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Acesso a medicamentos como direito humano; Access to medicines as a human rihgt

Gomes, Juliana de Moura
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/05/2009 Português
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Este trabalho investiga o acesso a medicamentos, especialmente os considerados essenciais, como componente fundamental do direito à saúde, dentro do contexto do Direito Internacional dos Direitos Humanos e sua interface com o regime de Propriedade Intelectual da Organização Mundial do Comércio. Com base na estrutura analítica do direito à saúde, busca-se estudar os deveres dos Estados e a responsabilidade de outros atores, como as empresas farmacêuticas em relação a esse direito. O impacto do regime de proteção intelectual, originado pelo Acordo sobre Aspectos dos Direitos de Propriedade Intelectual Relacionados ao Comércio (TRIPS), para o acesso a medicamentos, devido ao sistema de patentes, também será considerado. Finalmente, o trabalho aborda a experiência brasileira na área, que é considerada exemplar no que concerne o equilíbrio entre direitos humanos, saúde pública e direitos de propriedade intelectual, avaliando a legislação e as políticas públicas desenvolvidas pelo país em relação aos medicamentos, à luz das normas de direito internacional. Conclui-se que o acesso a medicamentos é um direito humano, que é comprometido pelos altos preços impostos pelas empresas farmacêuticas. Os países em desenvolvimento...

Análise crítica da proteção das patentes de invenção farmacêuticas e biotecnológicas: perspectiva dos países em desenvolvimento; Critical analysis of patent protection for pharmaceutic and biotecnology: perspective of developing countries

César, Priscilla Maria Dias Guimarães
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/06/2011 Português
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O sistema de patentes como hoje está estruturado enfrenta enormes desafios para atingir metas de acesso ao conhecimento, inovação tecnológica e desenvolvimento sustentável tanto no âmbito nacional quanto internacional. Este estudo propõe uma revisão jurídica do sistema de patentes na perspectiva de países em desenvolvimento. As áreas farmacêutica e biotecnológica serão priorizadas por meio da análise de patentes de invenção a fim de verificar suas imperfeições e falhas sob o ponto de vista jurídico. Justifica-se a escolha dessas áreas pelos impactos que causam a temas como: acesso a medicamentos e novas terapias médicas, direitos humanos e desenvolvimento. Instrumentos jurídicos tradicionais para a proteção da propriedade intelectual devem ser analisados e conformados aos novos instrumentos que surgem como resposta à crise de acesso ao conhecimento e à redução do domínio público, portanto, como propostas para uma nova era de direitos de propriedade intelectual. Desse modo, o diálogo entre os diversos sistemas jurídicos compõe um plano maior de desenvolvimento sustentável e demonstra a interdisciplinaridade do tema. A análise sistêmica e jurídica considera, ainda, o papel dos diversos atores Estados...

Limites aos direitos de autor sob a perspectiva do direito internacional dos direitos humanos: estudo dos limites aos direitos de autor frente aos direitos de acesso ao conhecimento e à educação nos ordenamentos internacional e interno; Limits to copyright from the perspective of international human rights law: study of copyrights limits considering the rights of access to knowledge and education in the international and national law systems.

Rodrigues, Daniela Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/05/2014 Português
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A presente dissertação se propõe a analisar a interação entre o sistema internacional de direitos humanos e o sistema internacional de propriedade intelectual e as implicações desta relação para o ordenamento jurídico brasileiro, no que concerne especificamente aos direitos de autor e direitos conexos. No ano em que o Acordo TRIPS completará vinte anos, é oportuna a reflexão a respeito da efetividade de suas regras, especialmente quanto à capacidade de interagir com os demais sistemas jurídicos internacionais, especialmente o sistema internacional de direitos humanos. A leitura da seção de princípios e regras gerais (especialmente do artigo 6°, referente à exaustão de direitos) e da seção relativa aos direitos de autor do Acordo TRIPS (especialmente do artigo 13, que estabelece a Regra dos Três Passos) parece indicar para a previsão de limites à exploração destes direitos em vistas dos objetivos de promoção do desenvolvimento e de equilíbrio de interesses entre, de um lado, autores e titulares e, de outro lado, utilizadores das obras artísticas e literárias protegidas. Contudo, tem se verificado que o sistema internacional de propriedade intelectual tem caminhado na via contrária. Com a proliferação...

