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Aspectos relacionados aos efeitos da desigualdade de renda na saúde : mecanismos contextuais; Issues regarding the effects on health of income inequality : contextual mechanisms

Celeste, Roger Keller; Nadanovsky, Paulo
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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O Brasil é um dos países mais desiguais em distribuição de renda e a influência desse fator na saúde das pessoas é controversa. Este artigo revisou a metodologia para estudos contextuais e mecanismos de ação que podem explicar o efeito contextual da desigualdade de renda na saúde. O estudo de efeitos contextuais necessita de teorias multiníveis bem formuladas que identifiquem o papel de cada variável no modelo, e o nível de agregação ideal das variáveis contextuais. Foram identificadas quatro explicações: (1) artefato estatístico; (2) comparação social;(3) subinvestimento público; (4) capital social. A contribuição relativa de cada um desses mecanismos não está ainda bem avaliada. Concluímos que a existência de diferentes mecanismos de ação pode explicar parte da heterogeneidade dos resultados. Outra explicação é que a desigualdade de renda pode captar outros construtos, como estratificação social ou políticas públicas e, em alguns casos, pode não ser um bom marcador de tais construtos. Estudos com maior poder de estabelecimento de relação causal são necessários. Uma possibilidade é a avaliação do impacto de políticas de intervenção direcionadas para redistribuição de renda.; Brazil is one of the most unequal countries in income distribution. The influence of this factor on people’s health is controversial. This article reviews the contextual effects and possible pathways linking income inequality to health. Contextual effect studies need well-developed multilevel theories...

Immigration and Ethnic and Racial Inequality in the United States

Eschbach, Karl; Waters, Mary
Fonte: Annual Reviews Publicador: Annual Reviews
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47.887134%
This review examines research about current levels and recent changes in ethnic and racial stratification in the United States. Research about ethnic inequality emphasizes that economic stagnation and restructuring are troubling impediments to progress toward equality, and it shows evidence that employers may still use racial and ethnic queues in hiring. A number of issues arise with respect to the incorporation of the new waves of immigrants who have arrived since immigration law reform in 1965. We discuss patterns of adaptation of new immigrants, including available evidence on the ethnic enclave economy and substitution in the labor market of immigrants for native minorities. We summarize new theories and hypotheses about the fate of the children of recent immigrants, and we point to topics in this area needing further research.; Sociology

Stratification in the Early Stages of Mate Choice

Lewis, Kevin
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
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Sociologists have long studied mate choice patterns to understand the shape of stratification systems. Romantic pairing involves intimacy and trust, and is therefore a prime indicator of the extent to which members of different social groupings (race/ethnicity, social class, education, religion) accept each other as social equals. The majority of this literature focuses on marriage, given the commitment marriage implies and the availability of nationally-representative data. In this dissertation, I examine the opposite end of the relationship spectrum: The initial screening and sorting process whereby strangers consider each other as potential mates; express interest in some subset of this population but not others; and find that this interest is or is not reciprocated. This beginning stage in mate choice is particularly important for our understanding of social boundaries because personality factors are likely to matter less and social characteristics to matter more. Yet because these initial forays into relationships are typically unobserved, we know very little about whom people consider as potential mates in the first place. I ask the following questions, corresponding to three empirical chapters: First, how do individuals from different status backgrounds vary in the types of strategies that they pursue and the degree of success that they achieve? Second...

Towards a General Theory of Education-Based Inequality and Mobility: Who Wins and Loses Under China’s Educational Expansion, 1981-2010

Guo, Maocan
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
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My dissertation formally develops a theory of education-based inequality and mobility to integrate the existing theoretical accounts and results in the fields. The empirical puzzle I examine is why the triangle associations among social origin, educational attainment and social destination present various patterns in different societies under educational expansion. By using a variety of cross-sectional survey data from reforming China, I illustrate that class mobility strategies, structural and institutional features in the educational system and the sociopolitical institutional context are the most important dimensions to understand how educational expansion affects education-based social stratification and inequality. My analyses demonstrate that, with China’s “bottleneck” educational opportunity structure and rising educational cost under educational expansion, we observe increasing educational inequality, declining social mobility and increasing social origin differentials in the college premium in the last three decades.; Sociology

