Background: Wastewater-impacted waters that do not support swimming are often used for boating, canoeing, fishing, kayaking, and rowing. Little is known about the health risks of these limited-contact water recreation activities.
Municipalities that engage in recreation planning have the potential to use their
resources more effectively. However, successful planning means getting the plan off the
shelf and implemented. This study investigated the factors that influenced municipal
recreation plan implementation in three municipalities. Interviews were conducted with
eleven key informants (recreation directors, planning consultants, a city councillor, and
members of plan steering committees). The findings of this study suggested that because
the implementation of recreation plans occurs in a highly political environment,
recreation professionals will need effective strategies to get their plans implemented and
that implementation can be facilitated by developing or expanding strategies that: (l)
build the power of the recreation department within the municipal government structure;
(2) build support for recreation within the local community; and (3) build the political
and organizational capacity in the recreation department.
Trauma can have lasting effects on health (CAMH, 2010; DSM-IV, 1994; Lazarus, 1966), negatively influencing meanings and experiences of leisure in relation to health (Griffin, 2002, 2005; Meister & Pedlar, 1996). This interpretive grounded theory explored understandings of leisure during Leisure Connections and how Leisure Connections provides a context for healing from trauma. Data included observations, interviews with six participants, and reflection cards. Nine themes emerged: responding to trauma in leisure, letting go of familiar coping patterns and opening to joy, being in the moment of small steps and simple things, changing understandings of self, reconnecting with the body, shifting to internal motivation, choosing, reconnecting with others in leisure, balancing life with leisure, and growth and connections. Leisure Connections supported participants to explore leisure and its benefits as issues arise, to understand and respond differently. Leisure Connections provides boundary situations critical for existential growth and opportunity to change coping patterns.
This descriptive study sought to identify the similarities and differences between the various educational institutions offering therapeutic recreation curriculum across Canada. The study utilized mixed methods, including open and closed-ended questions on a survey and document analysis. The research participants were from 14 educational institutions located across the nation. Results from this study identify similarities and differences in the curriculum used to prepare students pursuing a career in the TR field. Core competencies and standards of practice for the field of therapeutic recreation were defined and discussed. Accreditation and the accrediting bodies in the field of TR are reviewed because of their significant impact on curriculum. Implications regarding certification and regulation pertaining to the education for therapeutic recreation practitioners were discussed along with suggestions for future research.
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an assessment that measured savouring leisure. The assessment items developed were reviewed for content validity by eight international therapeutic recreation (TR) educators and administrators as well as eleven TR practitioners. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the most suitable items for the assessment. The results suggest that the original three subscale design needed to be modified to five. The reliability of the total assessment is α=.84. Statistical analysis for construct validity reveal 58.52% of the variance explained, and a moderate correlation was found between this study and other savouring assessments. The implications of the shift in conceptualization are reviewed through discussing factor analysis issues, the lived experience of savouring leisure, and the impact of the content validity process. This study contributes to the ongoing dialog of savouring leisure. Recommendations for future research are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the “Champion” training of the Therapeutic Recreation Specialist – Certified (TRSC) at Baycrest Health Sciences (BHS). BHS recently implemented a new model for Therapeutic Recreation Services that employs the model of champion for implementation of both best and next practices within the organization. This mixed methods study used both case study and program evaluation in order to understand whether the training that comprised of five different topics allowed the six participants to develop the skills needed to be champions. The results supported that learning did occur during the training and that the experience was positive for the participants. The overall finding from this study is that while the training was useful, the participants did not feel confident about utilizing these skills without further training; hence, this training can only be considered an introduction to the concepts presented.
This report provides estimates of social
and financial costs of environmental damage in India from
three pollution damage categories: (i) urban air pollution,
including particulate matter and lead; (ii) inadequate water
supply, poor sanitation, and hygiene; (iii) indoor air
pollution; and four natural resource damage categories: (a)
agricultural damage from soil salinity, water logging, and
soil erosion; (b) rangeland degradation; (c) deforestation;
and (d) natural disasters. The estimates are based on a
combination of Indian data from secondary sources and on the
transfer of unit costs of pollution from a range of national
and international studies. The quantification and monetary
valuation of environmental damage involves many scientific
disciplines including environmental, physical, and
biological and health sciences, epidemiology, and
environmental economics. Estimates of the costs of
degradation are generally reported as a percent of
conventional gross domestic product (GDP). This provides a
useful estimate of the importance of environmental damages
but it should not be interpreted that GDP will increase by a
given percent if the degradation were to be reduced to zero.
