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A institucionalização e profissionalização da formação em filosofia em universidades do Nordeste; The institutionalization and processes in professional improvement in undergraduate degrees of philosophy at universities located in the Northeast of Brazil

Loureiro, Maria Dulcinéa da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/06/2008 Português
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Esta tese tem como objeto o processo de institucionalização e profissionalização da Filosofia em Universidades do Nordeste, a partir da análise dos documentos que regulamentam os cursos de graduação em Filosofia no país e das trajetórias dos cursos de Filosofia das seguintes instituições: Universidade Estadual do Ceará UECE, Universidade Federal da Paraíba - UFPB, Universidade Federal da Bahia - UFBA e Universidade Federal de Pernambuco UFPE. O objetivo deste trabalho é compreender a estruturação, a concepção de filosofia e o processo de formação nesses cursos. Foram realizadas visitas às instituições para consulta aos documentos dos cursos (decretos, pareceres, propostas de reformulação, grades curriculares, projetos pedagógicos, artigos, etc.) e realização de entrevistas com coordenadores e professores. Objetivamos problematizar a concepção de formação que se consolidou no Brasil tendo como eixo a história da filosofia; para tanto refletimos sobre a origem da filosofia no Brasil a fim de melhor compreender como é assimilada e resignificada. Em seguida discutimos o processo de profissionalização, ou seja, a formação do filósofo e do professor de filosofia. A compreensão desta problemática conduziu-nos a uma reflexão a respeito do pensamento de Kant...

Relatos dos professores de ciências sobre a natureza da ciência e sua relação com a história e a filosofia da ciência; Report of Teachers of Science on the nature of science and its relationship with the History and Philosophy of Science.

Santana, Edson Rodrigues
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/12/2009 Português
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A abordagem da natureza da ciência e sua relação com a história e a filosofia da ciência, têm sido reconhecida tanto no âmbito nacional, como é possível encontra-la nos PCNs ( Parâmetros Currriculares Nacionais ), e também no contexto internacional como apresenta o Projeto 2061 produzido pela AAAS ( Associação Americana para o Progresso da Ciência ). Além destas, o tema é constante em diversas pesquisas, demonstrando assim sua relevância. Esta pesquisa procurou compreender como os professores interpretariam esta temática. O resultado demonstrou problemas com esta compreensão, ou seja, os professores não teriam estas questões bem compreendidas e, portanto as mesmas poderiam ser abordadas de formas inadequadas ou simplesmente não seriam abordadas. Há também um outro fator, pois diferentemente de outras questões relacionadas ao Ensino de Ciência como Sexualidade e Meio Ambiente, cujas mesmas são relatadas pelos professores. A temática sobre a natureza da ciência e sua conexão com a história e a filosofia da ciência, além de mal compreendidas, não haveria ainda uma clara consciência sobre a importância do assunto. Assim caberia aos cursos de formação de professores tratar a questão em duas frentes...

Inserção da questão filosófica na história

Puppi, Ubaldo
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Departamento de Filosofia Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Departamento de Filosofia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 65-79
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A filosofia, particularmente em fase crítica como a atual, se apresenta como questão. Mas, a questão atual da filosofia é simultaneamente a questão da tradição que produziu a filosofia. Questionada a partir do seu interior, a filosofia persevera, renovando-se; questionada a partir de fora, de uma posição cética, não só sua existência, mas toda a problemática dela decorrente, são recusadas. No entanto, na instância da ciência, pretensamente erigida em bastião do ceticismo, descobre-se a urgência daquilo mesmo que em seu nome é negado. A história da filosofia é o espaço onde ecoa e prolifera a questão da filosofia. em seu contexto, por meio desta, a filosofia é sempre atual, transforma-se, pluraliza-se.; Philosophy, especially in a critical phase such as the present one, poses itself as a question. But the current question of philosophy is at the same time the question of the tradition that produced philosophy. Being questioned from withim, philosophy perseveres, renewes itself; questioned from the outside, from a skeptical position, not only its existence but also all its problems are rejected. Nevertheless on the level of science, which has supposedly been turned into a supporter of skepticism, one can find the urgency of the very same thing that is denied in its name. The history of philosophy is the place where the question of philosophy echoes and proliferates. In this context...

