be able to challenge the broader social and political dynamics hindering their sustainability without meaningful external support.

Not just a talking shop: practitioner perspectives on how communities of practice work to improve outcomes for people experiencing multiple exclusion homelessness

Cornes, Michelle; Manthorpe, Jill; Hennessy, Catherine; Anderson, Sarah E.; Clark, Michael; Scanlon, Christopher
Fonte: Informa Healthcare Publicador: Informa Healthcare
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2014 Português
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Within homelessness services recent policy developments have highlighted the need for integration and improved collaborative working and also, the need for “Psychologically Informed Environments” (PIES) in which workers are better equipped to manage the “complex trauma” associated with homelessness. Drawing on the findings of an evaluation of a multi-site development programme, this paper demonstrates how both these policy aspirations might be implemented through a single delivery vehicle (a community of practice). The paper describes how organizational, educational and psychosocial theory was used to inform programme design and reflects on the utility of these approaches in the light of the evaluation findings. It is reported that communities of practice can deliver significant performance gains in terms of building collaborative relationships and opening-up opportunities for interprofessional education and learning. Filling an important knowledge gap, it also suggested how (professional) participation in a community of practice might work to improve outcomes for service users. Most likely we see those outcomes as being linked to tackling exclusion by sustaining the workforce itself, that is in motivating workers to remain engaged and thinking positively in what is an emotionally challenging and stressful job role.

Book review: Places of pain: forced displacement, popular memory and trans-local identities in Bosnian war-torn communities

Laking, Joe
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/09/2013 Português
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"Places of Pain: Forced Displacement, Popular Memory and Trans-Local Identities in Bosnian War-Torn Communities." Hariz Halilovich. Berghahn Books. March 2013. --- For displaced persons, memory and identity is performed, reconstructed, and renegotiated daily. In Places of Pain, Hariz Halilovich considers the places of pain and belonging that were lost during the 1992 – 95 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the survivors’ new places of resettlement in Australia, Europe and North America. Joe Laking concludes that Halilovich’s work may find relevance in studies of war and migration not just in this context but all over the world.

By making ‘local’ and ‘more inclusive’ the focal point of our policies, we can achieve lasting social sustainability in our communities

Colantonio, Andrea; Dixon, Tim
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/06/2011 Português
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The way we look at urban regeneration has undergone a transformation in the last 30 years; from a focus on the physical and economic renewal of places, to the building of vital and sustainable communities, in both the social and environmental sense. Andrea Colantonio and Tim Dixon argue that we need to build on the achievements of previous policy on how to build socially sustainable communities, and promote regeneration that focuses on the needs of local communities, and does not displace those on low incomes in neighbourhoods that become victims of their own success through regeneration.

A lack of civically focused groups, combined with previous police involvement, may be making it harder for some communities to mobilize against intensive policing.

Rengifo, Andres F.; Slocum, Lee Ann
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/04/2015 Português
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Recent years have seen a renewed focus on the relationship between law enforcement and the communities that they police, with concern arising from perceived bias against Black and Latino populations. If there is concern in these communities about the role of the police, then why do we not see a greater mobilization of communities to protest? In new research, Andres F. Rengifo and Lee Ann Slocum explore the factors influencing community mobilization in the face of intensive policing. Their South Bronx case study suggests that while community organizations do exist and people are engaged, these organizations are not usually politically or civically oriented. Support for the police is also uneven, with many who are concerned about their use of force and unfriendliness potentially discouraged from speaking out due to their own previous involvement with law enforcement.

How the upper and middle classes embraced a culture of household debt and aggressive financial risk taking

Goldstein, Adam; Fligstein, Neil
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/05/2015 Português
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The last three decades have seen a growing role for financial markets and institutions in the economy, with households included in this trend. But how have households changed their attitudes and behaviors in relation to financial markets? In new research which looks at survey data on consumer finance, Adam Goldstein and Neil Fligstein find evidence of a new household ‘finance culture’. While financial firms sought out customers of all incomes, the upper and middle classes have embraced household borrowing and have become much more likely to take financial risks.