Any measures to reduce environmental degradation will have a
cost and the additional cost goes up the greater is the
reduction that is made. Hence a program to remove all
degradation can well result in a lower GDP. This report
provides a measure of the overall damage relative to a
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs)
represent an important and growing burden to the health and
economies of the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC)
region. However, some of this burden can be prevented or
controlled through targeted clinical services and
multi-sectoral activities aimed at improving diet, promoting
physical activity, and reducing tobacco use and alcohol
abuse. This study focuses on population-wide, multi-sectoral
interventions to prevent risk factors for NCDs. This study
seeks to answer the following questions: what is the health
and economic burden of NCDs in the region?; what are
countries doing to promote healthy living and prevent risk
factors for NCDs?; what are the main governance challenges
countries face in developing and implementing
population-wide NCD prevention interventions and which are
the success stories?; and what else can the region do to
reduce health risk factors and prevent the onset of NCDs?
This study documents governance challenges in the design and
implementation of promising or successful population-wide
interventions intended to prevent health risk factors in
LAC. It focuses on the process whereby public officials
develop and implement primary-prevention policies and
programs. It is composed of five commissioned case studies
on multi-sectoral interventions to promote healthy living in
the region. These case studies examine which stakeholders
participated directly or indirectly in the decision-making
process; what positions they held; which incentives they
faced; which strategies they pursued; how did existing
institutional arrangements affect the decision-making
process; what lessons can be drawn from these processes; and
what were the successes and setbacks? This report provides a
glimpse into the types of opposing interests and power games
involved in proposing...
The extent to which Registered Dietitians (RD) promote exercise as part of diabetes self-management education to older diabetic adults has not been established. This study explored the exercise-related knowledge, design, and content of educational programs among RDs who were Certified Diabetes Educators (CDEs) and non-CDEs. The Exercise Teaching Questionnaire was completed by 94 CDEs and 73 non-CDEs in Florida, California, and Texas. ^ CDEs had significantly (p < 0.001) higher mean Knowledge, Design, and Content scores (11.8 ± 1.1, 33.5 ± 9.4, 26.9 ± 4.8, respectively) than non-CDEs (11.1 ± 1.6, 29.2 ± 11.1, 22.4 ± 7.4, respectively). However, Knowledge means for both CDEs and non-CDEs were above the 85 percentile. Design and content scale responses showed that while dietitians provided basic information about safety and benefits related to exercise, they frequently reported “never” or only “sometimes” making exercise recommendations. ^ Although these results suggest that RDs are knowledgeable about exercise for older adults with Type 2 diabetes, greater importance should be made on training RDs to promote exercise, perhaps with an emphasis on a comprehensive team approach. ^
Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 2006; A three-pronged substance abuse prevention intervention was undertaken by a Midwestern, suburban community. Analysis of the long-term impact of the intervention revealed a reduction in alcohol use among students. However, student marijuana use was not impacted as positively. This interdependence between the use of alcohol and marijuana has been reported in the literature, but the role of cognitive factors has not been adequately studied. The current study examined the role of perceived access to alcohol and marijuana and perceived harm associated with alcohol and marijuana use on marijuana use. Data were collected from 11,542 8th - 12th grade students in 1998, 2000, and 2003. Data were examined via two sets of logistic regression analyses investigating (1) the role of alcohol use and access to alcohol and marijuana in past month and lifetime marijuana use and (2) the role of alcohol use and perceptions of harm associated with alcohol and marijuana use in past month and lifetime marijuana use. Results revealed that (a) participants indicating no alcohol use were more likely to report past month and lifetime marijuana use, (b) among older students access to marijuana played a role in past month and lifetime marijuana use only when access to alcohol was limited...
Thesis (Ph.D.) - Indiana University, School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 2009; Research into the provision of sexual health information for Indiana youth has demonstrated inadequate school support and little to no information exchange between Indiana parents and their children. Community leaders in Indiana have suggested that community-based organizations (CBOs) may play a role in providing sexual health information to young people. However, little is known about the nature of sexual health information resources among youth-serving Indiana community-based organizations.