Earnings Inequality Within and Across Gender, Racial, and Ethnic Groups in Four Latin American Countries

Cunningham, Wendy; Jacobsen, Joyce P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Latin American countries are generally characterized as displaying high income and earnings inequality overall along with high inequality by gender, race, and ethnicity. However, the latter phenomenon is not a major contributor to the former phenomenon. Using household survey data from four Latin American countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, and Guyana) for which stratification by race or ethnicity is possible, this paper demonstrates (using Theil index decompositions as well as Gini indices, and 90/10 and 50/10 percentile comparisons) that within-group earnings inequality rather than between-group earnings inequality is the main contributor to overall earnings inequality. Simulations in which the relatively disadvantaged gender and/or racial/ethnic group is treated as if it were the relatively advantaged group tend to reduce overall earnings inequality measures only slightly and in some cases have the effect of increasing earnings inequality measures.

The Relationship between Classroom Interactions and Exclusionary Discipline as a Social Practice: A Critical Microethnography

Pane, Debra Mayes
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Exclusionary school discipline results in students being removed from classrooms as a consequence of their disruptive behavior and may lead to subsequent suspension and/or expulsion. Literature documents that nondominant students, particularly Black males, are disproportionately impacted by exclusionary discipline, to the point that researchers from a variety of critical perspectives consider exclusionary school discipline an oppressive educational practice and condition. Little or no research examines specific teacher-student social interactions within classrooms that influence teachers’ decisions to use or not use exclusionary discipline. Therefore, this study set forth the central research question: In relation to classroom interactions in alternative education settings, what accounts for teachers’ use or non-use of exclusionary discipline with students? A critical social practice theory of learning served as the framework for exploring this question, and a critical microethnographic methodology informed the data collection and analysis. Criterion sampling was used to select four classrooms in the same alternative education school with two teachers who frequently and two who rarely used exclusionary discipline. Nine stages of data collection and reconstructive data analysis were conducted. Data collection involved video recorded classroom observations...

Bleaching To Reach: Skin Bleaching as a Performance of Embodied Resistance in Jamaican Dancehall Culture

Harris, Treviene A
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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This thesis examines how skin bleaching can be understood within the cultural context of Jamaican dancehall. I argue that as a cultural practice, skin bleaching can be viewed as a critique of the concomitant structural inequalities precipitated by colorism, which is a by-product of racism. In proposing skin bleaching as a queer performance of color, I attempt to illustrate the manner in which the lightening of the skin exposes the instability of racism and colorism as socially constructed, discursive regimes. If race and skin color are biological and embodied facts dictated by social reality, then bodies, which are racially marked and colored subjects, can be used to project counter discourses that challenge these specific regimes. The space of discursive limit imposed on the racialized or colored body-subject is a space from which critiques of dominant discourses can be projected, and bleaching does precisely that. I conclude therefore, that skin bleaching is performed resistance which challenges the dominating discourses on race by first destabilizing the notion that skin color is an immutable biological fact, and second by contesting subsequent discourses that are contingent on the “facts” of color and race.

School expansion and uneven modernization : comparing educational inequality in Northern and Southern Italy

BALLARINO, Gabriele; PANICHELLA, Nazareno; TRIVENTI, Moris
Fonte: Elsevier Sci Ltd Publicador: Elsevier Sci Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The paper asks whether the patterns of educational expansion and inequality were the same in the two parts of Italy: the North, more industrialized and developed, and the more backwards South. This is a theoretically relevant issue as, despite this major socioeconomic heterogeneity, Italy has a centralized school system, whose main institutional features are the same all over the country. By means of an educational transition analysis of the five waves of the Italian Longitudinal Household Survey we analyze school expansion and long-term trends of educational inequality, both in general and at each specific school transition. The main results indicate that there has been increasing divergence between the two areas in educational expansion and in the effect of social background on years of education attained, favouring the North. The main difference between the two areas is found at two transitions, the one from elementary to lower secondary and the one from lower to upper secondary. While the first difference diminishes over time, the second grows over time and is currently crucial. Its reasons are found in the different propensity of the offspring of the working class to enrol in vocational schools, which is stronger in the North.

