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Realismo crítico e teoria econômica : quatro ensaios sobre metodologia econômica; Critical realism and economics : four essays on economic methodology

José Ricardo Fucidji
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/08/2012 Português
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O objetivo desta tese é expor, avaliar e aplicar a abordagem metodológica do realismo crítico para a ciência econômica. O realismo crítico em economia propõe-se como uma alternativa os pólos do falseacionismo popperiano e ao relativismo das abordagens construtivistas. O ponto a ressaltar é que o realismo crítico dá precedência às questões ontológicas (a natureza do que existe na realidade econômica e das práticas científicas) sobre as questões epistemológicas (o status das diversas teorias como veículos do conhecimento aceito). Ao defender que o método de investigação ou inferência deve ser adequado ao objeto de análise (que neste caso é algum item da realidade sócio-econômica), o realismo crítico aponta diversas razões para o insucesso das teorias econômicas ortodoxas como instrumentos de previsão e controle dessa realidade. Ao supor uma realidade social que é complexa, diferenciada, estruturada, sistêmica, aberta, sempre em mudança e radicalmente incerta, além de internamente relacionada, essa abordagem coloca-se também como um fundamento metodológico para as correntes heterodoxas em economia. Após discutir o conteúdo dessa abordagem, bem como a concepção ontológica particular sobre a qual é sustentada...

A Economia das Drogas em uma abordagem heterodoxa; The Economy of Drugs in heterodox approach

Taciana Santos de Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2015 Português
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O campo denominado Economia das Drogas engloba complexas relações sociais que consolidam um vigoroso processo de acumulação de capital. Esse setor apresenta especificidades atreladas à clandestinidade, particularidades associadas a cada mercadoria e semelhanças a outras indústrias e setores da economia formal. Esse tema é estudado na presente dissertação, que tem por objetivo contribuir para explicar as razões pelas quais as políticas de proibição às drogas não conseguem cessar este mercado. Para isso, realizou-se o estudo das mercadorias, dos mercados e dos principais atores, bem como da dinâmica e da lógica inerente ao narconegócio, sendo utilizadas referências bibliográficas, avaliações empíricas (apoiadas em estimativas e dados disponibilizados pelo Escritório de Drogas e Crimes da Organização das Nações Unidas ¿ UNODC) e associações das informações disponíveis sobre o narconegócio com teorias e conceitos da abordagem econômica heterodoxa. Os principais resultados mostraram que a demanda global por drogas tem permanecido estável, que as políticas de repressão não cessam o cultivo e a produção, apenas provocam mudanças e deslocamentos entre regiões, e que os preços dos psicoativos têm diminuído nas últimas duas décadas. Concluiu-se que o mercado de drogas ilegais apresenta características próximas às de setores do tipo oligopólio competitivo...

Valor ambiental em uma perspectiva heterodoxa institucional-ecológica; Environmental value - an institutional-ecological heterodox perspective

Amazonas, Maurício de Carvalho
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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O presente trabalho discute a perspectiva de valoração ambiental a partir de fundamentos heterodoxos, numa abordagem aqui denominada institucional-ecológica. Inicia-se pela identificação das principais limitações da abordagem neoclássica e suas correspondentes proposições de valoração, particularmente tendo-se em vista o desafio posto pelo critério de Desenvolvimento Sustentável. Em seguida, busca resgatar princípios propositivos de abordagens heterodoxas, particularmente nas formulações do campo teórico institucionalista e do campo teórico da economia ecológica, como elementos de potencial integração analítica para a constituição de uma conceituação heterodoxa de valores ambientais. Por fim, o trabalho propõe, a partir de uma discussão sobre o processo de formação e internalização dos valores ambientais e desse potencial de integração analítica, bases de constituição de uma abordagem institucional-ecológica para interpretação da valoração ambiental e, dentro dessa perspectiva, discute ao final qual o escopo de aplicação dos métodos de valoração correntemente utilizados pela Economia Ambiental Neoclássica. _______________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT; This article discusses an environmental valuation perspective...

Challenges for Economic Policy Design - Lessons from the Financial Crisis

Richter, Christian; Caleiro, António; Vieira, Carlos; Vieira, Isabel
Fonte: Lambert Academic Publishing Publicador: Lambert Academic Publishing
Tipo: Livro
Português
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The current economic and financial crisis highlights among other things that the dominant neo-classical theory has to be questioned. For example, not a long time ago, financial markets were seen as being efficient. The financial crisis showed that financial markets are not more or less efficient than any other market.In this book we widely deviate from the neo-classical model. It is not an attempt to replace the neo-classical theory nor do we have the space to comprehensively discuss it but we focus on specific areas of research: monetary and fiscal policies, economic growth, banking and regulation, the welfare state and heterodox economics.

