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Réseaux sociaux et communication en temps de crises au Mali : l’exemple des groupes de discussion sur facebook

Sangare, Boukary
Fonte: Centro de Estudos Internacionais do Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL) Publicador: Centro de Estudos Internacionais do Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL)
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Il serait difficile de parler des crises de façon générale en Afrique (Printemps arabe, crise ivoirienne, crise malienne etc.) sans évoquer le rôle prépondérant joué par les réseaux sociaux, plus singulièrement Facebook, dans leur évolution globale. Le présent papier traite de l’usage de Facebook par les internautes maliens dans la diffusion des informations sur la crise au Mali. Eclatée en janvier 2012, la crise malienne a connu des tournures énormes à travers d’une part au nord, l’occupation des deux tiers du territoire national1 par des rebelles, islamistes, djihadistes, narcotrafiquants etc. et d’autre part, le sud dominé par le coup d’Etat, les tensions politiques, les manifestations pro-putchistes à Bamako réclamant la tenue de concertations nationales, la démission du gouvernement de transition etc. Ainsi Facebook est devenu le réseau social le plus utilisé par les internautes maliens et étrangers pour échanger, discuter et informer sur l’évolution de la crise au Mali. Des groupes de discussion, comme Anti-MNLA au Mali, Sofas de la République, Journal Foufou, Election Présidentielle au Mali, Douentza groupe etc. créés depuis le début des évènements sont de plus en plus dynamiques et véhiculent des informations relatives à l’actualité de la crise en temps réel. Au delà de son caractère informatif...

Is There an Islamist Political Advantage?

Cammett, Melani; Luong, Pauline Jones
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/01/2014 Português
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There is a widespread presumption that Islamists have an advantage over their opponents when it comes to generating mass appeal and winning elections. The question remains, however, as to whether these advantages—or, what we refer to collectively as an Islamist political advantage—actually exist. We argue that—to the extent that Islamists have a political advantage—the primary source of this advantage is reputation rather than the provision of social services, organizational capacity, or ideological hegemony. Our purpose is not to dismiss the main sources of the Islamist governance advantage identified in scholarly literature and media accounts, but to suggest a different causal path whereby each of these factors individually and sometimes jointly promotes a reputation for Islamists as competent, trustworthy, and pure. It is this reputation for good governance that enables Islamists to distinguish themselves in the streets and at the ballot box.

Reform and the Human Rights Quandary: Islamists vs. Secularists

Monshipouri, Mahmood
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
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Un groupe religieux à l’épreuve du parti politique Sécularisation de l’islamisme au Maroc : mouvement de l’unicité et de la réforme-Parti de la justice et du développement (1996-2011)

Fadil, Mohamed
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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À travers le monde islamique, une famille de partis politiques que l’on appelle à tort ou à raison « les partis islamistes modérés » enregistre des résultats électoraux exceptionnels chaque fois qu’un de ses membres participe à un scrutin qui comporte un minimum de transparence, notamment en Turquie, au Maroc et en Palestine. Les premières participations des islamistes aux élections des pays du Printemps arabe confirment davantage cette règle, comme l’illustrent les cas de l’Égypte et de la Tunisie. Sur le plan académique, ce contexte laisse émerger une importante hypothèse. L’évolution de bon nombre d’organisations islamistes en partis politiques qui participent activement à la vie publique de leurs pays serait l’indice d’une sécularisation de ces organisations, animée par une sincère conversion à la démocratie. Cette hypothétique tendance à la sécularisation et la conversion à la démocratie de l’islamisme ferait penser à une expérience remarquablement similaire, que l’on trouve dans le monde chrétien occidental, soit, l’évolution théorique et organisationnelle du christianisme politique qui a donné naissance, en réponse à un long parcours de révisions intellectuelles, à ce que l’on appelle aujourd’hui « la démocratie chrétienne ». L’islamisme modéré serait-il en train d’évoluer vers une sécularisation et une conversion à la démocratie selon un mode similaire à celui qui a donné naissance aux partis démocrates-chrétiens en Occident? Il est question dans cette thèse...

