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Political competition and economic performance: theory and evidence from the United States

Besley, Timothy; Persson, Torsten; Sturm, Daniel.M
Fonte: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2005 Português
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One of the most cherished propositions in economics is that market competition by and large raises consumer welfare. But whether political competition has similarly virtuous consequences is far less discussed. This paper formulates a model to explain why political competition may enhance economic performance and uses the United States as a testing ground for the model’s implications. It finds statistically robust evidence that political competition has quantitatively important effects on state income growth, state policies, and the quality of Governors.

The United States after unipolarity: hard power in hard times: relative military power in an era of budgetary constraint

Quinn, Adam
Fonte: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Such was the extent of the United States’ dominance in the arena of military capability over the last two decades that discussion of others’ capacity to rival it largely disappeared from mainstream discussion. Though the US was probably the world’s foremost military power even during the Cold War, there was still scope for anxious public debate in the 1950s and 1970s of imagined ‘missile gaps’, i.e. a Soviet advantage in advanced delivery technology for nuclear weapons. In 1990-91, however, two events occurred in quick succession which inaugurated an era of total American pre-eminence. First, the United States trounced Iraq, previously considered a military force of at least credible middle-ranking standing, in the Gulf War, displaying in the process the fruits of many years of investment in advanced battlefield technology. Then Communism stumbled and the Soviet Union fell apart, ushering in a wave of economic dysfunction and military wastage from which the Russian state has never fully recovered.

The United States after unipolarity: Obama’s nuclear weapons policy in a changing world

Futter, Andrew
Fonte: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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The role that nuclear weapons should play in US security policy has divided analysts and policymakers since “the bomb” was first used in 1945, and has been a particularly important question facing US presidents since the end of the Cold War. Essentially this is because in the post-Cold War world it has become clear that the US no longer needs the many thousands of nuclear warheads originally intended to deter the Soviet Union in order to deal with the new types of threats – from rogue states or even terrorists – that currently dominate US security thinking. In fact, many believe that retaining large stockpiles of nuclear weapons worldwide will increase the likelihood that nuclear weapons technology will proliferate to other actors hostile to the US around the globe, which may one day be used. However, this has not translated directly into coherent policy towards nuclear reductions, or indeed created unambiguous political support for nuclear elimination. George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush all made steps in this direction – with varying degrees of success, and with different political aims in mind – but Barack Obama is the first post-Cold War US president to truly embrace the issue of nuclear abolition...

The United States after unipolarity: the United States and international economic governance

Joyce, Joseph P.
Fonte: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Among the unexpected outcomes of the global financial crisis of 2008-9 has been the end of the domination of international economic governance by the U.S.US and other upperincome countries through the forum of the G7, and its replacement by the G20. The depth and breadth of the economic contraction required a broader response than the advanced economies alone could provide, and its origin in financial markets in the United States undermined its support for neoliberal policies. Now that the global crisis has passed, the G20 must demonstrate whether it can serve as an effective forum for monitoring and managing the global economy.

The United States after unipolarity: Obama’s alliances

Casey, Steven
Fonte: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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In the age of Obama, the United States’ commitment to its extensive alliance system appears, at first glance, to be shaky. America is beset by economic problems and domestic preoccupations. Its hegemonic position is under threat, especially from a rapidly growing China. It remains mired in a war on terror in which, from Washington’s perspective, many allies have not done enough. And it is led by a president who talks about embracing alternative forms of international arrangements.

The United States after unipolarity: American democracy promotion and the ‘Arab Spring’

Hassan, Oz
Fonte: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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In the aftermath of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks the United States increasingly sought to promote democracy in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). However, although this strategy came to be largely associated with the invasion of Iraq, and the belief that a benign domino effect would spread throughout the region, there was far more nuance to the policy President Obama inherited. President George W. Bush’s democracy promotion legacy is one of institutional construction within the US foreign policy bureaucracy, creating the Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI), the Middle East Free Trade Area (MEFTA), and the Broader Middle East and North Africa initiative (BMENA). Furthermore, it was President Bush who codified his democracy promotion strategy in National Security Presidential Directive 58, entitled Institutionalising the Freedom Agenda, and who signed the ADVANCE Democracy Act of 2007 into law.1 By the time that President Bush left office hundreds of millions of dollars had been spent on promoting democracy in the MENA, and the US had declared with the force of law that it would prioritise, along with other foreign policy goals, the promotion of democracy and human rights around the world.

