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The Portuguese New State and the Multilateral Management of Fisheries: Science, Law and Diplomacy (1948-1974)

Garrido, Álvaro
Fonte: Universidade do Porto; Brown University Publicador: Universidade do Porto; Brown University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This article sets out to examine the impact of the changes in Portugal’s fisheries in the second half of the 20th century, with particular reference to the Northwest Atlantic cod fisheries between 1948 and 1974, respectively the creation of the ICNAF and the Portuguese Democratic Revolution. Science, Law and Diplomacy are the three prongs of this work. Focusing on the Portuguese angle, and making use of a huge range of sources, this article deals with the rise and fall of the Portuguese cod fishing industry in an international context. The analysis is multidisciplinary in perspective: economic and social history, “diplomatic history” and the history of science are its foundations. Political and trade relations with Canada and Denmark play an important part in identifying the Portuguese government’s adaptation strategies and the fishing entrepreneurs involved in the main external changes of the 1950s and 60s: the first signs of scarcity of resources, the First and Second United Nations Conferences on the Law of the Sea, the issue of extending the limits of territorial waters and the setting up of multilateral bodies for managing the Northwest Atlantic fisheries (ICNAF, 1948). The way in which the Corporate Organization for Portuguese Fishing - the institutional framework established by the Salazar dictatorship in the 1930s - received the external discussions on the problem of overfishing and dealt with the threats...

Trojan horses: On the origins of national security concerns over foreign investments in the United States from 1919 to 2008

Miguel, Felipe Mendes Sozzi
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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141.45799%
In this thesis I sought to explain the origins of national security concerns over foreign investments in the United States from 1919 to 2008. I identified and examined 29 cases of national security concerns over foreign investments in the United States during that period, and argued that in order to understand the circumstances under which foreign investments in the United States are perceived to be threats to the U.S. security we must rely on a combination of democratic peace theory and the version of political realism known as power transition theory. Thus, I tested the argument that national security concerns over foreign investments in the United States from 1919 to 2008 resulted from: (1) perceptions of international power transition, (2) perceptions of ideological and institutional differences between the United States and the home country of the investor, (3) perceptions of the strategic importance of the sector where the investment is made, and (4) perceptions of participation or control of the foreign investor by the government of the country of origin. I found that all these hypotheses have some explanatory power. ^

Citizenship

Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Livro
Português
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Citizenship, denoting full and active membership of the national and political community, has been recognized as a critical concept since ancient times. However, three key and related changes have occurred to each of the basic components of this concept that have altered dramatically to whom and to what it now refers, and the contexts in which it seems proper to use it. First, the scope of membership—or who can be a citizen—has broadened considerably. Second, the rights and duties of citizenship have likewise been transformed. Finally, the contours of the political community, or the loci where it is appropriate and necessary to adopt civic behaviour, has similarly altered. Changes in one dimension have tended to lead to concomitant changes to the others. For example, the inclusion of women as full members of the political community has initiated a long process of reform to the entitlements and obligations of citizenship, and has challenged not only the traditional contours of the public and private, but also the venues for citizenly activity and the forms it might take. This new collection from Routledge’s Critical Concepts in Political Science series brings together in four volumes both canonical and cutting-edge research to enable users to make sense of the theory and practice of citizenship. Volume I explores the classic theories of citizenship: starting with historical accounts of ancient and early modern citizenship...