From homo economicus to homo corporativus: a neglected critique of neoclassical economics

Bastien, Carlos; Cardoso, José Luís
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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In the 1930s, the conventional neoclassical concept of economic man was subject to different kinds of criticism. One contribution that so far has not been consistently scrutinised was presented by the economic doctrine of corporatism, which was particularly influential in Southern European countries. This paper deals with the foundations of the corporatist doctrine during the inter-war period, exploring the relevance of the concept of homo corporativus as a new approach to the study of economic behaviour and the economic representation of human nature.

Heterodox Inflation Stabilization in Argentina, Brazil, and Israel. A Historical Review and Some Stylized Facts

RUGE-MURCIA, Francisco
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 80522 bytes; application/pdf
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This article presents a review of the stabilization attempts in Argentina, Brazil, and Israel during the 1980’s. Earlier research is summarized and complemented with additional sources of contemporaneous information and a detailed analysis of institutional features. The examination of these episodes underscores the strong economic and empirical relationship between the governments’ fiscal policy and the rate of inflation.; Cet article passe en revue les efforts de stabilisation observés pendant les années 1980 en Argentine, au Brésil et en Israël. Un résumé de la recherche antérieure y est présenté et complété par l’information la plus récente et par une analyse détaillée des aspects institutionnels pertinents. L’étude de ces épisodes met en évidence un lien économique et empirique important entre la politique budgétaire gouvernementale et le taux d’inflation.

Ethiopia’s Growth Acceleration and How to Sustain It

Moller, Lars Christian; Wacker, Konstantin M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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Ethiopia has experienced a growth acceleration over the past decade on the back of an economic strategy emphasizing public infrastructure investment and supported by heterodox macro-financial policies. To analyze the country’s growth performance during 2000–13, the paper employs a neoclassical cross-country System Generalized Method of Moments regression model. The analysis finds that accelerated growth was driven by public infrastructure investment and restrained government consumption, and supported by a conducive external environment. Macroeconomic challenges arising from declining private credit, real currency overvaluation, and relatively high inflation held back some growth. The model accurately predicts Ethiopia’s growth over the period of analysis and is robust to country-specific parameter heterogeneity and alternative infrastructure variables. Looking ahead, model simulations under alternative policy scenarios are indicative that growth may decelerate in the coming decade, making it challenging for Ethiopia to attain its middle-income country target by 2025. Although simulated growth rates do not vary much by policy scenario...

Economics and public health: an exploration.

Harford, Jane Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1154713 bytes; 71970 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Economics has become a dominant framework for analysing problems in public health and health care and for proposing policy solutions. A separate subdiscipline of health economics has grown out of the welfare economics tradition to develop specific methods for economic inquiry into health care issues. The encroachment of economics into health care and public health has not occurred without consternation from within the health field. Part of the reason for this concern arises from a mismatch between the worldview of public health and that of mainstream economics. However, this mismatch is largely unexamined, and there has been limited attempt to address the mismatch and to propose alternative approaches to economic questions in public health. This thesis examines the project of public health in some detail, making reference to the consensus documents of the World Health Organization that set out the values base of public health and define its approach and some of its activities. Public health is a collective activity, mostly undertaken outside of markets and is primarily concerned with impacts on populations. It is inherently political and focuses on populations as its unit of analysis. This contrasts to the approach of mainstream economics...

A Model of Exchange-Rate-Based Stabilization for Turkey

Aytac, Ozlem
Fonte: Center for Applied Economics and Policy Research Publicador: Center for Applied Economics and Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 1235289 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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The literature on the exchange-rate-based stabilization has focused almost exclusively in Latin America. Many other countries however, such as Egypt, Lebanon and Turkey; have undertaken this sort of programs in the last 10-15 years. I depart from the existing literature by developing a model specifically for the 2000-2001 heterodox exchange-rate-based stabilization program in Turkey: When the government lowers the rate of crawl, the rate of domestic credit creation is set equal to the lower rate of crawl, bond sales finance the fiscal deficit, and money growth occurs only through capital inflows. Without appealing to high intertemporal elasticity of substitution, the model does very well at replicating the magnitude of the current account deficit (5.5% of GDP predicted vs. 5% of GNP actual), the peak in total consumption spending (10.08% predicted vs. 9.6% actual), average growth rate in total consumption spending (6.7% predicted vs. 6% actual), the peak in durables spending (37.06% predicted vs. 39.5% actual), and the average growth rate in durables spending (24% predicted vs. 27.4% actual) observed in Turkey following the inception of the program.

