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"Modelo de cooperação entre estados interagentes: O tribunal penal internacional como emergência de um primeiro regime de direito internacional penal"; "Model of cooperation among interacting States: the International Criminal Court as the emergence of the first regime in international criminal law"

Mendes Neto, José Ignacio Coelho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/10/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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O objetivo desta pesquisa é realizar uma aplicação da Metodologia da Teoria da Ciência, elaborada pelo prof. José R. Novaes Chiappin, no campo do direito internacional. Essa metodologia procura desenvolver mecanismos racionais para análise e solução de problemas. Tais mecanismos permitem uma melhor compreensão teórica das variáveis envolvidas num problema dado, de modo a fornecer orientações mais seguras para a ação prática. Selecionei o problema da justiça internacional para mostrar como a solução de problemas depende de estruturas teóricas prévias. Mais especificamente, pretendo demonstrar que a criação do Tribunal Penal Internacional representa a emergência do primeiro regime de direito internacional penal, no qual os princípios fundamentais desdobram-se em normas e regras detalhadas e são operacionalizados por mecanismos de tomada de decisão. Diversas outras iniciativas, consubstanciadas em documentos internacionais significativos, já haviam condenado o uso da força nas relações internacionais, afirmado os direitos da pessoa e criminalizado a violação dos mesmos, mas nenhuma obtivera efeito prático satisfatório. Em contrapartida, o TPI apresenta instrumentos concretos para a operacionalização da normativa internacional de direitos humanos. A análise dos documentos constitutivos do TPI à luz da Metodologia da Teoria da Ciência permite identificar a função dos componentes do Tribunal e situá-los com relação ao direito internacional penal como um todo.; The purpose of this research is to make an application of the Methodology of the Theory of Science...

Genocídio e o Tribunal Penal Internacional para Ruanda; Genocide and the international criminal tribunal for Rwanda

Paula, Luiz Augusto Módolo de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/10/2011 Português
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A presente dissertação de mestrado analisa a atuação do Tribunal Penal Internacional para Ruanda, corte com sede na Tanzânia, criada sob os auspícios da ONU e encarregada de processar as pessoas responsáveis por sérias violações ao Direito Internacional Humanitário cometidas durante o genocídio da população tutsi organizado por membros do governo e do exército de Ruanda em 1994, e que vitimou mais de 800.000 civis. Estuda-se a evolução do Direito Internacional Penal ao longo do século XX até a criação do Tribunal e a história e a organização política de Ruanda até a eclosão da guerra civil e do genocídio. Apresenta-se a estrutura, a competência e a dinâmica dos julgamentos, promove-se o estudo de quatro casos paradigmáticos julgados, e verificam-se os resultados concretos alcançados pelo Tribunal para impedir a impunidade, apontando este órgão judicial como importante precursor do Tribunal Penal Internacional criado pelo Estatuto de Roma em 1998. O trabalho também ambiciona perpetuar a lembrança de um dos maiores massacres da história, comparável ao próprio Holocausto, e o tratamento dado pelo Direito e pela comunidade internacional ao episódio; This dissertation examines the performance of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda...

A competência repressiva universal no direito internacional penal; Universal jurisdiction in international criminal law

Fasano, Renata Rossini
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/06/2011 Português
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Em conformidade com o direito internacional penal e o direito internacional dos direitos humanos, a presente dissertação de mestrado tem como objetivo verificar se o exercício da competência repressiva universal pelos tribunais nacionais constitui um mecanismo da justiça internacional penal capaz de auxiliar na promoção e na proteção dos direitos humanos. Para responder a esta indagação, três fontes do direito internacional foram analisadas neste estudo: a doutrina, a jurisprudência e a prática dos Estados. Neste sentido, além da exposição teórica, procedeu-se à análise dos principais casos em que o instituto foi aplicado e à pesquisa da legislação de alguns países sobre o tema. Este estudo verificou como a competência repressiva universal está inserida no momento de transição do direito internacional penal desencadeado pela crescente afirmação dos direitos humanos.; According to international criminal law and to international human rights law, this thesis aims to verify if the exercise of universal jurisdiction by national courts represents a mechanism of the international criminal justice able to promote and to strengthen human rights. In order to answer this question, three sources of international law were investigated: the teachings of publicists...