O ensino de filosofia na formação do agente religioso no Brasil colonia : uma identidade politica entre a vassalagem epistemologica tradicional e a experimentação pedagogica heroica (1549-1599); The teaching of philosophy in the formation of the religious agent in the colonial Brazil : a political identity between the traditional epistemological vassalage and the heroic pedagogical experimentation (1449-1599)

Jose Carlos da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/07/2009 Português
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Este trabalho concentra-se no estudo historiográfico do Ensino de Filosofia na organização da cultura do Agente Religioso no Brasil, visando compreender, sobretudo, o seu início, ou seja, como o Ensino de Filosofia foi introduzido e teve seus primeiros passos no alvorecer do Brasil, ainda no período colonial. Para isso, foi necessário elegermos como datas balizantes desse estudo o período de 1549 a 1599. Mil quinhentos e quarenta e nove porque foi nesta data que chegaram ao Brasil os primeiros Jesuítas com o Governador Geral Tomé de Sousa. E mil quinhentos e noventa e nove por ser o ano da publicação definitiva do Ratio Studiorum. As fontes primárias e essenciais usadas para nosso estudo foram algumas cartas encontradas, lidas e analisadas, escritas pelos primeiros padres Jesuítas no Brasil, enviadas do Brasil pelos Jesuítas que aqui viviam, ao Provincial em Roma, arquivadas no Archivium Romanum Societatis Iesu (ARSI), visitado e freqüentado no próprio lugar onde estão cuidadosamente guardados em Roma. Também nos servimos de obras essenciais para a nossa análise, por privilégio do contato direto com as fontes - Serafim Leite - a História da Companhia de Jesus no Brasil e as Cartas Jesuíticas. Nesta mesma linha...

Viewing scenes of the history of chemistry through the opera glass

André, João P.
Fonte: American Chemical Society. Division of Chemical Education Publicador: American Chemical Society. Division of Chemical Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/01/2015 Português
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Artistic creation has always reflected the spirit of the moment and opera has not been an exception. There are several examples of operas which appeared at key moments of the development of science, portraying them. Additionally there are also operas that emerged after scientific events or the lifetime of the scientists they were inspired on. In what concerns chemistry, the first category could be exemplified by the apothecary operas (already discussed by the author in a previous paper of this journal) while the others could be illustrated by recent operas such as Dr. Atomic or Madame Curie. Continuing our endeavor of establishing relations between opera and chemistry, and considering that history of science plays an important role in the process of teaching and learning sciences, some milestones of the history of chemistry are here revisited through the opera glass. The operas analyzed have been grouped in the following categories: Operas of Fire and Metallurgy, Operas of the Philosophers of Antiquity, Operas of Alchemy, Operas of the Age of Enlightenment, Operas of the Revolutions and Operas of Entropy.; Thanks are due to the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT–Portugal) and FEDER (European Fund for Regional Development)-COMPETE/QREN/EU for financial support through the research unity PEst-C/QUI/UI686/2013.  

“The Need for an Alternative Narrative to the History of Ideas or To Pay a Debt to Women. A Feminist Approach to Ricoeur’s Thought”

Henriques, Fernanda
Fonte: University of Pittsburgh Press. Publicador: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This paper explores the thought of Paul Ricoeur from a feminist point of view. My goal is to show that it is necessary to narrate differently the history of our culture – in particular, the history of philosophy – in order for wommen to attain a self-­‐‑representation that is equal to that of men. I seek to show that Ricoeur’s philosophy – especially his approach to the topics of memory and history, on the one hand, and the human capacity for initiative, on the other hand– can support the idea that it is possible and legitimate to tell our history otherwise by envisioning a more accurate truth about ourselves.

24.00 Problems of Philosophy, Fall 2001; Problems of Philosophy

Haslanger, Sally Anne
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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The course has two main goals: First, to give you a sense of what philosophers think about and why. This will be done through consideration of some perennial philosophical problems, e.g., the existence of God, reason and faith, personal identity and immortality, freewill, moral responsibility, and standards for moral conduct. We will draw on readings by important figures in the history of philosophy as well as contemporary authors. The second goal is to develop your philosophical skills, and your critical and argumentative skills more generally.

STS.310 History of Science, Fall 2003; History of Science

Kaiser, David
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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This seminar offers a review of recent historiographical approaches within the history of science. Students will read a wide variety of recent studies covering topics from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries. Emphasis will be placed on the intertwining of epistemology with institutions in various settings.