Professionalism, social attitudes, and civil-military accountability in the United States Army Officer Corps, 1815-1846

Watson, Samuel Johnston
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 1607 p.; application/pdf
Português
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This dissertation explores connections between occupation, class, and state formation, employing comparative and sociological perspectives previously neglected by historians of this topic in order to locate the officer corps more firmly in its social and cultural context. Officers were socialized in responsibility, gentility, and nationalism, closely connected attitudes which encouraged subordination to civilian political control. The ultimate source of this accountability was employment by the nation-state, which provided security in an increasingly unstable society. Officers responded by stressing order and national sovereignty in their peacekeeping duties in the nation's borderlands. Socialization and self-interest also made Jacksonian-era officers much less bellicose than they had been before 1820, which helped to keep the nation out of war with Britain during crises along the Canadian border, while the officer corps dutifully executed policies many of its members disagreed with or found distasteful, like Indian removal or the occupation of Texas. In the process, conflicts with local settlers and authorities reinforced officers' allegiance to the federal government. Army organization and caste structure were ultimately shaped more by subjective social influences like ideals of gentility and organizational phenomena like bureaucracy and careerism than by the needs of military function per se. This thesis provides a study of officers' mentalite...

One nation, one world: American clubwomen and the politics of internationalism, 1945--1961

Olsen, Margaret Nunnelley
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 465 p.; application/pdf
Português
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80.92402%
Between 1945 and 1961, U.S. clubwomen launched a series of civic campaigns to educate Americans about the United Nations. Drawing on their older traditions of domesticating politics, conservative and liberal clubwomen from around the nation became community-level foreign affairs interpreters. This project explores the ways the foreign affairs activism of four organizations---the General Federation of Women's Clubs, the Daughters of the American Revolution, Women United for the United Nations, and the Minute Women of the U.S.A.---contributed to the popular resonance of foreign affairs in the postwar period and nurtured a growing political divide among American clubwomen. Postwar clubwomen across the political spectrum promoted the idea that women could shape their nation's foreign policy by learning about international affairs. In the process, these women developed competing visions for America's relationship to the world, which they advocated in their community education campaigns. These rival campaigns injected the UN into the everyday lives of American citizens and pitted clubwomen against one another, training a generation of club activists. Beginning with clubwomen's initial support for the United Nations, this project traces the changes in their foreign affairs perspectives and programs over the postwar period. Confronted with the Cold War and the anticolonial movement...

Armenia's foreign policy, 1991--2004: Between history and geopolitics

Mirzoyan, Alla
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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100.99224%
This dissertation is the first systematic study of Armenia’s foreign policy during the post-independence period, between 1991 and 2004. It argues that a small state’s foreign policy is best understood when looking at the regional level. Armenia’s geographic proximity to Iran, Russia and Turkey, places it in an area of heightened geopolitical interest by various great powers. This dissertation explores four sets of relationships with Armenia’s major historical ‘partners’: Russia, Iran, Turkey and the West (Europe and the United States). Each relationship reveals a complex reality of a continuous negotiation between ideas of history, collective memory, nationalism and geopolitics. A detailed study of Armenia’s relations with these powers demonstrates how actors’ relations of amity and enmity are formed to constitute a regional security complex. Turkey represents the ultimate “other”, while both Europe and Iran are seen as ideational “others”, whose role in Armenia’s foreign policy, aside from pragmatic policy considerations, reflects a normative quest. Russia and the United States, on the other hand, represent the powerful structural forces that define the regional security complex, in which Armenia operates. This dissertation argues that although Armenia has been severely constrained in certain foreign policy choices...

Oman's foreign policy: Foundations and practice

Al-Khalili, Majid
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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110.75519%
The object of this dissertation is to record and analyze the foreign policy of the Sultanate of Oman from the early twentieth century until 2004. It challenges the central assumption of the contemporary scholarship on the subject that Muscat's modern foreign policy begins in 1970. It is often presumed that the pre-1970 era does not merit a thorough investigation to understand Muscat's modus operandi today. This study argues that for a comprehensive understanding of Muscat's foreign policy since 1970, the frontier of the historical analysis of Oman's regional and international involvement should be pushed back to the 1930's, when the young Sultan Said assumed power over the country divided by the "Treaty" or the "Agreement" of Sib. Indeed, the thrust of this research lies at once in repudiating the conventional wisdom regarding both the persona of Sultan Said and the customary political/historical narrative of Said's reign. The critical analysis of this period is utilized to rebut the pervasive and largely inaccurate historical narrative of the events prior to 1970, to recount an original interpretation of the period, and to use the narrative as a preamble for subsequent foreign policy directions and initiatives. Furthermore, this dissertation covers the gaps in the literature resulting from the absence of any materials that either record or analyze Muscat's foreign policy from 1996 until 2004. In addition...