Islamic and Secular Feminisms: Two Discourses Mobilized for Gender Justice

BAHI, Riham
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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The role of women in Islam is invested with diverse meanings and discourses. The state, religious authorities, traditional Islamists and reformist intellectuals all claim the right to define the role of women in the Islamic society. This contestation over the meanings attached to women makes the issue of gender a key dimension of contemporary Muslim politics. This paper surveys the growing academic literature on women in Islam and presents two oppositional interpretative and analytical categories: secular modernist and Islamic reformist that both address the traditional, patriarchal Islamic discourse. The dichotomy between the two scholarly discourses emanates from differences in their frames of reference, methodology and outcome. It also presents arguments for synergy between secularism and Islam. My main argument in this paper is that searching for the appropriate framework is vital in understanding women activism in non-Western societies. The appropriate framing of the “Muslim women” question is needed not only for itself, but also because it carries important policy implications. Instead of subsuming the “Muslim women” question directly under the feminist theory, like most scholars do, I argue that we may use the well-developed theory to pose telling questions about the phenomenon...

The Arab Spring and Migration in Egypt: One year on: impacts, perceptions and attitudes

HAFEZ, Hend; GHALY, Ayman
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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It is important to understand the various perspectives on migration issues in order to develop effective and coherent migration policies both in sending and receiving countries. This study attempts to give a snapshot of the most recent migration trends in and out of Egypt since the January 25th, 2011 revolution. It addresses various political parties’ and prominent figures’ perception on migration policy and its position in the current political dialogue as well as migration sentiments of young men and women almost one and a half years after the start of the revolution. However, it is important to clarify the situation in Egypt is extremely volatile at the moment hence making it more difficult to access the implications brought forth by this research. Given the current struggle between the political Islamists, the old guard and the revolutionaries over all three branches of power, the executive, legislative and judicial branches the outcome will inevitably impact policy directions including those that reflect on migration.; The MPC is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union.

Assessment of the Situation of the Syrian Refugees in Kurdistan Region Iraq

SALMAN, Mohamed
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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During the Arab Spring, some of the Arab peoples decided to take a stand against their leaders as a result of many factors that accumulated over decades. These reactions and uprisings occurred from Tunisia in December 2010, followed by Egypt, Yemen and Libya, and originally started in peaceful civilian protests against their governments and some led to widespread violence and civil war. Likewise, in Syria, there is a continuation of these trends. In the Syrian context, however, the nature of the struggle against the regime and its leadership is complicated by the fact that the opposition is backed from abroad and exploited by Islamists, and the regime continues to act with full force against these fighters and its own citizens. Fighting and destruction continues to this day, prompting the Syrians to flee at home or resorting to flee to neighboring countries to escape the oppression and the effects of the fighting. Signs of the impending movements of Syrian asylum seekers to the Kurdistan Region started from March of 2011, and have continued day after day since then for these reasons and others. The total number of Syrian refugees registered within Iraq was most recently counted at 45,849 individuals (by 31 October 2012) and the vast majority (28...

The banality of Islamist politics

Anderson, Mark A.; Costain, Marc
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved For Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited; Political Islam has emerged as an unambiguous threat to liberal and Western-leaning regimes throughout the world. Public discourse has focused on the Islamic nature of this challenge, emphasizing the cultural characteristics of the threat. In contrast, this thesis argues that Political Islam is essentially a political challenge. Further, states can and do dictate the political space available to Islamists. In order to illustrate this argument, Indonesia and Algeria serve as case studies. These two culturally, economically and ethnically diverse nations share a predominance of Muslim adherents. Each nation has struggled with Political Islam. Yet, the consequences of state policy have profoundly differed. Recent innovations in political science theory are employed to provide a uniform structure of comparison between the two case studies. The thesis concludes that states make a choice whether to play offense or defense against their political opposition. When states choose the offensive, using targeted, preemptive repression to subsume the political space, they are successful. When states choose the defensive, using indiscriminate, reactive repression to foreclose political space...

When Islamists turn violent

Temple, Daniel W.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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This thesis attempts to show that there are patterns to the behavior of Islamist groups that eventually resort to separatist violence against the state. The goal of the thesis is to create a framework illustrating certain indicators, or signs, that may indicate if or when acts of violence against the state will take place. The primary audience for the framework are military regional affairs officers (RAO). Today, Islamic separatist violence is an ongoing phenomenon in several regions of the world and can have severe security and humanitarian implications that affect the entire region. RAOs are particularly concerned about the possible international repercussions: military and political involvement from nearby states, instigation of similar secessionist movements in neighboring states, or the creation of international refugees. This thesis reviews the popular literature on ethnic, separatist, and religious violence and draws on the potential indicators of violence described in the literature. The relevance of each indicator is validated through two case studies involving Islamic separatist movements: the Filipino Muslims in the Southern Philippines and the Malay Muslims in Southern Thailand.