Syntactic features : parametric variation in the history of English

Lumsden, John Stewart
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (422 leaves)
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by John Stewart Lumsden.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Linguistics and Philosophy, 1987.; Title as it appears in M.I.T. Graduate List, Sept. 1987: Syntactic features--parameters in the history of English.; Bibliography: v. 2, leaves 418-422.

Demonstration and belief : the investigation of a difference in classical thought

Benjamin, Andrew E
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (Masters); Master of Philosophy (MPhil)
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This thesis exists on two levels. It is an examination of certain topics in seventeenth century and eighteenth century philosophy, and at the same time an attempt to utilise the insights afforded by Heidegger and Foucault in the writing of the history of systems of thought. I have gone about the thesis in this way because I think there are theoretical inadequacies in most writings in the history of ideas. While I have not concerned myself to any great degree with an examination and critique of these inadequacies, I have used them as a starting point. In other words, my concern is not with these inadequacies as such. Rather, the aim of this thesis is to examine the writing of the history of philosophy by attempting to write a tiny portion of its history. This thesis is therefore a process, a means by which the act of writing becomes an examination of the possibility of writing the 'history of philosophy' itself. In the introduction to the first chapter and in the first section of that chapter, I have attempted to establish certain problems and conditions which provide a way into the writing of the history of philosophy. The way in is not pure acceptance of certain approaches. Rather, it is an examination of what constitutes an 'approach'. The criterion used to substantiate what accounts for an 'approach' is the relationship between the approach and metaphysics. That has been argued is that central to any approach...

Da efervescência cultural ao obscurantismo ditatorial : a história da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de São José do Rio Preto sob o olhar da interpretação de 1964; From the cultural effervescence to the obscurantism dictatorial regime : the history of the Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of the São José do Rio Preto under view of the intervention in 1964

Caroline Maria Florido
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/08/2013 Português
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A dissertação apresentada resultou de uma pesquisa que buscou analisar a história da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de São José do Rio Preto sob o olhar da intervenção da ditadura civil-militar em 1964. O estudo insere-se na linha de pesquisa de História das Instituições Escolares, dentro do Grupo de Pesquisa “História, Sociedade e Educação no Brasil – HISTEDBR”, do Programa de Pós-Graduação da FE/UNICAMP. A fonte primária de consulta e análise foi o Inquérito Policial Militar (IPM) aberto para averiguar atividades subversivas na Faculdade. Buscou-se interpretar porque a existência da faculdade foi considerada ameaçadora para os projetos das classes dominantes. A Faculdade de Filosofia, conhecida como FAFI, nasceu como proposta de “universidade” municipal em 1955 e iniciou suas atividades em 1957. Após inúmeras dificuldades de funcionamento foi estadualizada em 1959, sendo essa história contada por outros pesquisadores, que destacaram sua singularidade institucional. Durante o início dos anos 1960 era organizada em departamentos, com a participação dos estudantes nos órgãos colegiados e teve profícuo envolvimento de estudantes e professores com os movimentos sociais do período. Dentre esses movimentos destacam-se a Campanha em Defesa da Escola Pública...

History and Philosophy of Science: a Phylogenetic approach

Lennox,James G.
Fonte: Casa de Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Casa de Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2001 Português
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In the aftermath of Thomas Kuhn's The structure of scientific revolutions, there was a great deal of discussion about the relationship between the History of Science and the Philosophy of Science. A wider issue was at stake in these discussions: 'normativism' versus 'naturalism' in Epistemology. If the History of Science, at best, gives us reliable information about what actually occurred historically, how can it inform debates about such things as confirmation or explanation in Philosophy of Science? This essay makes a case for the centrality of historical investigation in the Philosophy of Science. I will defend what I term the 'Phylogenetic' approach to the Philosophy of Science. I will argue that since the foundations and dominant methods of a particular scientific field are shaped by its history, studying that History can give us considerable insight into conceptual and methodological problems in a particular Science. The case will be made both on general, philosophical grounds, and by compelling instantiation.

Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on 'How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary U.S. Science Teaching?'

Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/03/2015 Português
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This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary U.S. Science Teaching? The presentations of the conference speakers and the reports of the working groups are reviewed. Multiple themes emerged for K-16 education from the perspective of the history and philosophy of science. Key ones were that: students need to understand that central to science is argumentation, criticism, and analysis; students should be educated to appreciate science as part of our culture; students should be educated to be science literate; what is meant by the nature of science as discussed in much of the science education literature must be broadened to accommodate a science literacy that includes preparation for socioscientific issues; teaching for science literacy requires the development of new assessment tools; and, it is difficult to change what science teachers do in their classrooms. The principal conclusions drawn by the editors are that: to prepare students to be citizens in a participatory democracy...