Intellectual Property Rights, Human Capital and the Incidence of R&D Expenditures

Bravo-Ortega, Claudio; Lederman, Daniel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Numerous studies predict that developing countries with low human capital may not benefit from the strengthening of intellectual property rights. The authors extend an influential theoretical framework to highlight the role of intellectual property rights in the process of innovation and structural change. The resulting theory is consistent with a stylized fact that appears in the data, namely that countries with poor intellectual-property protection may accumulate human capital without a corresponding increase in research and development investment as a share of national income. The model predicts that without minimum intellectual-property protection, additional education may result in more imitation rather than innovation. The preponderance of the econometric evidence presented in this paper suggests that interactions between human capital and intellectual property rights determine global patterns of research and development effort, and intellectual property rights tend to raise the effect of education on the incidence of research and development.

Intellectual Property Rights and the TRIPS Agreement : An Overview of Ethical Problems and Some Proposed Solutions

Sonderholm, Jorn
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights negotiated in 1986 under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the institutional predecessor of the World Trade Organization, incorporated substantial and uniform protections of intellectual property rights into the international trade system. A large body of contemporary academic literature suggests that intellectual property rights on socially valuable goods such as essential medicines give rise to a number of ethical problems. This review paper seeks to give an overview of these problems. Moreover, it offers an outline and discussion of a number of proposals as to how these problems might be alleviated. The paper is primarily descriptive in character. This means that although a personal perspective is sometimes offered, the primary ambition of the paper is not to argue for, and defend, a particular solution to the issues discussed. The aim is rather to highlight, explain and put into perspective a number of important arguments in the debate on the ethical nature of intellectual property rights so that policy-makers and other stakeholders are relatively well-equipped to make up their own mind on the issue.

Are Persons Property? Legal debates about property and personality

Davies, M.; Naffine, N.
Fonte: Ashgate Publishing Limited; Gower House, Croft Rd, Aldershot, Hampshire GU11 3HR, England Publicador: Ashgate Publishing Limited; Gower House, Croft Rd, Aldershot, Hampshire GU11 3HR, England
Tipo: Livro
Publicado em //2001 Português
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1. Persons as property: legal and philosophical debates -- 2. From Dominium to ’thin air’: concepts of property -- 3. The nature of legal personality: its history and its incidents -- 4. Sex, reproduction and the self-proprietot -- 5. Personality and property at the end of life: the will and the corpse -- 6. Intellectual property in the person -- 7. Owning the building blocks of life -- 8. Persons beyond property?; Margaret Davies, Ngaire Naffine.

New technologies and human rights : challenges to regulation

Fonte: Ashgate Publicador: Ashgate
Tipo: Livro
Português
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Whilst advances in biotechnology and information technology have undoubtedly resulted in better quality of life for mankind, they can also bring about global problems. The legal response to the challenges caused by the rapid progress of technological change has been slow and the question of how international human rights should be protected and promoted with respect to science and technology remains unexplored. The contributors to this book explore the political discourse and power relations of technological growth and human rights issues between the Global South and the Global North and uncover the different perspectives of both regions. They investigate the conflict between technology and human rights and the perpetuation of inequality and subjection of the South to the North. With emerging economies such as Brazil playing a major role in trade, investment and financial law, this book examines how human rights are affected in Southern countries and identifies significant challenges to reform in the areas of international law and policy.; -- Preface -- Introduction -- Part I: General Legal and Philosophical Aspects of the Interaction between Human Rights and New Technologies 1. Human rights in the information society: utopias, dystopias and human values...