The effectiveness of counterterrorist policies in Uzbekistan

Dambrauskas, Valdas
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Outstanding Thesis; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis analyzes the effectiveness of Uzbekistans counterterrorist policies during the period of 19902012. It overviews the development of radical Islamism in Uzbekistan and evaluates the remaining terrorist threats. The effectiveness of Uzbekistans counterterrorist policies is mainly analyzed by comparing the strengths and weaknesses of the both sides the radical Islamist, especially terrorist, organizations and the Uzbek government. The Uzbek public supportas the main factor determining the effectiveness of the counterterrorist policies in the countryis presented within the originally constructed framework of many factors that cover not only the governments encounter with the radical Islamists and terrorists but also a wider historic, social, and economic situation in Uzbekistan. In addition, Uzbekistans international counterterrorist cooperation is considered as an important factor for the sustenance of the highly repressive regime of President Islam Karimov. Although this thesis is focused on terrorism in just one country, the short overview of Islamism in the other Central Asian implies the case-specific nature of terrorism in general. This thesis demonstrates that the repressive and indiscriminate counterterrorism policies may remain effective in Uzbekistan even in the long-term due to the unique historic...

Effects of governmental policies on Islamist movements: a comparative case study of Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Algeria

Doran, Michael P.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Since taking power in 1952, the Egyptian government has had to face political opposition from the Islamist movement. Egyptian leaders have used various policies to neutralize the Islamists, however, the opposition has become increasingly violent and presents a threat to the stability of the Egyptian government. In the political environment of the Middle East, Egypt has long been a leader among Arab states and an intermediary between them and the West. Therefore, the stability of the Egyptian government is important to the United States in terms of regional peace and influence. Within the Middle East, there have been other countries that have also encountered political opposition from Islamist movements and have instituted various policies from repression to co-optation in response. The focus of this thesis is on the different governmental responses to Islamic extremism in Syria, Jordan and Algeria, the effects of those responses on their respective Islamist movements, and how those effects compare to the Egyptian situation. Based on these comparisons, the conclusion is drawn that, unless Egypt allows Islamists a voice in government, the regime will collapse.

Continuation or equilibration: the Algerian conflict and European security

Lynch, Michael P
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
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Algeria is caught in a stalled political transition. In 1991, the ancien regime, lacking credibility in a time of crisis, was forced to open the political system to opposition groups. However, because the regime was unprepared for any substantial transfer of power, the electoral victory of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) led to a military coup, and a civil war pitting radical Islamists against a authoritarian regime. Algeria's conflict has ramifications that travel far beyond its borders. Europe states rely upon Algerian natural gas for their energy needs, and are fearful of the impact of Islamic revivalism on their security situations. The result has been strong European support for the military regime, leading Algeria's radical Islamists to identify European states as co-belligerents. Since neither the Algerian military nor the Islamic radicals have the might to achieve a military victory, the conflict can only be resolved through a political settlement. To protect its interests in North Africa, the West must ensure that the settlement offers the ability to participate to every political faction willing to forswear political violence. Endorsing the Platform of Rome, and accepting political Islam as a facet of civil society is the only way to bring peace to Algeria; http://archive.org/details/continuationoreq00lync; Lieutenant...

De-radicalization of Muslim communities in the UK

Mushtaq, Rehan
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 115 p. : ill. ;
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; This study examines why and how Islamists' message of radicalization spread like a social contagion among UK Muslim communities during the 1990s. The thesis hypothesizes that a small number of Islamists, with smartly contextualized ideas, given a receptive environment, can spread their influence rapidly. Borrowing from Social Movement Theory and other works, this thesis elaborates how, through word-of-mouth and interpersonal communications, a relatively small number of people can successfully initiate a social epidemic of religious extremism. By following simple rules of marketing, Islamists made their message stickier. To counter radicalization, the study suggests a paradigm shift: instead of countering the Islamists on theological grounds, reinvigoration of "family" is proposed as an all-in-one counter-radicalization tool that would remove social strains, hamper Islamists' mobilization mechanisms, and trump their teaching of propagating message based on cultivated familiarity.; Pakistan Army author.