Por uma política criminal universal: uma crítica aos tribunais penais internacionais; Towards a universal criminal policy: a criticism to international criminal courts

Dissenha, Rui Carlo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/04/2013 Português
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O presente trabalho busca analisar criticamente a atual conformação da justiça penal internacional, identificando as principais dificuldades que enfrenta e propondo uma nova direção que possa servir a mitigar esses problemas e a atingir os fins que declara ter como objetivo. Segundo se pretendeu demonstrar nesta tese, a atual condição da justiça penal internacional, que evoluiu substancialmente no pós-Guerra Fria em conjunto com a proteção internacional dos direitos humanos, constitui-se sobre uma proposta unicamente repressiva. Esse modelo se manifesta no combate aos crimes universais pela priorização da atuação de tribunais penais internacionais e pela definição internacional de padrões obrigatórios a serem seguidos pelos Estados. Todavia, essa proposta padece de diversas dificuldades que podem ser resumidas em dois aspectos principais: tanto na sua incapacidade de se fazer executar, o que lhe retira a independência que se espera de um sistema judicial, quanto na sua indefinição quanto aos fins que persegue. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a aplicação da pena, no plano internacional, é um exercício político que demanda, portanto, limitação. Além disso, como resposta aos graves efeitos dos crimes universais...

Fontes do direito internacional: um estudo da jurisprudência sobre crimes contra a humanidade do Tribunal Penal Internacional para a ex-Iugoslávia; Sources of international law: a study of the jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslav

Valle, Janaina Rodrigues
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2015 Português
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Este trabalho tem por objetivo debater a contribuição e o papel que a jurisprudência do Tribunal Penal Internacional para a ex-Iugoslávia desempenhou no processo de produção e desenvolvimento do direito internacional penal costumeiro sobre crimes contra a humanidade e sua influência na formação do conteúdo normativo atual do art. 7o(1),(2)(a), do Estatuto de Roma, que trata do crime contra a humanidade. Para isso, analisa-se como a Corte determinou o costume válido sobre as elementares do crime contra a humanidade nos casos Duko Tadie Draen Erdemovi, julgados antes da conferência de Roma. Em seguida, examina-se a teoria das fontes, mais especificamente, o costume internacional, seu fundamento, seus dois elementos (combinação de prática e opinio iuris), bem como seus sujeitos criadores e veículos de exteriorização, em especial a jurisprudência internacional. Nesse percurso, apontam-se as práticas destoantes do costume e a dificuldade de sua determinação, para então indicar o binômio valor e poder como elementos que influenciam sua manifestação. Depois, procura-se verificar o contexto político e jurídico de criação do Tribunal Penal Internacional para a ex-Iugoslávia, associando-o à proteção do valor paz mundial e às alterações das estruturas de poder da ordem internacional. Então...

A tutela penal dos direitos humanos e o expansionismo punitivo; The Protection of Human Rights and Expansion of Punitive Law

Beltrame, Priscila Akemi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/05/2015 Português
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A expansão do direito penal pelos direitos humanos tem no direito penal internacional um privilegiado campo de estudo. Entre as tendências expansivas dos direitos humanos, motivadas pela luta contra a impunidade, e a necessária contenção mecanismo punitivo, princípios, estruturas de aplicação e fundamentação entram em choque, quando se pensava que os direitos humanos e o direito penal originaram-se da mesma matriz liberal de contenção do poder estatal. O tema ganha especial impulso diante da perspectiva expansionista por que passa o direito penal na modernidade, dos influxos da globalização. As decisões dos tribunais penais internacionais, de Nuremberg a Haia, dos tribunais de direitos humanos (europeu e interamericano), fornecem um panorama de como essa relação tem sido construída, favorecendo a aplicação da norma punitiva e flexibilizando garantias clássicas penais e processuais penais. A discussão empreendida busca matizar a luta contra a impunidade que seja tributária dos avanços jurídicos do sistema de garantias, também conquistas sociais e políticas para a efetiva proteção dos direitos humanos. Nesse contexto, alerta-se para o fato de que se estaria produzindo um direito especial motivado pela luta contra os mais graves crimes contra a paz e a segurança mundiais. Finalmente...