Education and physical health trajectories in old age : evidence from the survey of health, ageing and retirement in Europe (SHARE)

LEOPOLD, Liliya; ENGELHARTDT, Henriette
Fonte: Springer Basel Ag Publicador: Springer Basel Ag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The model of cumulative inequality predicts that health differences between educational levels increase with age. Using a variety of analytical approaches and measures of health, studies have, however, reported increasing as well as decreasing and constant patterns of educational health inequality. The aim of this study is use a standardized research design to compare different dimensions of health inequality trajectories across educational levels. We used data from two waves (2004/2005 and 2006/2007) of SHARE. The sample consisted of respondents aged 50-80 (n = 14,818). Using OLS regression models, we analyzed trajectories of health inequality in self-reported measures (ADL, IADL, mobility, chronic diseases, and self-rated health) as well as non-invasive objective measures (grip strength) of physical health. Inequality between higher and lower educated individuals increased significantly in limitations of physical functioning and grip strength. In chronic diseases and self-rated health, the gap between these two groups remained constant. Although our results mainly supported the model of cumulative inequality, they also showed that the trajectory of the education-health gradient is not uniform but varies across different dimensions of physical health.

Occupational structure and socioeconomic inequality: a comparative study between Brazil and the United States

Maia,Alexandre Gori; Sakamoto,Arthur
Fonte: Instituto de Economia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas Publicador: Instituto de Economia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 Português
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ABSTRACTThis paper explores how occupational structure is associated with economic inequality in Brazil in comparison to the United States. Changes in the Brazilian and American occupational structures between 1983 and 2011 are investigated in order to assess how closely they generate high socioeconomic inequalities. The effects of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment are taken into account. Highlights of the results include: (1) a higher level of socioeconomic development in the American occupational structure, reflecting huge socioeconomic differences between these countries; (2) a tenuous convergence between the Brazilian and American occupational structures; (3) a significant decrease in the net impacts of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment (i.e., reduced social stratification) in both countries. These results suggest the analytical worth of considering occupational structure as a significant intermediate variable affecting the level of socioeconomic inequality within a country over time, as well as between two countries at a given point in time.

Women of African Descent: Persistence in Completing A Doctorate

Bailey-Iddrisu, Vannetta L.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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This study examines the educational persistence of women of African descent (WOAD) in pursuit of a doctorate degree at universities in the southeastern United States. WOAD are women of African ancestry born outside the African continent. These women are heirs to an inner dogged determination and spirit to survive despite all odds (Pulliam, 2003, p. 337).This study used Ellis’s (1997) Three Stages for Graduate Student Development as the conceptual framework to examine the persistent strategies used by these women to persist to the completion of their studies.

The Effects of the Use of Technology In Mathematics Instruction on Student Acheivement

Myers, Ron Y
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the use of technology on students’ mathematics achievement, particularly the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) mathematics results. Eleven schools within the Miami-Dade County Public School System participated in a pilot program on the use of Geometers Sketchpad (GSP). Three of these schools were randomly selected for this study. Each school sent a teacher to a summer in-service training program on how to use GSP to teach geometry. In each school, the GSP class and a traditional geometry class taught by the same teacher were the study participants. Students’ mathematics FCAT results were examined to determine if the GSP produced any effects. Students’ scores were compared based on assignment to the control or experimental group as well as gender and SES. SES measurements were based on whether students qualified for free lunch. The findings of the study revealed a significant difference in the FCAT mathematics scores of students who were taught geometry using GSP compared to those who used the traditional method. No significant differences existed between the FCAT mathematics scores of the students based on SES. Similarly, no significant differences existed between the FCAT scores based on gender. In conclusion...

Crossing Boundaries to Education: Haitian Transnational Families and the Quest to Raise the Family Up

Nicholas, Tekla
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Nearly 175, 000 Haitian immigrants have settled in South Florida since the 1970s. Their lives are often lived transnationally with persistent connections and obligations to family members in Haiti. Yet, traditional theories of immigrant assimilation focus on the integration of immigrants into host countries, giving little consideration to relationships and activities that extend into migrants' countries of origin. Conversely, studies of transnational families do not explicitly address incorporation into the receiving country. This dissertation, through the experiences of Haitian immigrants in South Florida, reveals a transnational quest “to raise the family up” through migration, remittances, and the pursuit of higher levels of education. I argue that familial duties and obligations, which have cultural foundations in the Haitian lakou, structure the activities of Haitian transnational families as they pursue socioeconomic advancement through migration and education. With the support of transnational families, many students cross boundaries to academic achievement and improve their opportunities for socioeconomic mobility in the US. With higher levels of education, these individuals contributed to a more favorable incorporation into the United States for their extended families...