How to reconcile health law and economic law with human rights? : administration of justice in tobacco control disputes WP series and subseries

PETERSMANN, Ernst-Ulrich
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Tobacco companies and tobacco exporting members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) have initiated an increasing number of disputes in national, regional and worldwide jurisdictions and investor-state arbitrations challenging the legal consistency of tobacco control measures - such as Australia's 'Tobacco Plain Packaging' legislation and regulations - with international trade, investment and intellectual property law. The defendant countries and non-governmental organizations tend to justify tobacco-control measures by invoking public health provisions in international economic law (IEL), domestic constitutional laws, public health legislation, human rights law and the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) ratified by 177 UN member states. This article begins by asking how the fragmented systems of multilevel health, economic and human rights law and governance should be interpreted and coordinated in order to promote their mutual legal coherence. It then explores how multilevel courts should 'administer justice' in tobacco control disputes with due regard to their diverse national and international jurisdictions, applicable laws and methods of legal interpretation. The article concludes that multilevel judicial administration of justice in tobacco control disputes requires judicial cooperation in applying 'constitutional methodologies' (e.g. regarding 'balancing' of competing rights...

Promoting Intellectual Property Monetization in Developing Countries : A Review of Issues and Strategies to Support Knowledge-driven Growth

Ghafele, Roya; Gibert, Benjamin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper outlines and evaluates several intellectual property monetization strategies available to patent holders in developing countries that help generate domestic innovation and knowledge-driven growth by promoting more active technology markets. Based on a review of World Intellectual Property Report indicators, the patent ownership gap between a sample of developed and developing countries has narrowed gradually for more technologically-sophisticated developing countries. However, based on complementary International Monetary Fund Balance of Payments data, the patent commercialization divide (as indicated by licensing income) has been widening. The paper argues that patents, and all forms of intellectual property, are an enabling mechanism rather than a defensive right: an intangible asset class that can be proactively nurtured and managed for greater value extraction to stimulate knowledge-based entrepreneurship and growth in developing countries. The paper presents multiple case studies of alternative monetization strategies to address the commercialization divide. These strategies range from private...

Cultural Heritage and Collective Intellectual Property Rights

Santilli, Juliana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The inventive and creative processes of communities are often collective and the use of information, ideas and resources generated on the basis of such collective processes are broadly shared. Therefore, the concept of property rights belonging to one or more identifiable individuals is alien and contrary to the values and concepts of such societies and its adoption could foster a dissociation of knowledge from the context in which it is produced and shared. A legal regime for 'collective intellectual property rights' would avoid these difficulties. The Brazilian Federal Constitution made great progress in the protection of cultural heritage by announcing a modern inclusive and democratic legal concept. The text clearly extends the notion of cultural heritage, appreciates cultural pluralism and demonstrates a spirit of democratization of cultural policies.

The World Bank Legal Review : Law and Justice for Development, Volume 1

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Kluwer Law International Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Kluwer Law International
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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Legal and regulatory aspects of E-Commerece and the Internet, by Hank Intven, Rdichard Pfohl, Cheryl Slusarchuk, and Barry Sookman. Intellectual property rights and the protection of public health in developing countries, by Carlos M. Correa. Assessing a bill in terms of the public interest : the legislator's role in the law-making process, by Ann Seidman and Robert Seidman. Property rights issues in common property regimes for forestry, by John Bruce. The quality of Judges, by Hon. Sandra E. Oxner. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the World Bank, by Ko-Yung Tung. Islamic law on interest : the 1999 Pakistan Supreme Court decision on Riba, by Akhtar Hamid. The instrument establishing the World Bank prototype carbon fund (PCF) and the first PCF emission reduction purchase agreement. Ethical norms for the judicial branch of the Republic of Guatemala. The right to housing : Government of the Republic of South Africa, and others v. Grootboom and others. Agreement establishing the African trade insurance agency. China and the knowledge economy : seizing the 21st century . Principles and guidelines for effective insolvency and creditor rights systems.

A human rights approach to the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines.

Seuba, Xavier
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Since the first WHO Model List of Essential Medicines was adopted in 1977, it has become a popular tool among health professionals and Member States. WHO's joint effort with the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has resulted in the inclusion of access to essential medicines in the core content of the right to health. The Committee states that the right to health contains a series of elements, such as availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of health goods, services and programmes, which are in line with the WHO statement that essential medicines are intended to be available within the context of health systems in adequate amounts at all times, in the appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality and information, and at a price that the individual and the community can afford. The author considers another perspective by looking at the obligations to respect, protect and fulfil the right to health undertaken by the states adhering to the International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and explores the relationship between access to medicines, the protection of intellectual property, and human rights.