The contribution of the International Court of Justice to international humanitarian law

Gardam, J.
Fonte: Kluwer Law International Publicador: Kluwer Law International
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 Português
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This article considers the contribution of the International Court of Justice (‘ICJ’) to the development of the rules and principles of international humanitarian law (‘IHL’). In recent times, the contribution of the Court to this body of the law has been overshadowed by the work of the two ad hoc international criminal tribunals, the ICTY and the ICTR, established by the Security Council to punish those responsible for serious breaches of IHL. Nevertheless, the ICJ, in both its contentious and advisory jurisdictions, has considered the provisions of IHL on a number of occasions, and in the process has clarified many areas of IHL. This article is concerned with one particular issue: how does the Court perceive the fundamental nature of IHL? The analysis adopts two themes. First, an assessment is made of the part played by the Court in the process of bringing IHL into conformity with the changing emphasis of general international law. In both the Nicaragua case and the Nuclear Weapons Advisory Opinion the Court continued the process of what has been referred to as the “humanization of international law.” Second, the approach of the Court to the vexed issue of the relationship between ius ad bellum and IHL is considered. The conclusion is reached that the approach of the Court to this latter issue has undermined its contribution to infusing the humanitarian ethos into IHL.; © 2001 Kluwer Law International

The Role of the International Criminal Judge in the Formation of Customary International Law; Le Rôle du Juge Pénal International dans la Formation du Droit International Coutumier

ARAJÄRVI, Noora Johanna
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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The thrust of this Paper is to analyse the transformation of international custom construction and creation from the model of state practice supported by opinio iuris to a new concept reflected in the judicial decision of the international criminal tribunals, with the main emphasis being on the case law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. The following questions are examined in analysing the interpretation, application, and in some instances, also the creation of customary international norms: from which sources do the judges look for evidence of customary international law? Is the requisite of actual state practice diminishing? What is the significance of international treaties, reports of international committees, and international case-law as sources of custom? Does the case law of the tribunals show that the role of the judge is more prevalent than traditionally in the formation of customary international law, at least in the area of international criminal law? The first part of the paper offers an analysis of customary law in the International Military Tribunal of Nuremberg, which, along with many post-Second World War legal instruments, case law, and academic commentary, has contributed to and clarified the content of customary norms in international criminal law. The second part reviews the decisions of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in relation to the concept...

Individual Liability of Private Military Personnel under International Criminal Law

LEHNARDT, Chia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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The article examines the present status of private military personnel under international criminal law. Perpetrators of international crimes are frequently integrated into a hierarchically structured collective, such as an army or police force. The system of order and obedience essential to the functioning of these entities, the existence of which underlies a number of principles of international criminal law, cannot be simply presumed to exist within a private military company (PMC) or between a PMC and the hiring state. As a consequence, the private nature of the company may become an issue, particularly when one considers the capacity of their personnel to commit war crimes or to incur superior or command responsibility. The article also considers problems of implementation and jurisdiction and touches briefly on the question of corporate criminal responsibility of the PMC itself. It will be argued that, in theory, international criminal law can be an efficient part of the legal regime governing the use and conduct of private military companies, although many of the legal issues discussed remain to be tested.; The ‘Regulating Privatisation of “War”: The Role of the EU in Assuring the Compliance with International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights” (PRIV-WAR) project is funded by the European Community’s 7th Framework Programme under grant agreement no. 217405.