The purpose of this study was to assess the provision of sexual health information by Indiana youth-serving community-based organizations. Specifically, the study looked to assess 1) the comfort, confidence, skills, and knowledge (CCSK) of youth development professionals (YDPs) in addressing questions from youth about sexuality, and 2) the potential for CBOs to provide sexuality-related programming, referrals, and resources to adolescents in Indiana.
Utilizing community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, a community advisory board developed and implemented a 20-minute Internet survey. The survey measured constructs determined by the community advisory board to be relevant to the foci above.
Results of the study found a high level of CCSK among YDPs as well as a high level of desire for additional training. Less than half of participants indicated their organizations offered programming and resources on various sexuality-related topics. About half of participants indicated their organization had referral protocols in place for a variety of sexual health issues. Availability of programming...
Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 2006; This project focused on building and analyzing an agent-based model of disease diffusion in order to explore the hypothesis that the relative risk associated with an individual's "sexual motivation profile" (SMP) is influenced by the distribution of strategies represented in the population - that is, that sexual motivation functions as a frequency dependent trait. Sexual motivation is hypothesized to be composed of a sexual inhibition system (SIS) and a sexual excitation system (SES), following the Dual Control Model of Sexual Response. Results of the model show that the relative risk of a SMP does vary depending on the relative representation within a population, but that that variance is constrained by agents' absolute values of SIS and SES. The model produced several parallels with empirical data on humans, suggesting that the model accurately reproduced some aspects of human sexual behavior. For example, agents' SES was a better predictor than SIS of total number of partners, while SIS was a better predictor than SES of Age at Infection. Also, the more accurately the agent population matched the human population, the more the model produced human-like results. Future work should focus on increasing the verisimilitude of agents and their environments...
Accidents are the leading cause of death among children. Compliance with safety measures have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in children. However, Hispanic parents and children have not been adequately studied in the literature in regard to trauma and safety habits utilized. In this exploratory-descriptive study, a convenience sample of 48 Hispanic parents were questioned about their child's activities. The purpose was to determine what safety equipment was used during these activities and how often they were used. Responses to an English/Spanish questionnaire were summarized by frequencies and percentages. Findings suggested that these Hispanic children were at risk for injury due to a low percentage of children wearing the necessary protective equipment. Therefore, education must stress consistent use of safety equipment if injuries are to be prevented. ^
Athletic training is an allied health profession recognized by the American Medical Association requiring certification by examination. There are two routes towards certification as an athletic trainer: attending a university with an accredited athletic training program or with an internship program By 2004, the only route towards certification will be by attending a Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) or National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) accredited athletic training program. CAAHEP looks at passing rates on the NATA Board of Certification (NATABOC) examination when granting accreditation. This study examined characteristics of programs associated with first time passing rates. ^ Directors from 39 CAAHEP or NATA accredited athletic training programs completed a descriptive 17-question survey regarding academic characteristics, faculty characteristics, and program characteristics. Analysis used Spearman's rho correlation coefficient, with significance of p = <.05. Four program directors were interviewed to gather additional insight. ^ There were three program characteristics that showed a significant positive association with first attempt passing rates: the number of full-time and part-time approved clinical instructors (ACIs)...
Public health data show that African-Americans have not adopted health-promoting behaviors of diet and exercise. Spirituality, important in the lives of many African-American women, may be associated with health-promoting behaviors. This study was designed to determine how spirituality relates to health-promoting behaviors in African-American women. Burkhardt's theoretical framework for spirituality was adopted and measures were selected for the three elements of the framework: connectedness with self, others, and environment. ^ The study used a descriptive cross sectional correlational design to investigate the relationships of the independent variables of spirituality, sociodemographics, and BMI, to the dependent variables of diet and exercise, to answer the two primary questions: What is the role of spirituality in impacting the health-promoting behaviors of African-American women? Of the independent variables of spirituality, sociodemographics, and BMI, which are the best predictors of diet and exercise? ^ Central and South Floridian African-American women (n = 260) between 18 and 82 years of age completed several questionnaires: Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, Spiritual Perspective Scale...