Corporate "Human Rights" to Intellectual Property Protection

Osei Tutu, J. Janewa
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
110.96438%
The global intellectual property system protects the interests of intellectual property owners, sometimes to the detriment of competing interests like public health or access to knowledge. Some scholars have proposed a human rights framework for intellectual property as a way to inject balance into the current system. However, the assertion that human rights will bring balance is often coupled with the assumption that corporations are, by definition, excluded from human rights-based intellectual property claims. Yet, corporations have used, and are likely to continue to use, human rights law to ground their intellectual property claims. Since multinational corporations were a major driving force behind increased global intellectual property standards, a human rights framework for intellectual property must contemplate the likelihood that corporations will attempt to co-opt a human rights model in order to bolster their intellectual property claims. Moreover, framing intellectual property interests from a human rights perspective can affect our conceptions of intellectual property and our analysis of the relationship between intellectual property rights and other interests. This Article contends that there is value in using human rights law to limit excessive intellectual property protection. However...

World Trade Organization and Human Rights: a relationship possible?; A Organização Mundial do Comércio e os direitos humanos: uma relação possível?

Taiar, Rogério; Capucio, Camilla
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2010 Português
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This paper aims to explore the possibilities of interaction and complementarity between the formulation and implementation of international trade rules and human rights, by problematizing the role of human rights in the World Trade Organization. This interaction is aproached in a conceptual perspective, followed by a brief analysis of the practical difficulties arising from the balancing of the two areas. Starting with the position of the Dispute Settlement Body, will be briefly explained the developments of this perspective on issues like labor rights and “social dumping”, public health and intellectual property rights, the protection of the environment, and finally, transparency and democratic governance in the WTO.; Este trabalho visa explorar as possibilidades de relação e complementariedade entre a formulação e aplicação das regras do comércio internacional e os direitos humanos, através da problematização sobre o papel dos direitos humanos na Organização Mundial do Comércio. Essa relação é abordada em sua perspectiva conceitual, seguida da breve análise das dificuldades práticas da ponderação entre as esferas. Partindo-se do posicionamento do Órgão de Solução de controvérsia nesta seara, explicitamos brevemente desdobramentos desta perspectiva em temas como os direitos trabalhistas e o dumping social...

Global Health: A Normative Analysis of Intellectual Property Rights and Global Distributive Justice

DeCamp, Matthew Wayne
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 1911193 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In the past several years, the impact of intellectual property rights (IPRs) on access to medicines and medical technologies has come under increased scrutiny. Motivating this are highly publicized cases where IPRs appear the threaten access to particular medicines and diagnostics. As IPRs become globalized, so does the controversy: In 1998, nearly forty pharmaceutical companies filed a lawsuit against South Africa, citing (among other issues) deprivation of intellectual property. This followed South Africa’s implementation of various measures to enable and encourage the use of generic medicines – a move that was particularly controversial for the newly available (and still patented) HIV medicines. While many historical, legal, economic, and policy analyses of these cases and issues exist, few explicitly normative projects have been undertaken. This thesis utilizes interdisciplinary and explicitly normative philosophical methods to fill this normative void, engaging theoretical work on intellectual property and global distributive justice with each other, and with empirical work on IPR reform. In doing so, it explicitly rejects three mistaken assumptions about the debate over IPRs and access to essential medicines: (i) that this debate reduces to a disagreement about empirical facts; (ii) that intellectual property is normatively justified solely by its ability to “maximize innovation”; and (iii) that this controversy reduces to irresolvable disagreement about global distributive justice. Calling upon the best contemporary approaches to human rights...