Soviet and Western bloc competition in the less developed world and the collapse of Detente

Rivero, Douglas
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
90.71923%
The purpose of my dissertation was to examine the competition between the U.S.-led Western bloc and the Soviet bloc in the less developed world during Détente. I assessed whether or not the Soviet bloc pushed for strategic gains in the less developed world in the middle-to-late 1970's and whether this contributed to the U.S. decision to abandon Détente in 1979. I made the attempt to test the international relations theory of balance of threat realism (Walt, 1992).^ I accomplished the test in two ways. First, I measured the foreign aid allocations (military and economic) made by each respective bloc towards the Third World by using a quantitative approach. Second, I examined U.S. archives using the process-tracing/historical method. The U.S. archives gave me the ability to evaluate how U.S. decision-makers and U.S. intelligence agencies interpreted the actions of the Soviet bloc. They also gave me the chance to examine the U.S. response as we evaluated the policies that were pushed by key U.S. decision-makers and intelligence agencies.^ On the question of whether or not the Soviet bloc was aggressive, the quantitative evidence suggested that it was not. Instead, the evidence found the Western-bloc to have been more aggressive in the less developed world. The U.S. archives also showed Soviet actions to have been defensive. Key U.S. decision-makers and intelligence agencies attested to this. Finally...

The United States Congress and Venezuela's Hugo Chavez

Beillard, Mariano J
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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141.3263%
The Soviet Union's dissolution in December 1991 marks the end of the Cold War and the elimination of the United States' main rival for global political-economic leadership. For decades U.S. foreign policymakers had formulated policies aimed at containing the spread of Soviet communism and Moscow's interventionist policies in the Americas. They now assumed that Latin American leftist revolutionary upheavals could also be committed to history. ^ This study explores how Congress takes an active role in U.S. foreign policymaking when dealing with revolutionary changes in Latin America. This study finds that despite Chávez's vitriolic statements and U.S. economic vulnerability due to its dependence on foreign oil sources, Congress today sees Chávez as a nuisance and not a threat to U.S. vital interests. Devoid of an extra-hemispheric, anti-American patron intent on challenging the United States for regional leadership, Chávez is seen by Congress largely as a threat to the stability of Venezuela's institutions and political-economic stability. Today both the U.S. executive and the legislative branches largely see Bolivarianism a distraction and not an existential threat. ^ The research is based on an examination of Bolivarian Venezuela compared to revolutionary upheaval and governance in Nicaragua over the course of the twentieth century. This project is largely descriptive...

Les enjeux de sécurité dans l'Arctique contemporain Le cas du Canada et de la Norvège

Perreault, François
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Ce mémoire a pour objectif d’analyser la nature et l’ampleur des enjeux de sécurité dans l’Arctique contemporain en utilisant les outils offerts par la théorie de la sécurisation de l’École de Copenhague. Cinq secteurs de sécurité – militaire, politique, identitaire, environnemental et économique – et quatre variables – la géographie, l’identité, l’histoire et la politique – sont utilisées pour examiner les perceptions de sécurité, les sécurisations et les comportements stratégiques du Canada et de la Norvège. La 1re hypothèse avancée dans ce mémoire est la suivante : depuis 2005, au Canada et en Norvège, nous sommes en train d’assister à une sécurisation progressive des enjeux non militaires dans l’Arctique - politiques, identitaires, environnementaux et économiques - et les effets entre ces secteurs de sécurité ont d’importantes conséquences sur le secteur militaire, notamment au niveau de la multiplication de projets étatiques pour la plupart essentiellement militaires, ainsi qu’au niveau d’un déclenchement d’une sécurisation de leur intégrité territoriale ou du moins un accroissement de l’insécurité à son égard. La 2e hypothèse avancée est la suivante : les nouvelles perceptions de sécurité et les comportements stratégiques des États de la région engendrent de l’insécurité à l’intérieur des sociétés ainsi qu’une dégradation de la confiance entre les acteurs étatiques. Cela a pour effet d’augmenter la division politique dans l’Arctique et de ralentir toute construction régionale. Nous concluons...