Political exclusion and violence: the Islamist movement in Egypt

Gallaher, Paul
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 107 p. ;
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; Since the early 20th century, persons across the Muslim world have attempted to move their society toward a more religious Islamic path. They have attempted to form political parties and participate in elections, only to be marginalized and repressed. Some have reacted violently, carrying out attacks against government officials and other targets. Typically a cycle of violence, repression and political exclusion transpires. Democratic reform is not uncomplicated. Both practical considerations and moral ones demand changes in the policies of both the United States and Egypt. The Egyptian government's electoral engineering and interference does not go unnoticed by the world and undermines the legitimacy of the government to its own citizens and the world community alike. Co-opting moderate Islamists may seem threatening to President Mubarak as well as to Western countries, whose public continues to embrace Orientalist ideas. This study maintains that when moderate Islamists are allowed to participate in politics, they will restrain their stances regarding strict interpretations of Islam, as have the New Islamists in Egypt. The alternative is the status quo, which aside from being immoral in terms of personal liberty is also not workable for those desiring stability in the Middle East.; Major...

The Moroccan Party of Justice and Development in Local Government: Do Islamists Govern Differently?

PELLICER, Miquel; WEGNER, Eva
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
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PDF was temporarily withdrawn in 2014 available in fulltext (PDF) upon request to cadmus@eui.eu. Since 22 June 2015 the PDF is available in Open Access again.; This paper investigates local government practices during the first tenure of office of the Islamist Moroccan Party of Justice and Development (PJD). We consider three cases of PJD governance, the towns of Ksar al-Kebir, Temara, and Oued Zem. We evaluate the performance of PJD mayors compared to their electoral promises and the average local governance in Morocco, marked by widespread clientelism, inefficiency, and detachment from the populace. We study the role of the program in PJD governance, the extent to which PJD mayors have been involved in corruption or have used clientelistic practices, the implementation of the party's proximity promise, and how PJD mayors have managed their budgets. Our analysis is based on qualitative and quantitative evidence gathered through field research in 2003, 2007, and 2008. We find that, generally, PJD mayors fare better on corruption and proximity as well as in increasing investment in their municipalities. At the same time, they have governed in the same type of ad-hoc coalitions built on the distribution of office and some evidence suggests that their governance has not been free from clientelistic practices. The increase in investment has been achieved through de-cumulation of reserves or through borrowing...

Tradition in contemporary Arabic political discourse

Lahoud, Nelly
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 352648 bytes; 357 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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Introduction: Contemporary Arabic-Islamic political discourse can be classified under three broad group headings: the Islamists, the apologists and the ‘intellectuals’.1 Central to these groups’ discourses is a disagreement about what the Arabic-Islamic (medieval) tradition stands for, and how and which of its components (religious and philosophical) are to be accorded relevance in socio-political discourse and life. In this paper, I survey a sample of views and arguments of a number of intellectuals, focusing in more details on the work of Muhammad ‘Abed al-Jabiri. His work has been the subject of numerous discussions and debates by other Arab intellectuals and is also frequently cited and praised by scholars outside of the Arab intellectual scene. In my analysis, I note some of the scholarly contributions intellectuals are making in the study of the tradition; and I argue that their methods and analyses of Arabic-Islamic philosophy are driven less by scholarly-objective pursuits than by political considerations. This is not to suggest that there should exist a divide between philosophy and politics. There is, however, a strong tendency in the intellectuals’ discourse to subordinate the history of and methods in philosophy to advance what they deem as solutions to contemporary political problems. Accordingly...

Going beyond Conflict: Secular Feminists, Islamists, and Gender Policy Reform

Shehabuddin, Sarah Tasnim
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
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Today, most Muslim-majority countries must contend with two realities: Islamists’ increasing access to political participation on the one hand and domestic and international pressures for women’s rights on the other. This dissertation seeks to identify the conditions necessary for resolving tensions between Islamist demands for political inclusion and secular feminists’ demands for the institutionalization of women’s rights in Muslim-majority countries. Attempts at gender reform have not only been rare, but have also usually excluded either secular feminists or Islamists due to state actors’ inability or unwillingness to resolve conflict between them. In some contexts, however, power holders have initiated inclusive consultative arrangements, mechanisms (commissions, committees, and mediation) that enable both secular feminists and Islamists to participate in gender policy-making processes, in spite of divergent ideological preferences, and thereby generated more broadly supported reforms. This dissertation argues that attempts at conflict resolution between secular feminists and Islamists are more likely to arise in the context of an autonomous state where the power holder needs the support of both groups. Such a state has both the flexibility and willingness to include both Islamists and secular feminists in the policy-making process. In states that do not enjoy autonomy from non-state actors...