Disintegration in Peru - consolidation in Chile: the case for militant Capitalism in Latin America

Quinn, Edward J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: vi, 165 p.
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Over the past two decades, Peru and Chile have each experienced both military regimes and civilian governments. Peru's experience has been dominated by the political left; Chile's by the right. In contrast to Peru's populist politics and interventionist economics, Chile, in 1973, experienced a militant capitalist revolution. Almost twenty years later, Peru is a nation torn by political violence of both the left and right; on the brink of economic and cultural ruin. Conversely, Chile has passed beyond military government and begun democratic consolidation. With the healthiest economy in contemporary Latin America, Chile is poised to move beyond underdevelopment to modernity. Chile's success is the direct result of the fundamental restructuring and redirection of the nation's politics-economics paradigm undertaken by General Pinochet and the military but accepted, and today embraced, by the Chilean people. Development of a free market economic model that transcends partisan politics is the key to Chile's success and future. It is likewise a lesson Latin American states should incorporate in both national policies and international relations.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Economics and Diversity

D'IPPOLITI, CARLO
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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By large, contemporary economic literature assumes that economic behaviour can be explained by means of a same process applying to all individuals, at most exhibiting quantitative differences in the extent of certain individual properties (the approach of heterogeneity). Some heterodox approaches, as well as other social sciences, assume instead that individuals can conveniently be grouped into aggregates, each subject to its own laws of behaviour, fundamentally influenced by the socioeconomic environment (the approach of diversity). This works uses methods of analysis proper of the history of economic thought as well as of applied economics, to propose that both the approaches may be considered relevant for economic analysis. It investigates works by Schmoller and Mill, discussing their methodological positions (especially concerning the use of aggregative analysis) and their theories of behaviour. Gender diversity is taken as a crucial example of the relevance of considering the socioeconomic determination of behaviour, i.e. diversity, besides heterogeneity. Mill and Schmoller’s economic analyses do not ignore parametric differences between men and women, but they fundamentally relate gender inequality and the observed differences of behaviour to power relations and the division of labour. The work applies this approach to the gender analysis of the determinants of employment status.

An Ethical Analysis of Neoliberal Capitalism: Alternative Perspectives from Development Ethics

Astroulakis, Nikos
Fonte: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM) Publicador: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In this paper, the author submits the position that the worldwide capitalist economy has taken the route of neoliberal capitalism. The main distinction among market capitalism and neoliberal capitalism is the role of the private market mechanism to economic and non-economic activities. The evolution of neoliberal capitalism is historically specific. In turn, specific aspects of the free-market economics, here mentioned as neoliberal economics, are the intellectual defender of the neoliberal capitalism. The purpose of the paper is to explore neoliberal capitalism in deeper ethical terms and to offer an ethical alternative. Development ethics is an important alternative perspective to neoliberalism, which is often neglected even in the heterodox economic literature. In particular, an original ethical model, on the basis of ‘social ethics’, is suggested for the discovery of the meta- ethical, normative-ethical and applied-ethical orientations of an economic system and of an economic analysis. After the ethical evaluation of neoliberal capitalism and neoliberal economic analysis the development ethics alternative is recommended.; Dans cet article, l'auteur fait valoir que l'économie capitaliste mondiale a pris le chemin du capitalisme néolibéral. La principale distinction entre le capitalisme de marché et le capitalisme néolibéral est le rôle du mécanisme de marché privé dans les activités économiques et non économiques. L'évolution du capitalisme néolibéral est historiquement spécifique. À leur tour...

Is There Personal Identity in Economics?

Luchini, Stéphane; Teschl, Miriam
Fonte: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM) Publicador: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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John B. Davis explores the question of what the economic individual is. He bases his considerations of orthodox economics on the assumption that these theories implicitly rely on a conception of the individual that has its origin in Locke’s idea of the self as subjective inwardness. Economic history then is the attempt to deal with Locke’s inherent problems that this view involved. If neoclassical economics still has aspects of human psychology, mainstream economics dropped the subjective concept of the individual out of their considerations. However, Davis demonstrates that even the neoclassical concept of the individual fails to pass the existence test of individual identity. The latter is an idea developed in analogy to philosophers’ concern about personal identity and examines if the individual can be distinguished among different individuals and if he or she can be reidentified as the selfsame individual through time. The failure of the theory of the individual in orthodox economics led Davis to develop a concept of a socially embedded individual in accordance with heterodox accounts of economics. He submits this conception to the same test of individual identity. It appears that the socially embedded individual can be said to hold an identity in specific circumstances.; John B. Davis traite...