Why do some states elect two Senators from different parties?: don’t blame it on strategic voters.

Donnelly, Chris
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/08/2015 Português
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Among America’s elected branches, the United States Senate has the unique feature of having two members represent each state. Because the same set of voters choose each Senator, we might expect that the overwhelming majority of states would elect two Senators from the same party. Yet split-party Senate delegations—same-state Senate duos made up of one Democrat and one Republican—have been quite common throughout history. Why? Some scholars argue that split delegations occur because voters want to “balance” their state’s overall Senate representation. Chris Donnelly finds little support for such a theory, and suggests that those seeking to explain divided Senate delegations ought to move beyond the notion that voters are strategically choosing such an arrangement.

Book review: why Lyndon Johnson, one of the most devoted political practitioners in democratic history, never became a real icon of popular culture

Brighton, Paul
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/08/2012 Português
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Robert Caro has been studying Lyndon Johnson, the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969), since 1976. The first volume of his epic, multi-volume The Years of Lyndon Johnson appeared thirty years ago, and follow-up volumes have appeared in 1990, 2002, and now in 2012. But the extraordinary journey is not yet complete. Caro, who has already spent 36 years chronicling Johnson’s 38-year Washington career (1931-69), has still barely mentioned Vietnam. However, he has finally got his man into the White House, ready to show his remarkable ability to translate ideals that Kennedy could only dream about into tangible legislation, written, as Johnson would famously say, into the book of law. Reviewed by Paul Brighton. The Years of Lyndon Johnson: Volume 4: The Passage of Power. Robert Caro. May 2012. Knopf Publishing.

Book review: a second-term Obama could shed his political inhibitions and make a real step away from the failures of the War on Terror

Mullin, Corinna
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/08/2012 Português
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During his presidential campaign, Barack Obama promised to distance the United States from the neoconservative foreign policy legacy of his predecessor, George W. Bush, and usher in a new era of a global, interconnected world. Years have passed since his inauguration, and the reality of President Obama’s approach is in stark contrast to the ebullient and optimistic image that he originally built up, argues Fawaz Gerges, in his recent book. Reviewed by Corinna Mullin. Obama and the Middle East. Fawaz Gerges. Palgrave Macmillan. June 2012.

There will be ghastly consequences for the United States and the wider world if Congress and the President do not come to an agreement about deficit reduction

Marmor, Theodore
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/11/2012 Português
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Earlier this month Barack Obama was re-elected as President of the United States, granting him four more years in office. But why did the 2012 election turn out the way it did and what does the result mean in policy terms? Professor Theodore Marmor FBA explains why the nature of American governance means political stalemate is the most likely outcome of the election, but that Congress and the President will have to work together to save America from the “fiscal cliff” that is fast approaching.

Book review: Rule of law in war: international law and United States counterinsurgency in Iraq and Afghanistan by Travers McLeod

Sosnowski, Marika
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/10/2015 Português
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Travers McLeod offers a detailed account of the evolution of US counterinsurgency (COIN) doctrine since 2005 in Rule of Law in War: International Law and United States Counterinsurgency in Iraq and Afghanistan. While unconvinced that the shift has fully translated into change on the ground, Marika Sosnowski welcomes McLeod’s work as a valuable documentation of the significant transformation in the US approach to counterinsurgency.

Book review: the politics of precaution: regulating health, safety, and environmental risks in Europe and the United States

Beinisch, Natalie
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/07/2012 Português
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The Politics of Precaution examines the politics of consumer and environmental risk regulation in the United States and Europe over the last five decades, explaining why America and Europe have often regulated a wide range of similar risks differently. It finds that between 1960 and 1990, American health, safety, and environmental regulations were more stringent, risk averse, comprehensive, and innovative than those adopted in Europe. But since around 1990, the book shows, global regulatory leadership has shifted to Europe. What explains this striking reversal? Natalie Beinisch finds out.

Recent developments in the United States vividly illustrate inequality’s threat to democracy

Macleod, Alistair M.
Fonte: Democratic Audit UK Publicador: Democratic Audit UK
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/02/2014 Português
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The impact of socio-economic inequality on democracy has long been debated, with most agreed that the democratic notion of equal representation is undermined by large gaps between the wealthiest and poorest citizens. Looking at examples from the United States, Alistair M. Macleod argues that the corporate lobbying is but one manifestation of the malign influence that this imbalance can have on democratic processes.