The impact of regeneration on existing communities in Kent Thameside since 1991

Jones, Bryan
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2014 Português
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A key aim underpinning the regeneration of the Thames Gateway in the 1990s and 2000s was to ensure that the region’s existing ex-industrial communities were able to derive tangible social, economic and infrastructural benefits from the new development taking place on brownfield sites. A more inclusive and socially aware form of regeneration that learned the lessons from the property led regeneration that took place in the London Docklands in the early 1980s was promised. This study examines the extent to which this ambition has been achieved in Kent Thameside, one of the key ‘growth areas’ identified by the Government in the Thames Gateway. Using evidence from extended interviews with residents living in three existing Kent Thameside communities and key regeneration officials, as well as detailed observation of events and developments in Kent Thameside, this study examines the impact of the principal regeneration objectives relating to the area’s existing communities. It looks first at the extent to which new developments and existing communities have been integrated both physically and socially. It then considers the impact of policies which were designed to empower existing residents by enabling them to participate in the design and delivery of programmes relating to the area’s physical and economic regeneration. This study uses this analysis to examine whether the Kent Thameside regeneration model...

Bridging the democratic gap: Can NGOs link local communities to international environmental institutions?

Dombrowski, Kathrin Irma
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
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How can NGOs contribute to strengthening the democratic legitimacy of international intergovernmental institutions? The thesis pursues two lines of enquiry in order to contribute to this discussion in the context of global environmental politics: it looks at the external claims and internal practices of NGOs. With regards to external claims the thesis investigates the democratic demands formulated by the NGO communities interacting with the UNFCCC and the CBD respectively. Demands for equitable representation at the intergovernmental level and for participation by civil society stakeholders are especially prominent among the NGOs engaged with the climate convention. The thesis finds a convergence around very similar democratic demands across the NGO community, most of which draw upon recurrent governance norms and existing instances of good practice within environmental institutions. The thesis then turns to the internal practices of large international environmental NGOs to test the assumption that these organisations have the potential to act as “links” or as “transmission belts” between local communities and global policymaking processes. It proposes the adoption of a representation perspective for analysing the contribution of civil society organisations...

Examining the impact of housing refurbishment-led regeneration on community sustainability: a study of three Housing Market Renewal areas in England

Turcu, Catalina
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2010 Português
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This thesis investigates whether the regeneration, and in particular, housing refurbishment-led regeneration of deprived urban areas can contribute to the creation of sustainable communities, by looking specifically at the impact of the current Housing Market Renewal Programme on three areas in the North of England. Research has long acknowledged the multifaceted nature of sustainable communities. Evidence has shown how sustainable communities are determined by the complex interdependencies of economic, social, environmental and institutional phenomena and the need to balance these over time. At the same time, the government’s drive to ‘create sustainable communities’ through its prominent and ‘holistic’ Housing Market Renewal Programme has been well publicised. Many studies have challenged what is and what is not a sustainable community, and whether progress towards sustainable communities is currently being made in Housing Market Renewal areas. This study addresses these two issues. First, the thesis seeks to address issues related to framing, defining and evaluating sustainable communities within the context of the built environment. It suggests a framework for doing so which is anchored in the Housing Market Renewal context and draws on the values and understandings of those involved in the ‘making’ of sustainable communities in this context. Second...

Policing minority ethnic communities: a case study in London’s ‘Little India’

Trikha, Sara
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 Português
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The Macpherson Inquiry (1999) was instrumental in forcing into the public domain the issue of police racism, which for decades had been an endemic part of police culture. My thesis, undertaken post Macpherson (1999), examined ongoing tensions in the policing of minority ethnic communities through a case study of policing in London’s ‘Little India’. My thesis highlights the continuing influence of racism in policing, describing a world of policing ethnically diverse communities that is far more complex, variable and contradictory than has yet been documented in the empirical policing literature. I describe how policing in Greenfield was a patchwork of continuity and change, illustrating how, despite the advances the police in Greenfield had made in eradicating overt racism from the organisation, passive prejudice remained rife among officers. Most notably, despite acknowledging Greenfield’s long resident Asian communities as the ‘indigenous population’, officers still had little knowledge about these communities, tending to classify them as ‘Asians’ in a way that obscured, rather than illuminated their diversity. Furthermore, while officers regarded ‘Asians’ as the established communities of Greenfield...