Ensaios sobre a mainline economics e a história do pensamento econômico liberal; Essays on the mainline economics and the history of liberal economic thought

Eduardo Angeli
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/07/2012 Português
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O objetivo da tese, constituída de quatro ensaios, é, por um lado, aprofundar o conhecimento acerca da mainline economics, e, por outro, aproximá-la de alguns debates contemporâneos da ciência econômica. Para isso, apresenta e qualifica como heterodoxa e robusta a mainline economics, uma linha de pesquisa existente ao longo da evolução do pensamento econômico que abre mão de um conceito central à ortodoxia, o de equilíbrio, substituindo-o pela análise institucional sob uma perspectiva liberal. Procura argumentar também que a crítica heterodoxa da teoria econômica convencional não deve ser confundida com a crítica do próprio sistema capitalista. Uma vez que os autores associados à mainline economics, em geral, encontram-se no passado da disciplina e à margem de sua corrente ortodoxa, a tese busca, a seguir, justificar a importância do estudo da história do pensamento econômico e da existência do pluralismo de metodologias em economia. Para isso, levanta dois argumentos associados à escola austríaca, um grupo particular dentro da mainline economics: a abordagem de Israel Kirzner para a descoberta de oportunidades no processo de mercado como analogia ao que acontece na relação entre teoria econômica e história do pensamento econômico...

Heterodox economics approach to business co-operation

Braga, Vitor
Fonte: Scientificia Publicador: Scientificia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Purpose- Economics and business have evolved as sciences in order to accommodate more of ‘real world’ solutions for the problems approached. In many cases, both business and economics have been supported by other disciplines in order to obtain a more complete framework for the study of complex issues. The aim of this paper is to explore the contribution of three heterodox economics disciplines to the knowledge of business co-operation. Design/methodology/approach- This approach is theoretical and it shows that many relevant aspects of business co-operation have been proposed by economic geography, institutional economics, and economic sociology. Findings- This paper highlights the business mechanisms of co-operation, reflecting on the role of places, institution and the social context where businesses operate. Research Implications- It contributes with a theoretical framework for the explanation of business co-operations and networks that goes beyond the traditional economics theories. Originality/value- This paper contributes with a framework for the study of business co-operation both from an economics and management perspective. This framework embodies a number of non-quantitative issues that are critical for understanding the complex networks in which firms operate.

Little red riding hood and the big bad wolf disguised granny, development and orthodox economics in the garb of neoinstitutionalism; La caperucita roja y el lobo feroz disfrazado de abuelita, el desarrollo y la Economía Ortodoxa en el ropaje del Neoinstitucionalismo.

Luz Estela Tobón Berrio; Universidad del Norte
Fonte: Revista de Economía del Caribe Publicador: Revista de Economía del Caribe
Tipo: article; publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Thinking about development as a universally desirable goal has led to the construction of a debate about what is the fastest and most efficient way to achieve development, presented in the form of a dialectical tension between orthodox economics and heterodox economics. As result of the experience of industrialized countries has developed "recipes for development" considered universally valid and imposed on developing countries. Notwithstanding, the failure of these in the new territories has shown that development is not a homogeneous or objective process. Instead, experience in development and less developed countries and the current global economic crisis has shown that achieving development involves a combination of complex social phenomena, understandable only through interdisciplinarity, where institutions play the role of structure communicating between the various scientific disciplines.; RESUMEN: Pensar el desarrollo como objetivo universalmente deseable ha conducido a la construcción de un debate acerca de cuál es el camino más rápido y eficiente para alcanzar el desarrollo, representado en una tensión dialéctica entre la economía ortodoxa y la economía heterodoxa. Resultado de la experiencia de los países industrializados se han elaborado “recetas para el desarrollo” consideradas válidas universalmente e impuestas a los países en vías de desarrollo. Empero...