The territorial dynamics of innovation: a Europe-United States comparative analysis

Crescenzi, Riccardo; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés; Storper, Michael
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2007 Português
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The United States and European Union differ significantly in terms of their innovative capacity: the former have been able to gain and maintain world leadership in innovation and technology while the latter continues to lag. Notwithstanding the magnitude of this innovation gap and the political emphasis placed upon it on both sides of the Atlantic, very little systematic comparative analysis has been carried out on its causes. The empirical literature has emphasized the structural differences between the two continents in the quantity and quality of the major ‘inputs’ to innovation: R&D investments and human capital. The very different spatial organization of innovative activities in the EU and the US—as suggested by a variety of contributions in the field of economic geography—could also influence innovative output. This article analyses and compares a wide set of territorial processes that influence innovation in Europe and the United States. The higher mobility of capital, population and knowledge in the US not only promotes the agglomeration of research activity in specific areas of the country but also enables a variety of territorial mechanisms to fully exploit local innovative activities and (informational) synergies. In the European Union...

Citizens’ opinions are represented more equally by elected officials in states that strictly regulate professional lobbying

Flavin, Patrick
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/08/2014 Português
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In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that citizens are not represented equally by their elected officials in Congress and in statehouses across the United States, and that wealthier individuals, represented by lobbyists, are more successful in having their preferences translated into policy. In new research, Patrick Flavin examines the role of lobbying regulations on political representation. He finds that as the number of lobbying restrictions in a state increases, the greater the level of political equality. He argues that those seeking to promote greater political equality in the United States should consider strict laws that regulate the conduct of professional lobbyists to ensure that citizens’ opinions receive more equal consideration when elected officials make policy decisions.

Efficiency gaps help to explain why Latin America produces 1/5th the output per worker of the US

Caselli, Francesco
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/08/2014 Português
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Why does the productivity of Latin America lag so far behind that of the United States? In new research, Francesco Caselli uses a development-accounting analysis to begin to explain these differences. By comparing the differences in income per worker between Latin American countries and the US to the differences that would exist if these countries differed only in their stocks of physical and human capital, he finds that Latin American countries only use their capital about half as efficiently as the US. This points to a need to understand the technological and institutional constraints that hamper the efficient use of capital.

Five reasons why new Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi could successfully rekindle US-India relations

Shah, Hemal
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/08/2014 Português
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At the end of September, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi is due to make his first state visit to the United States. Hemal Shah argues that despite Modi’s 2005 visa ban and India’s rocky relationship with the US to date, it is possible to be cautiously optimistic about the future relations between the two democratic giants.

The growth of conspiracy theorising is influenced by dominant media narratives and news framing practices

Marmura, Stephen E.M.
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/09/2014 Português
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How might social scientists best account for the widespread acceptance of such unlikely sounding claims such as those put forward by the 9/11 Truth Movement, or those concerning the alleged foreign birth of President Obama? While comparably “ignorant” or “bizarre” beliefs might seem unremarkable in societies characterised by authoritarian rule, state controlled media and low levels of literacy, Stephen E.M. Marmura asks how does one hope to explain the persistence and apparent growth of conspiracy theories in developed countries such as the United States or Britain, which boast high levels of education, freedom of expression, political openness, and competitive, privatised, mass media institutions?

Book review: Two nations indivisible: Mexico, the United States and the road ahead

Anisin, Alexei
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/09/2013 Português
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"Two Nations Indivisible: Mexico, The United States and the Road Ahead." Shannon K. O’Neil. Oxford University Press. May 2013. --- Over three decades Mexico has gone from a poor to a middle class nation, a closed to an open economy, an authoritarian to a vibrant (if at times messy) democracy, and a local to an increasingly binational society. Two Nations Indivisible aims to tell the story of the making of modern Mexico, and what it means for the United States. Recounting the economic, political, social, and security changes of the last thirty years, it provides a roadmap for one of the most overlooked foreign policy challenges of recent times. A recommended read for those looking for an overview of contemporary U.S.-Mexico affairs, writes Alexei Anisin.

The Liberal Democrat eruption is not finished yet

Worcester, Robert
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/04/2010 Português
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Sir Robert Worcester is a Visiting Professor of Government at LSE and an Honorary Fellow. He founded MORI in 1969. The following post first appeared in the Observer on 25 April. When the earth’s plates move, earthquakes and volcanoes follow. This seems to be happening in the wake of the decision to hold, 50 years after their invention in the United States, debates between party leaders.