Dimensions of gender relations and reproductive health inequity perceived by female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a qualitative exploration

Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M.; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Tran, Ly TH; Nguyen, Huong TH; Le, Thach Ngoc
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Introduction Increasing evidence indicates that gender equity has a significant influence on women’s health; yet few culturally specific indicators of gender relations exist which are applicable to health. This study explores dimensions of gender relations perceived by female undergraduate students in southern Vietnamese culture, and qualitatively examines how this perceived gender inequity may influence females’ sexual or reproductive health. Methods Sixty-two female undergraduate students from two universities participated in eight focus group discussions to talk about their perspectives regarding national and local gender equity issues. Results Although overall gender gaps in the Mekong Delta were perceived to have decreased in comparison to previous times, several specific dimensions of gender relations were emergent in students’ discussions. Perceived dimensions of gender relations were comparable to theoretical structures of the Theory of Gender and Power, and to findings from several reports describing the actual inferiority of women. Allocation of housework and social paid work represented salient dimensions of labor. The most salient dimension of power related to women in positions of authority. Salient dimensions of cathexis related to son preference...

Identity economics meets financialisation: gender, race and occupational stratification in the US labour market

Arestis, Philip; Charles, Aurelie; Fontana, Giuseppe
Fonte: Oxford Journals Publicador: Oxford Journals
Tipo: Article; accepted version
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This is the accepted manuscript. The final version is available from OUP at http://cje.oxfordjournals.org/content/38/6/1471.; Throughout his career Geoff Harcourt has constantly and consistently highlighted the role of social norms and collective decisions in his study of modern economies. In doing so he has put a great deal of emphasis on the distribution of income between different social groups, especially so when concerned with the labour market. This paper attempts to celebrate this particular aspect of his numerous contributions to economics by highlighting the role of social norms in influencing earnings across occupations and demographic groups in the US. Social norms generate hierarchy, economic and non-economic inequalities among ascriptively distinguished groups. Drawing on the stratification and identity economics literatures, this paper proposes a novel theoretical and empirical framework for analysing the effects of financialisation on the earnings dynamics of gender and race groups, a framework that is consistent with discrimination as a source of racial and gender inequality. The empirical methodology utilised in the form of long-run cointegrating relationships of groups? earnings across occupations, assesses whether a pattern of social norms on wage distribution emerges over time. The results of this study show that over the past 30 years social norms have exacerbated the stratification of the US labour market.

Power, Policy and Health in Rich Democracies

Reynolds, Megan M.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.89687%

Comparative social scientists have offered rich insights into how macro-level political factors affect stratification processes such as class, gender and racial inequality. Medical sociologists, on the other hand, have long emphasized the importance of stratification for health and health inequalities at the individual level. Yet, only recently has research in either field attended to the macro-level factors that impact health. This dissertation contributes to the growing scholarship in that area by investigating the influence of public healthcare social policies, organized labor and Left party power on infant mortality, life expectancy at birth and life expectancy at age 65. I do so using the framework of power resources, a theory which has been only sparsely applied to the study of health.

The analyses include country-level pooled time series models of 22 rich democracies between 1960 and 2010. Data is drawn from the Comparative Welfare States dataset (Brady et al 2014), which provides information on indicators of welfare state development, its causes, and its consequences between the periods 1960 to 2011. I use fixed effects regression models to examine the influence on health of two forms of healthcare spending, six forms of non-health social welfare transfers and the triad of union density...