The Changing Nature of Customary International Law: Methods of interpreting the concept of custom in international criminal tribunals

ARAJÄRVI, Noora Johanna
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Article 38(1) of the Statute of the International Court of Justice lists the sources of international law: treaties, customary international law, general principles, judicial decisions and the teachings of the most highly qualified publicists. Traditionally, the formation of customary international law is constituted of two elements, state practice and opinio juris, in other words, the action of states and the subjective belief that the action is required by law. On occasions, however, the rules labelled under customary international law are not found through the process of establishing state practice and opinio juris, but stem from other normative considerations, as the case-study of international criminal tribunals illustrates. This thesis examines the nature of customary international law and the ‘modernised’ version of it; what distinguishes the traditional and novel concepts; where do they arise from - the process of their formation; and their relationship with other sources of international law. The critical analysis concentrates on this transformed process of discovering rules categorised as customary international law, and the impact of this novel process on the understanding of the nature of customary international law...

Complicity in international criminal law

AKSENOVA, Marina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Complicity is a criminal law doctrine that attributes responsibility to those who do not physically perpetrate the crime. It is an essential mode of liability for core international crimes because it reaches out to senior political and military leadership. These persons do not usually engage in direct offending, yet in the context of mass atrocities they are often more culpable than foot soldiers. The Statutes of the ad hoc tribunals, hybrid courts and the International Criminal Court expressly provide for different forms of complicity, and domestic legal systems recognize it in one form or another. This is in contrast with alternative modes of liability implied from the Statutes to address the situations with multiple accused removed from the scene of the crime / (in)direct co-perpetration, extended perpetration and the joint criminal enterprise.; Defence date: 9 June 2014; Examining Board: Professor Martin Scheinin, EUI (Supervisor) Professor Nehal Bhuta, EUI Professor William Schabas, Middlesex University, London Judge Christine Baroness Van den Wyngaert, International Criminal Court.

Sentencing in International Criminal Law: The approach of the two UN ad hoc Tribunals and future perspectives for the International Criminal Court

D'ASCOLI, Silvia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Awarded the Mauro Cappelletti Prize for the best comparative law doctoral thesis, 2009.; Defense Date: 29/09/2008; Examining Board: Professor Pierre-Marie Dupuy, EUI (Supervisor) Professor Francesco Francioni, EUI Professor and Judge Theodor Meron, NYU and ICTY Professor Paola Gaeta, Geneva University; My thesis focuses on the topic of sentencing in international criminal law. The title - Sentencing in International Criminal Law: The Approach of the two UN ad hoc Tribunals and future perspectives for the International Criminal Court - already indicates the central role occupied by the jurisprudence of the ICTY and ICTR in this analysis. The motivation in undertaking research on the topic of international sentencing is rooted in the belief that a study of this kind could contribute to the current debate and provide an interesting contribution to the existing literature. In particular, my research intends to achieve three main objectives: 1) to clarify the scope of international sentencing law; 2) to highlight problems arising from the current sentencing practice of the ad hoc Tribunals; and 3) to indicate possible ways of addressing such problems and developing a coherent system of guiding principles for sentencing in international criminal justice. The research questions that guided my analysis and that this thesis addresses are the following: - What is the current and evolving tendency of international criminal justice? - Are the purposes of punishment at the international level comparable to those of national sentencing? - How can the ‘principle of proportionality’ be applied in international sentencing? - Is the principle of legality of penalties fully respected? - Which are the influential factors on sentencing that can be appreciated throughout the jurisprudence of the ICTY and ICTR? - Is it possible to identify consistent patterns or trends for international sentencing emerging from the practice of the ad hoc Tribunals?