EU's democracy promotion policy in the Mediterranean : Squaring the stability – democracy circle?

Andrés Viñas, David
Fonte: Institut Universitari d'Estudis Europeus Publicador: Institut Universitari d'Estudis Europeus
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Why does the EU have an ambiguous and inconsistent democracy promotion (DP) policy towards the Mediterranean countries? This paper argues that the EU´s DP is determined by a crucial conflict of interests conceptualised as a stability – democracy dilemma. The EU has been attempting to promote democracy, but without risking the current stability and in connivance with incumbent autocratic regimes. In view of this dilemma, the four main characteristics of the EU´s DP promotion are explored, namely: gradualism, a strong notion of partnership-building, a narrow definition of civil society, and a strong belief in economic liberalisation. A fifth feature, relation of the EU with moderate Islamists, is analysed in the paper as it represents the most striking illustration of its contradictions. The paper concludes by arguing that the definition of a clear DP by the EU that considered engagement with moderate Islamists would represent a major step towards squaring its stability – democracy circle.; Per què la UE té una promoció ambigua i inconsistent de la democràcia cap als països mediterranis? Aquest treball sosté que la promoció de la democràcia de la UE està determinada per un conflicte fonamental d'interessos conceptualitzats com l'estabilitat - dilema democràcia. La UE ha estat tractant de promoure la democràcia...

Saudi Islamists and the Arab Spring

Lacroix, Stephane
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2014 Português
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The Arab Spring has had little visible impact on Saudi Arabia, except in the Eastern Province, where relatively large Shia protests were met with deadly repression. However, it would be a mistake to think that the revolutionary events taking place in the Arab world did not spur debate in the remaining segments of Saudi society. Sunni Islamists were at the forefront of the debate, as they saw ‘comrades’ of the same ideological orientation participating in revolutions and seizing power throughout the region. Most of them agreed that Saudi Arabia needed change, although they would quickly disagree on the nature and the extent of it. Still, a significant rapprochement took place in 2011 and 2012 between Islamists of all backgrounds and non-Islamist political activists around the issue of political reform and the fate of political prisoners. Yet this was short-lived. By 2012, fundamental disagreements on social issues were pulling Islamists and liberals apart, as had been the case since the 1990s. Political dissent remained, but on a smaller scale. This did not stop the Saudi government from taking drastic measures against the Kingdom’s Islamists, especially after the summer of 2013.

Gender activism and the Islamic revival.

Maumoon, Dunya
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1996 Português
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The thesis, based on research into written works, aims to de-essentialise the terms 'feminism' and 'fundamentalism'. Drawing on the growing anthropological evidence of a 'feminist' type activism within an Islamic framework, I analyse this global phenomena of Gender Activism. I explore the important intersections between gender activism and the Islamic revival. In order to give focus to the study and to highlight the specifics at the national level, I include case studies of gender activism in the context of increasing Islamism in present day Egypt and Iran. The Islamic revival has meant that the issue of gender has re-emerged as an area of conflict between, on the one hand. Western countries endorsing international human rights norms and, on the other hand, Muslim countries drawing on pre-modem Shari 'a Laws. The globalisation of Islam in the last two decades has resulted in the world-wide promotion of a particular model of the 'Ideal Islamic Woman'. This model, winch reflects the dominant discourse within Islamism, emphasises the inferiority and natural domesticity of women. I look at how gender activists fight this restrictive monolithic image of women put forward by Islamists as being part of 'true Islam'. Muslim women are reclaiming their history and religion for themselves. They have reinterpreted the Qur'an and Sunna in radically new ways and have drawn upon the egalitarian propositions evident within them. Their work shows how during the spread of Islam in its first centuries restrictive interpretations were built into the Shar 'iah by male jurists. This has resulted in an association of orthodox Islam with 'patriarchy'. Today...