An Alternative Framework for the Global Regulation of Intellectual Property Rights

Drahos, Peter
Fonte: Mandelbaum Publishing Publicador: Mandelbaum Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
69.89418%
The paper begins by advancing reasons for why freedom of design over property rights matters to countries. It shows that the international regime for intellectual property protection is increasingly circumscribing the freedom of developing countries to set efficient standards of protection for their economies. The bulk of the paper is devoted to elaborating a proposal for a new framework of intellectual property protection. This framework takes the form of a treaty on access to knowledge that is linked to human rights and that is driven by nodally constituted standard-setting committees that operate on the basis of evidence-based analysis.

Human Rights and Global Health: A Research Program (in Metaphilosophy)

Pogge, Thomas
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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68.800557%
One-third of all human lives end in early death from poverty-related causes. Most of these premature deaths are avoidable through global institutional reforms that would eradicate extreme poverty. Many are also avoidable through global health-system reform that would make medical knowledge freely available as a global public good. The rules should be redesigned so that the development of any new drug is rewarded in proportion to its impact on the global disease burden (not through monopoly rents). This reform would bring drug prices down worldwide close to their marginal cost of production and would powerfully stimulate pharmaceutical research into currently neglected diseases concentrated among the poor. Its feasibility shows that the existing medical-patent regime (trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights - TRIPS - as supplemented by bilateral agreements) is severely unjust - and its imposition a human-rights violation on account of the avoidable mortality and morbidity it foreseeably produces.

Achieving social justice in the human rights/intellectual property debate: Realising the goal of access to medicines

Vawda,Yousuf A; Baker,Brook K
Fonte: African Human Rights Law Journal Publicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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What happens when the assertion of intellectual property rights by their holders impacts on the human rights of consumers, in particular, their right to access health care and health products such as medicines? Proponents of access to medicines as a human right reference the soft law of human rights and the broad ethical frameworks within which human rights understandings are situated but, paradoxically, the pharmaceutical companies that hold proprietary interests in medicines also claim human rights to their medical discoveries. They argue that the ecology of research and development on medicines is inextricably linked to the possession of exclusive rights in the form of patent and data protections. The proprietary interests of pharmaceutical companies are stringently pursued and enforced by global powers via their trade policy and otherwise. Thus, this article argues that human rights must trump those proprietary rights, for a number of reasons, and seeks to introduce a social justice perspective on the human rights/intellectual property debate. It begins by reviewing the competing paradigms of the right to health versus proprietary intellectual property rights, showing how the human rights regime has achieved superiority in theory...

Harnessing Intellectual Property for development: Some thoughts on an appropriate theoretical framework

Ncube,CB
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper considers how an appropriate theoretical framework for Intellectual Property may be constructed. Such a framework would be the lens through which contested IP issues may be resolved and upon which national IP policy and legislation might be based. The paper begins by highlighting the inherent tensions in IP, which are caused by the various stakeholder interests that this body of law seeks to balance, and by the cross-cutting nature of IP. It contends that in order to more equitably balance the contesting rights of the creators and users, IP rights should be formulated and enforced so as to meet societal goals or serve public interest, be responsive to the economic environment, and take cognisance of the human rights claims of both creators and users. National socio-economic goals should inform such a framework in a way that ensures that IP is used as a means to achieve these goals and is not perceived as an end. This will require nuances in policy and legislation that meet the country's needs. In particular, as a developing country South Africa would do well to exploit available flexibilities in the various international IP agreements by which it is bound. Due regard also ought to be had to the users' need for affordable access to IP-protected goods in order that they may exercise the right to work and access to knowledge...

A human rights approach to the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

Seuba,Xavier
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.690654%
Since the first WHO Model List of Essential Medicines was adopted in 1977, it has become a popular tool among health professionals and Member States. WHO's joint effort with the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has resulted in the inclusion of access to essential medicines in the core content of the right to health. The Committee states that the right to health contains a series of elements, such as availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of health goods, services and programmes, which are in line with the WHO statement that essential medicines are intended to be available within the context of health systems in adequate amounts at all times, in the appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality and information, and at a price that the individual and the community can afford. The author considers another perspective by looking at the obligations to respect, protect and fulfil the right to health undertaken by the states adhering to the International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and explores the relationship between access to medicines, the protection of intellectual property, and human rights.