Sentencing in International Criminal Law The Approach of the Two ad hoc Tribunals and Future Perspectives for the International Criminal Court

D'ASCOLI, Silvia
Fonte: Hart Publishing Publicador: Hart Publishing
Tipo: Livro
Português
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(Published version of EUI Ph.D. thesis, 2008.); This book deals with sentencing in international criminal law, focusing on the approach of the UN ad hoc Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and Rwanda (ICTR). In contrast to sentencing in domestic jurisdictions, and in spite of its growing importance, sentencing law is a part of international criminal law that is still 'under construction' and is unregulated in many aspects. International sentencing law and practice is not yet defined by exact norms and principles and as yet there is no body of international principles concerning the determination of sentence, notwithstanding the huge volume of sentencing research and the extensive modern debate about sentencing principles. Moreover international judges receive very little guidance in sentencing matters: this contributes to inconsistencies and may increase the risk that similar cases will be sentenced in different ways. One purpose of this book is to investigate and evaluate the process of international sentencing, especially as interpreted by the ICTY and the ICTR, and to suggest a more comprehensive and coherent system of guiding principles, which will foster the development of a law of sentencing for international criminal justice. The book discusses the law and jurisprudence of the ad hoc Tribunals...

The right to reparations under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC)

KABALIRA, STANISLAS
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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With the Rome Statute for the international criminal Court, international criminal law introduces for the first time the right to reparations for victims against their offender. Article 75 of the Statute creates the right for victims to claim reparations before the court and vests the latter with the power to decide on reparations upon request or upon its own motion. This study aimed to unpack the content of this new right and assess legal mechanisms for its implementation. Specifically, this study sought to establish whether there is any substantive and procedural law applicable to reparation before the International Criminal Court (ICC), how the risk of conflict between national justice and the ICC is dispelled and how reparations orders are enforced. This study found that the ICC Statute created the right to reparations as a principle whose content should gradually be shaped and developed by the Court on a case by case basis. As regards with legal mechanisms of the implementation of the new right, the study found that procedural mechanisms are at their embryonic stage and like the content of the right they shall be developed by the Court. In addition, the study noted that complementarity principle, which governs the jurisdiction of the ICC...

Genocidio, La Cosa Nostra: Uncovering Theories of Individual Responsibility for Collective International Crimes

Bayley, Deborah
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
79.07431%
The purpose of this study is to examine the dilemma of how individual criminal responsibility can be attributed, in a principled manner, for crimes that have been perpetrated through collective conduct within the context of international criminal law. International crimes are inherently collective, and raise issues of complexity and gravity that do not commonly arise in domestic law, but which share similarities with domestic law’s treatment of organized crime. The traditional foundation for attributing individual criminal responsibility, being causation, is examined and found to be problematic in the case of collective crimes, such as genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. It is suggested that non-causal justifications for attributing criminal liability are consistent with societal concepts of blame, responsibility, and harm, and should be considered in the interests of generating a more comprehensive and predictable theory for personal guilt in collective crimes. Four approaches to individual criminal responsibility for collective conduct that have emerged in international criminal law are reviewed, and found to be problematic. However, as opposed to discovering a fifth approach, it is suggested that a return to the founding theory of Anglo-American common law conspiracy may offer a viable solution. A historical review of conspiracy theory demonstrates that when the theory is applied with integrity it presents a non-causal justification for individual criminal responsibility based an augmented form of agency theory...

Complicity in international criminal law: A fragmented law in need of a new approach

Lamarre, Patrick
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Since the advent of the concept of complicity in international crimes in the years following the end of World War 2, the international jurisprudence has had difficulties in conclusively establishing the content of this concept. To that effect, the ICTY, ICTR, SCSL, STL, and the ICC’s jurisprudence contain complicated, unresolved issues that need to be addressed in order to safeguard coherence in ICL. An example of the results of these issues is the discrepancy between the outcome in the cases of Charles Taylor and of Momcilo Perisic where, for essentially the same conduct, the former was convicted and sentenced to 50 years in prison while the latter was acquitted of all charges. In the current situation of on-going legitimacy deficit of international criminal law, this problem must be tackled efficiently. To do so, in this paper, I identified the issues of complicity in ICL and tried to find solutions for them through a proposed definition of the concept of complicity which could be incorporated in the statutes of international criminal tribunals or in the international jurisprudence. According to my proposition, an aid, assistance, or support that has a substantial effect on the commission of the crime by the perpetrator given while the accomplice knew or was wilfully blind that the crime was being committed or that the perpetrator wanted to commit the crime and that...