John Dewey’s theory of democracy and its links with the heterodox approach to economics.; La teoría democrática de John Dewey y sus vínculos con el enfoque heterodoxo a la economía. [Inglés]

Arturo Hermann; The Italian National Institute of Statistics, Senior Researcher.
Fonte: Universidad del Norte Publicador: Universidad del Norte
Tipo: article; publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
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John Dewey is one of the most significant figures in pragmatist philosophy, an approach which he systematically applied to the study of economic, social and cultural structure. In our work, we will focus on the main aspects of Dewey’s approach to the study of aspects that make up “human nature” and how do they interact with the characteristics of the cultural context. We will illustrate how the concepts elaborated by Dewey can contribute to the heterodox analysis of a host of economic and social issues. Dewey highlights the crucial role of public policies for facilitating the development of volunteer associations in all areas of the social structure. In the analysis of these aspects, Dewey’s key contribution lies in removing the concepts of democracy and participation from the limbo of abstraction in which they tended to be confined by previous approaches and connecting them to the evolution of economic and social forms.; John Dewey es una de las figuras más representativas de la filosofía pragmatista, enfoque este que aplicó sistemáticamente al estudio de la estructura social y cultural. En este artículo el foco de análisis se concentrará en los aspectos principales del enfoque de Dewey al estudio de los aspectos que constituyen la “naturaleza humana” y en cómo ellos interactúan con las características del contexto cultural. Se ilustrará cómo los conceptos elaborados por Dewey pueden contribuir al análisis heterodoxo de una serie de asuntos económicos y sociales. Dewey subraya el papel crucial de las políticas públicas para facilitar el desarrollo de asociaciones voluntarias en todas las áreas de la estructura social. En el análisis de estos aspectos la contribución central de Dewey radica en cambiar los conceptos de democracia y participación del limbo de la abstracción en la que tienden a ser confinados por los enfoques anteriores...

The Citation Field of Evolutionary Economics

Dolfsma, Wilfred; Leydesdorff, Loet
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/01/2010 Português
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Evolutionary economics has developed into an academic field of its own, institutionalized around, amongst others, the Journal of Evolutionary Economics (JEE). This paper analyzes the way and extent to which evolutionary economics has become an interdisciplinary journal, as its aim was: a journal that is indispensable in the exchange of expert knowledge on topics and using approaches that relate naturally with it. Analyzing citation data for the relevant academic field for the Journal of Evolutionary Economics, we use insights from scientometrics and social network analysis to find that, indeed, the JEE is a central player in this interdisciplinary field aiming mostly at understanding technological and regional dynamics. It does not, however, link firmly with the natural sciences (including biology) nor to management sciences, entrepreneurship, and organization studies. Another journal that could be perceived to have evolutionary acumen, the Journal of Economic Issues, does relate to heterodox economics journals and is relatively more involved in discussing issues of firm and industry organization. The JEE seems most keen to develop theoretical insights.

Journals as constituents of scientific discourse: economic heterodoxy

Dolfsma, Wilfred; Leydesdorff, Loet
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/11/2009 Português
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Purpose: to provide a view and analysis of the immediate field of journals which surround a number of key heterodox economics journals. Design/methodology/approach: Using citation data from the Science and Social Science Citation Index, the individual and collective networks of a number of journals in this field are analyzed. Findings: The size and shape of the citation networks of journals can differ substantially, even if in a broadly similar category. Heterodox economics cannot (yet) be considered as an integrated specialty: authors in several journals in heterodox economics cite more from mainstream economics than from other heterodox journals. There are also strong links with other disciplinary fields such as geography, development studies, women studies, etc.

A agenda de pesquisa heterodoxa da mainline economics

Angeli, Eduardo
Fonte: Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Instituto de Economia - Setor de Publicações Publicador: Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Instituto de Economia - Setor de Publicações
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/12/2015 Português
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O presente artigo apresenta e qualifica como heterodoxa e robusta a mainline economics, uma agenda de pesquisa existente ao longo da evolução do pensamento econômico que abre mão de um conceito central à mainstream economics, o de equilíbrio, sob uma perspectiva liberal. Procura-se argumentar, também, que a crítica heterodoxa da teoria econômica convencional não deve ser confundida com a crítica do próprio sistema capitalista. Para isso, é discutido o que se entende por economia heterodoxa e é apresentado criticamente o papel do equilíbrio na abordagem estática convencional em Economia. Em seguida, mostra-se que a mainline economics adota a abordagem de processo de mercado e de emergência de coordenação sem comando central, sob uma perspectiva liberal. Destaque é dado para as contribuições oferecidas por F. A. Hayek. Abstract This paper presents mainline economics, a research agenda that can be found throughout the history of economic thought. Mainline economics does not usually use the concept of equilibrium, at least not in the same sense as conventional economic theory. In this paper, an explanation of the reason that mainline economics can be heterodox and robust is given. It is also argued that a critique of orthodox economics should not be necessarily viewed as a critique of capitalism nor liberalism. Thus...