Through this descriptive exploratory study, the ways that wilderness recreation
leaders experience nature are illuminated, deconstructing the assumed environmental
benefits of and practices used in outdoor recreation (Haluza-Delay, 2001). This study also
offers a foundation for advancing an environmental ethic among wilderness recreation
leaders, participants, and organizations. With the continued degradation of and threats to
natural environments, and the rising popularity of outdoor recreation participation, the
outdoor recreation professional can be a leader in promoting human reconnections to the
Earth (Henderson, 1999). Leaders of outdoor recreation experiences play an important
role in encouraging these revived relationships to natural settings and can contribute to
the necessary environmental consciousness shift needed within Western society (Hanna,
1995; Jordan, 1996). The purpose of this research was to describe the lived-experience in
nature of wilderness recreation leaders. Specifically, a phenomenological method of
inquiry was used to describe the meaning of nature, the connections and relationships to
nature, and the behaviours and emotions experienced in nature by a group of wilderness
canoe trip leaders employed by a residential summer camp. In addition to the
implications of this research...
The academic study of place has been generally defined by two distinct and highly refined discourses within outdoor recreation research: place attachment and sense of place. Place attachment generally describes the intensity of the place relationship, whereas sense of place approaches place from a more holistic and intimate orientation. This study bridges these two methodological and theoretical separate areas of place research together by re-conceptualizing the way in which place relationships are viewed within outdoor recreation research. The Psychological Continuum Model is used to extend the language of place attachment to incorporate more of the philosophy of sense of place while attending to the empirical strength and utility of place attachment. This extension results in the term place allegiance being coined to depict the strong and profound relationships outdoor recreationists build with their places of outdoor recreation. Using a concurrent mixed methods research design, this study explored place allegiance via an online survey (n = 437) and thirteen in-depth qualitative interviews with outdoor recreationists. Results indicate that place allegiance can be measured through a multi-dimensional model of place allegiance that incorporates behaviours...
If quality of life is an important recreation outcome, then municipal parks and
recreation management's efforts have to change because:·
Over one-third of all the little kids in schools will be diabetic in their lifetime if
the trends we are looking at continue. The average loss of life is about 15 years,
and there is an average reduction in quality oflife by about 20 years (Jackson,
This thesis is about municipal parks and recreation, an agency that controls and limits
physical activity opportunity. It is also about active living; from an ecological
perspective, a multi-disciplinary approach to incorporate physical activity into more
people's daily lives. In particular, this thesis examines one case --'. the Donutville Case - .
with the intent of providing an explanation of how municipal parks and recreation can
advance its management efforts to improve health outcomes of people suffering from
daily physical activity deficits. More specifically, how can the tension between external
and internal environments to municipal parks and recreation be better balanced to affect
the change needed?
Given that changing the current social reality is through making decisions,
decision-making functions connected with systems theory helps identify how recreation
authorities can more effectively influence environmental physical activity determinants. ...
When observing client behaviours, a therapeutic recreation specialist must have a base understanding of typical client behaviours to provide an informed analysis (burlingame & Blaschko, 2010). Providing students with the necessary tools for client observation is significant to the success of this process. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships amongst the TR student demographic characteristics on acquiring the observation competency necessary to conduct a TR assessment. One hundred seventy-two TR college and university students, enrolled in post-secondary undergraduate TR programs across Ontario, observed a client assessment via video, and recorded their observations using the Tracking Behavioural Assessment (TBA) (Passmore, 2002). Independent samples t-tests and analysis of variance were calculated for the different student characteristics on the domains of the TBA. Significant findings indicated that university students scored more accurately than college students, and advanced students more accurately than novice students, on the emotional and socialization domains.
The majority of children in the United States do not attain the recommended sixty minutes of daily physical activity. Opening up school facilities outside of school hours for use by the community has been suggested to increase opportunities for physical activity. The purpose of this research was to identify social and environmental factors that influence community use policies and practices in Massachusetts school districts.
Paper 1 developed a quantitative index to describe differences in community use policies. Written community use policies from Massachusetts school districts were collected and double-coded. Analysis of variance was used to identify differences between template vs. unique policies. Districts that developed unique policies had significantly higher scores than districts that adopted the template (mean 20.8 vs. 16.5, P < 0.05).
Paper 2 aimed to identify how community use policy presence and sociodemographic characteristics were associated with access to low- and no-cost recreation areas in Massachusetts school districts. Geographic information systems software was used to identify key variables. Linear regression was used to determine if geographic location or district-level sociodemographic characteristics were associated with recreational area availability. In adjusted analyses...