Les difficultés d’application du droit international au conflit du Haut-Karabagh : effectivités et causes géopolitiques

Doix, Vincent A.
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
111.34238%
Conflit présenté comme gelé, la guerre du Haut-Karabagh n’en est pas moins réelle, s’inscrivant dans une géopolitique régionale complexe et passionnante, nécessitant de s’intéresser à l’histoire des peuples de la région, à l’histoire des conquêtes et politiques menées concomitamment. Comprendre les raisons de ce conflit situé aux limites de l’Europe et de l’Asie, comprendre les enjeux en cause, que se soit la problématique énergétique ou l’importance stratégique de la région du Caucase à la fois pour la Russie mais également pour les Etats-Unis ou l’Union Européenne ; autant de réflexions que soulève cette recherche. Au delà, c’est l’influence réciproque du droit international et du politique qui sera prise en compte, notamment concernant l’échec des négociations actuelles. Les difficultés d’application du droit international à ce conflit sui generis se situent à plusieurs niveaux ; sur le statut de la région principalement, mais également sur les mécanismes de sanctions et de réparations devant s’appliquer aux crimes sur les personnes et les biens et qui se heurtent à la classification difficile du conflit.; The Nagorno-Karabagh conflict, often described as frozen, reveals the certainty of a war encompassed in complex regional geopolitics. To understand this complexity...

Comment les armées innovent en temps de guerre : les États-Unis en Irak, 2003-2007

Messier, Louis
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
80.3295%
Ce mémoire porte sur la question de l’innovation militaire en temps de guerre et plus particulièrement sur la transition de la guerre conventionnelle vers la contre-insurrection des forces armées américaines au cours de la guerre d’Irak. Cette transition est un cas d’innovation militaire intéressant puisqu’il s’agit d’un changement radical dans les pratiques militaires de l’Armée américaine et du Corps des marines particulièrement parce qu’ils ont régulièrement tenté d’éviter les missions de contre-insurrection au cours de leur histoire. Cette recherche tentera d’expliquer comment les forces américaines ont innové au cours de la guerre d’Irak Nous considérons que le passage de la guerre conventionnelle à la contre-insurrection des forces américaines est le résultat d’un processus d’innovation militaire en temps de guerre qui se produit simultanément à partir de la base et du sommet de l’organisation militaire américaine. Tout d’abord, à la base, nous estimons que les unités américaines de l’Armée et des marines ont développé de nouvelles capacités de contre-insurrection à la suite d’un processus d’exploration de nouvelles tactiques et de nouvelles techniques sur le champ de bataille. Ensuite...

Landmark SCOTUS rulings, Obama’s trade win, and controversy over the Confederate flag continues: US national blog round up for 20 – 26 June

Gilson, Christopher
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/06/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
70.752524%
SApp Managing Editor, Chris Gilson looks at the best in political blogging from around the Beltway.

Rubio channels JFK, Obama’s trade agenda stalls, and the unending Iraq war: US national blog round up for 6 – 12 June

Gilson, Christopher
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/06/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
70.752524%
USApp Managing Editor, Chris Gilson looks at the best in political blogging from around the Beltway.

The death of the Iowa Straw Poll, Senate decides on surveillance, and does China take the U.S. seriously?: US national blog round up for 30 May – 5 June

Gilson, Christopher
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/06/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
70.752524%
USApp Managing Editor, Chris Gilson looks at the best in political blogging from around the Beltway.