Teaching natural philosophy and mathematics at Oxford and Cambridge 1500-1570

Hannam, James
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of History and Philosophy of Science Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of History and Philosophy of Science
Tipo: Thesis; Doctoral
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The syllabus in natural philosophy and mathematics was radically changed in the course of the sixteenth century with new subjects, textbooks and methods introduced. Education became more practical and less dependent on medieval antecedents. Printing technology improved textbooks and made it possible to replace them with newer versions. Following sweeping syllabus reform around 1500, the Cambridge Master of Arts course was heavily slanted towards humanism. The old scholastic textbooks were rejected and replaced with modern authors. The purpose of natural philosophy was explicitly to illuminate the providential work of the creator, especially through natural history (a newly developing subject in the sixteenth century thanks to newly translated and promulgated Greek texts) where examples of God?s work were there for all to see. Oxford remained wedded to scholastic texts although the trivium was reformed along humanistic lines. Cromwell?s visitors in 1535 outlawed scholasticism by decree but gave little indication of the alternative (their white list stipulating only Aristotle). The solution adopted by the Oxford masters was to import the Cambridge syllabus and textbooks wholesale. When the evangelical regime of Edward VI reformed the universities in 1549...

Lignes, an intellectual revue: twenty-five years of politics, philosophy, art and literature

May, Adrian
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of French; Clare Hall Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of French; Clare Hall
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
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The thesis takes the French revue Lignes (1987-present) as its object of study to provide a new account of French intellectual culture over the last twenty-five years. Whilst there are now many studies covering the role of such revues throughout the twentieth-century, the majority of such monographs extend no further than the mid-1980s: the major novelty of this thesis is extending these accounts up until the present moment. It is largely assumed that a reaction against the Marxist and structuralist theories of the 1960s and 1970s led to embrace of liberalism and an intellectual drift to the right in France from the 1980s onwards: whilst largely supporting this account, the thesis attempts to nuance this narrative of the fate of the intellectual left in the following years by showing the persistence of what can be called a politicised ?French theory? in Lignes, and a returning left-wing militancy in recent years. In doing so, it will both reveal under-studied aspects of well-known thinkers, such as Jean-Luc Nancy, Jacques Ranci?re and Alain Badiou, as their thought develops through their participation in a collaborative, periodical publication, and introduce lesser known thinkers who have not received an extended readership in Anglophone spheres. Lignes also argues for the continued persistence and relevance of the thought of a previous generation of thinkers...

The pursuit of nature: defining natural histories in eighteenth-century Britain

Gibson, Susannah
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of History and Philosophy of Science Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of History and Philosophy of Science
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
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Pagination differs from hardbound copy of thesis held at Cambridge University Library.; Many histories of natural history see it as a descriptive science, as a clear forerunner to modern studies of classification, ecology and allied sciences. But this thesis argues that the story of unproblematic progression from eighteenth-century natural history to nineteenth-century and modern natural history is a myth. Eighteenth-century natural history was a distinct blend of practices and theories that no longer exists, though many individual elements of it have survived. The natural history that I discuss was not solely about collecting, displaying, naming and grouping objects. Though these activities played an important part in natural history (and in many histories of natural history) this thesis focuses on some other key elements of natural history that are too often neglected: elements such as experimenting, theorising, hypothesising, seeking causes, and explaining. Usually these activities are linked to natural philosophy rather than natural history, but I show how they were used by naturalists and, by extension, create a new way of understanding how eighteenth-century natural history, natural philosophy and other sciences were related. The first chapter is about the end of eighteenth-century natural history and looks at the role of the Linnean Society of London. It argues that this society tried to homogenise British natural history through the promotion of the Linnean sexual system of plant classification and through the suppression of the kinds of experimental and theoretical work described in this thesis. To understand that experimental and theoretical work...