New Urban Structural Change and Racial and Ethnic Inequality in Wages, Homeownership, and Health

Finnigan, Ryan
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.74114%

In 2010, approximately 84% of the American population lives in a metropolitan area. Different metropolitan areas are characterized by distinct labor markets and economies, housing markets and residential patterns, socioeconomic and demographic factors, and according to some, even distinct 'spirits.' The nature and influence of such structural factors lie at the heart of urban sociology, and have particularly profound effects on patterns of racial and ethnic stratification. This dissertation examines new urban structural changes arising within recent decades, and their implications for racial/ethnic stratification. Specifically, I study the transition to the 'new economy' and racial/ethnic wage inequality; increases in the level and inequality of housing prices and racial/ethnic stratification in homeownership; and increased income inequality, combined with population aging, and racial/ethnic disparities in disability and poor health. I measure metropolitan-level structural factors and racial/ethnic inequalities with data from 5% samples of the 1980, 1990, and 2000 Censuses; the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS); and the 1999-2001 and 2009-2011 Current Population Surveys (CPS). Cross-sectional multilevel regression models examine the spatial distributions of structural factors and racial/ethnic inequality...

Occupational Stratification and the Multidimensional Structure of Symbolic Meaning

Freeland, Robert E.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.109546%

Subjective cultural meanings were once central to occupational stratification research. However, attempts to operationalize cultural meanings associated with occupations have been widely criticized, leading contemporary stratification scholars to largely abandon subjective measures in favor of objective characteristics. This leaves a gap in our understanding of how inequality is generated and maintained because Weber ([1958]) theorized that status, a form of social symbolic power based on cultural beliefs, represents one of the fundamental bases of inequality. Without an adequate method of operationalizing occupational symbolic meanings, the extent to which cultural beliefs influence stratified life outcomes remains largely unknown.

To address this, I used affect control theory, a quantitative general theory of

social action, and its measurement model, the semantic differential scale, to examine three issues regarding the relationship between cultural beliefs and stratified outcomes. Symbolic meaning was quantified into EPA ratings that measure three universal, affective dimensions: evaluation (good versus bad), potency (powerful versus weak), and activity (lively versus quiescent). Despite extensive support within structural social psychology...

Occupations and British wage inequality, 1970s-2000s

Williams, Mark
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Article; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/07/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.29841%
Occupations provide a central unit of analysis for economic inequality in stratification research for two main reasons. First, occupations are supposed to structure inequality. Second, occupations are supposed to proxy as a source of inequality. Although there was a ‘massive rise’ in British wage inequality, relatively little is known about the relationship between the occupations and growing British wage inequality, and the sparse empirical research is inconclusive. Since sociologists traditionally have tended to place a great deal of emphasis on occupations, we might expect the changing structure of occupations and changing occupational wages to play a key role in accounting for trends in overall British wage inequality. More recent strands of stratification theory, however, have challenged the idea that occupations structure economic inequalities, and argue that the link between occupations and wages might have been weakening over time, instead predicting that growing wage inequality mostly occurs within occupations. We decompose trends in British wage inequality into between-occupation and within-occupation components and show that, although most wage inequality is within occupations, it is inequality between occupations that accounts for the lion’s share of changes in wage inequality trends. Furthermore...

Occupational structure and socioeconomic inequality: a comparative study between Brazil and the United States

Maia, Alexandre Gori; Sakamoto, Arthur
Fonte: Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Instituto de Economia - Setor de Publicações Publicador: Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Instituto de Economia - Setor de Publicações
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.984182%
This paper explores how occupational structure is associated with economic inequality in Brazil in comparison to the United States. Changes in the Brazilian and American occupational structures between 1983 and 2011 are investigated in order to assess how closely they generate high socioeconomic inequalities. The effects of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment are taken into account. Highlights of the results include: (1) a higher level of socioeconomic development in the American occupational structure, reflecting huge socioeconomic differences between these countries; (2) a tenuous convergence between the Brazilian and American occupational structures; (3) a significant decrease in the net impacts of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment (i.e., reduced social stratification) in both countries. These results suggest the analytical worth of considering occupational structure as a significant intermediate variable affecting the level of socioeconomic inequality within a country over time, as well as between two countries at a given point in time. Resumo Este trabalho analisa a contribuição da estrutura ocupacional como fonte de desigualdade no Brasil, fazendo um estudo comparativo com os Estados Unidos. Mudanças entre e dentro das estruturas ocupacionais são analisadas entre 1983 e 2011...