?As You Set out for Ithaka?: Practical, Epistemological, Ethical, and Existential Questions about Socio-Legal Empirical Research in Conflict

Nouwen, Sarah M. H.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Foundation of the Leiden Journal of International Law Publicador: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Foundation of the Leiden Journal of International Law
Tipo: Article; accepted version
Português
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This is the accepted version of the article. The final version is available from Cambridge Journals Online at http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9158038.; This is the story behind another story. Inspired by the anthropological practice of reflexivity, it traces some practical, epistemological, ethical, and existential questions behind a book based on empirical socio-legal research into international criminal law in situations of conflict. The challenges involved in such research are at times impossible to overcome. Indeed, the challenges may be such that the researcher will never be able to answer her original question fully and confidently. However, challenges can be findings in themselves. They may reveal insights into the role of law in a society, the limitations of vocabularies, the overexposure of international criminal law, and inequalities in global knowledge production. Rather than merely obstructing research into a topical issue, challenges may shift the researcher's attention to other, more fundamental, questions. Nonetheless, understanding challenges as findings does not resolve the existential problem of the researcher's possible complicity in maintaining the very challenges that she analyses and perhaps ambitiously tries to overcome.

Book review: Moral accountability and international criminal law: holding agents of atrocity accountable to the world

Martin, Kenneth
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/08/2013 Português
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"Moral Accountability and International Criminal Law: Holding Agents of Atrocity Accountable to the World." Kirsten J Fisher. Routledge. April 2013. --- How do we hold accountable the agents, individuals and collectives guilty of ordering mass murder? Can individual responsibility ever be determined in the context of collectively perpetrated political crimes? Kirsten J Fisher’s book attempts to answer these questions, in a book that will appeal to students of law and human rights. This book makes a valiant effort to put forward definite conclusions on where international criminal law should head, and what it should be based upon, concludes Kenneth Martin.

Book review: The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the origins of international criminal law

O'Leary, Tara
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/04/2013 Português
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This book seeks to provide the first comprehensive legal analysis of the twelve war crimes trials held in the American zone of occupation between 1946 and 1949, collectively known as the Nuremberg Military Tribunals. The judgements the NMTs produced have played a critical role in the development of international criminal law, particularly in terms of how courts currently understand war crimes, crimes against humanity, and the crime of aggression. Kevin Jon Heller provides a wealth of detail and a valuable starting-point for further thought and research, concludes Tara O’Leary.

The penalty of life imprisonment under international criminal law

Gumboh,Esther
Fonte: African Human Rights Law Journal Publicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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In light of the global trend towards the abolition of the death penalty and the stand of the United Nations on the matter, it is not surprising that the maximum penalty available under international criminal law is life imprisonment. However, during the negotiations for the penal aspects of the Rome Statute, some delegates contended that life imprisonment is a violation of human rights such as human dignity and the prohibition against cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment. On the other hand, some delegates felt that excluding life imprisonment from the International Criminal Court's competence where the death penalty was not available would handicap its mandate to punish gross human rights violators. Adopting a human rights perspective, the article revisits this debate by critically examining the penalty of life imprisonment under international criminal law. It argues that no clear justification has been given for the imposition of life imprisonment and that the release mechanism for lifers needs to be improved. Focusing on the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Court, the article analyses the relevant statutes and rules and the manner in which life imprisonment has been imposed by these tribunals. Further consideration is given to the enforcement of sentences with respect to the prospect of release for 'lifers'. The article concludes by stressing the need for a more focused and cautious approach to life imprisonment and the enforcement of sentences under international criminal law.