Reflexões iniciais sobre as diversas narrativas de uma história da filosofia; Initial reflections on different narratives of a history of philosophy

Paiva, Gustavo Barreto Vilhena de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/06/2012 Português
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Discuto aqui a necessidade de se estabelecer uma história da filosofia que recorra unicamente ao estudo de documentos de interesse filosófico, caso essa história nos deva ser útil para a compreensão de determinadas noções filosóficas a partir de seu desenvolvimento histórico. Para tanto, mostro primeiramente que, no momento em que uma narrativa histórica pressupõe um nível lógico além do seu nível documental, ela perde essa sua utilidade. Em seguida, aponto a maneira pela qual podemos narrar uma história da filosofia exclusivamente documental.  ; Here I discuss the necessity of establishing a history of philosophy which resorts only to the study of documents of philosophical interest, if this history is supposed to be useful for our understanding certain philosophical notions according to their historical development. To do so, I first show that in the very moment in which a historical narrative presupposes a logical level besides its documental level, it loses its usefulness. After that, I point out the way in which we can narrate an exclusively documental history of philosophy.

Foucault and the history of philosophy; Foucault e a história da filosofia

Muchail, Salma Tannus
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/1995 Português
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Foucault faz filosofia investigando a história, mas não escreve uma "história da filosofia". Não exclui, entretanto, a abordagem dos filósofos: permeando os escritos sobre diferentes "objetos", inscreve-se, como que "em meio a eles", a leitura das filosofias. Pode-se destacar algumas passagens específicas e, a título de ilustração, exemplificar o modo foucautiano de leitura dos filósofos. Por outro lado, Foucault também não toma por tema uma reflexão sobre a história da filosofia. Entretanto, uma aproximação com autores que realizam esta reflexão permite estabelecer algumas diferenças e semelhanças e entender que as histórias que Foucault escreve - permeadas de abordagens de filósofos - é investida de natureza filosófica.; Foucault generates philosophy by investigating history, but is not the author of a "history of philosophy". He does not exclude, however, the philosophical approach: within the texture of his writings on several objects, one finds the thread of a reading of philosophies. Certain specific passages can be pointed out which, by way of illustration, exemplify the Foucaultian reading of philosophies. On the other hand, Foucault does not choose as subject matter a reflection on the history of philosophy. Nevertheless...

A DESIRE FOR LIGHT: CHRISTIANITY AND THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY IN LUDWIG FEUERBACH; DESEJO DE LUZ: O CRISTIANISMO E O SURGIMENTO DA FILOSOFIA MODERNA EM LUDWIG FEUERBACH

Figueiredo, Chrysantho; Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba - PR. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Filosofia.
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/03/2015 Português
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This is a review of Ludwig Feuerbach’s book introduction Geshichte der Neuern Philosophie von Bacon bis Spinoza. The original text is in German, the review is in Portuguese. However, we present here, attached, the translated text, also unpublished and original. In 1841's The Essence of Christianity, Feuerbach presents in a most complete way his own version of the radical humanism which excited the young hegelians of his generation. However, it is between 1833 and 1838 that Feuerbach formulates his own philosophical point of view from the critique of the major philosophical systems of modernity. The History of Philosophy from Bacon to Spinoza, published in 1833, is the first of his historical-philosophical works which, apart from the critique of the philosophers indicated by the title, presents also a singular feuerbachian vision of history as a whole, showing how modern philosophy emerges from the inherent contradictions of the Christian religious spirit.; Este trabalho é uma resenha da introdução do livro de Ludwig Feuerbach Geshichte der Neuern Philosophie von Bacon bis Spinoza. O texto original é em alemão; a resenha, em português. Apresentamos, entretanto, em anexo, a tradução do texto, também inédita e original. Em A Essência do Cristianismo...

Computation of probabilities in causal models of history of science

Pessoa Jr., Osvaldo; Depto. de Filosofia, FFLCH, USP
Fonte: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC Publicador: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2006 Português
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The aim of this paper is to investigate the ascription of probabilities in a causal model of an episode in the history of science. The aim of such a quantitative approach is to allow the implementation of the causal model in a computer, torun simulations. As an example, we look at the beginning of the science of magnetism, “explaining” — in a probabilistic way, in terms of a single causal model — why the field advanced in China but not in Europe (the difference is due to different prior probabilities of certain cultural manifestations). Given the number of years between the occurrences of two causally connected advances X and Y, one proposes a criterion for stipulating the value pY/X of the conditional probability of an advance Y occurring, given X. Next, one must assume a specific form for the cumulative probability function pY/X(t), whichwe take to be the time integral of an exponential distribution function, as is done in physics of radioactive decay. Rules for calculating the cumulative functions for more than two events are mentioned, involving composition, disjunction and conjunction of causes. We also consider the problems involved in supposing that the appearance of events in time follows an exponential distribution...