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Bigger cuts to local authority budgets in the most deprived areas are likely to widen health inequalities

Taylor-Robinson, David
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/04/2011 Português
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Across the country, there are still massive inequalities in life expectancy and health outcomes. Indeed a national ‘health lottery’ is still very much in existence. David Taylor-Robinson examines the recent drastic cuts to local authority budgets and finds that the most deprived areas will be cut the most, and this will exacerbate existing inequalities in health and welfare.

There is a strong case for the introduction of an elected tier of English regional government

Trevitt, Vittorio
Fonte: Democratic Audit UK Publicador: Democratic Audit UK
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/11/2014 Português
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Should there be an English Parliament? Or should the English regions – closer in size to the other constituent parts of the United Kingdom – instead enjoy self-government over elements of government economic and social policy? Vittorio Trevitt argues that such a development would be good for democracy and good for England.

Internet access levels are not the sole determinant of how transparent government websites are.

Lowatcharin, Grichawat; Menifield, Charles
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/08/2015 Português
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Does increased Internet access lead to higher levels of governmental transparency? In new resealed, Grichawat Lowatcharin and Charles Menifield assess the impact of geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, and institutional factors on governmental transparency across more than 800 counties in the twelve U.S. Midwestern states. They found that total land area, population density, percentage of minority population, educational attainment, and the council-manager form of government are statistically associated with higher levels of government transparency at the county level via the Internet.

Decentralisation in Kosovo: challenges of reforming the local level

Agimi, Ilire
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2011 Português
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Studies of external democracy assistance and the promotion of good governance have tended to focus on the transformation of central government institutions and the interaction between state and non-state actors at this level. Although local institutions, organisation and contexts are not ignored as such, the emergence of multi-level governance is implicitly predicted to occur at a later stage, once reforms have been established at the core. As this paper demonstrates, local governance reform arguably constitutes a much greater challenge...

Labour activists in the North may have cause to celebrate. But localism and local democracy seem to be in a dangerous and parlous state

Cox, Ed
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/05/2012 Português
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Local election results in the North of England have heavily favoured Labour. But as Ed Cox argues, there has also been an evident decline in the public passion for local democracy which does not bode well for future political debate.

Nudging citizens towards localism? Links between behaviour change and local action have not yet been thought through sufficiently

John, Peter
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/05/2012 Português
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Peter John discusses new research into the government’s nudge policy and argues there is a danger that the link between behaviour change and local action will never be sufficiently established if the emphasis is placed solely on decentralisation.

The national audit office should not be responsible for the audit of local authorities

Jones, George W.; Stewart, John
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/08/2012 Português
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George Jones and John Stewart support the government’s proposal that local authorities can choose their own auditor as it is consistent with both localism and practice in many organisations.

The coalition plans to reinvigorate local political leadership in major cities with elected mayors: will local electorates say “Yes” this time?

Grant, Wyn
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/11/2011 Português
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Directly electing mayors on the London model is back on the political agenda. Eleven core English cities will be voting in May 2012 to decide whether they want to have one. These votes may radically increase the number of elected mayors and set city government decisively on a new path. But there may be fierce resistance may from local politicians and political parties who prefer the council model. Professor Wyn Grant reviews the field of debate.

Does decentralization increase responsiveness to local needs?: evidence from Bolivia

Faguet, Jean-Paul
Fonte: The World Bank Publicador: The World Bank
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2004 Português
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Bolivia’s recent decentralization involved the creation of hundreds of new municipalities, devolution of substantial resources from central agencies to local governments, and the development of innovative institutions of local governance. Detailed study of investment sector-by-sector shows that objective indicators of need are the most important determinants of the changes in investment patterns that ensued throughout the country.

Introduction: institutional choice and recognition in the formation and consolidation of local democracy

Ribot, Jesse C.; Chhatre, Ashwini; Lankina, Tomila
Fonte: Conservation and Society Publicador: Conservation and Society
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
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What are the democracy effects of 'decentralisation' reforms and projects? Most developing countries have launched decentralisation reforms for the purpose of improving service delivery, local development and management. In these reforms and projects, however, governments, international development agen­cies and large non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are transferring power to a wide range of local in­stitutions, including private bodies, customary authorities and NGOs. Recognition of these other local institutions means that fledgling local governments are receiving few public powers and face competition for legitimacy. Under what conditions is the new plurality of approaches and local interlocutors fostering local democratic consolidation or resulting in fragmented forms of authority and belonging? Through case studies in Benin, Guatemala, India, Malawi, Russia, Senegal and South Africa, this issue explores the effects of institutional choices and recognition by governments, international development agencies and large NGOs on three dimensions of democracy: 1) representation, 2) citizenship and 3) the public domain. This article outlines an approach to the politics of institutional choice and recognition while drawing out findings from the articles in this issue.

Report to the Government Office for London: electing the London Mayor and the London Assembly

Dunleavy, Patrick; Margetts, Helen
Fonte: LSE Public Policy Group, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE Public Policy Group, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/1998 Português
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1. Choosing a system for the London Mayor election involves a large number of considerations, and raises some novel challenges for all existing electoral systems. Plurality rule elections could produce a winning candidate with only minority support, and detract from the success of the office. Double ballot systems are unlikely to be implementable under British conditions. A majoritarian system, either the Alternative Vote or the Supplementary Vote, would offer the best method of election. 2. There would be significant advantages in using the Supplementary Vote method for electing the Mayor - retaining X voting; a simpler and more transparent counting system; a guarantee that the winner would emerge with a visible majority; no risk of initially low-placed candidates eventually emerging as the winner; and the system would be less likely than the Alternative Vote to encourage a large number of candidates to stand. 3. Electing the London Assembly in a proportional way poses some special problems because of its small size (24 to 32 members). Plurality rule elections should be ruled out, since they could easily produce strong one-party dominance and highly unproportional results. AV and SV elections would not ameliorate this problem. The Assembly should be elected by one of three proportional systems - the Additional Member System (AMS)...

New ‘big society’ providers could deliver better local services, but there are grave concerns surrounding funding, accountability and citizen redress

Rainford, Paul; Tinkler, Jane
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/01/2011 Português
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As reports emerge of a crisis meeting between big society architects Steve Hilton and Philip Blond, there is still notable uncertainty as to how their big idea may be operationalised at grass roots level. Paul Rainford and Jane Tinkler explore some of the available options and find that the creation of new ‘big society’ providers could offer definite benefits to local service provision in being more responsive to public needs and simplifying the institutional landscape for service users. However, big society providers cannot be seen as neat substitutes for the state and they will struggle to gain any sort of traction if funding and central support is absent or insufficient. There are also grave concerns surrounding commissioning, accountability and redress mechanisms for which the government seems to lack coherent solutions.

Women's experiences of local justice: community mediation in Sri Lanka

Jayasundere, Ramani; Valters, Craig
Fonte: Justice and Security Research Programme, International Development Department, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Justice and Security Research Programme, International Development Department, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2014 Português
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This paper is part of the Theories in Practice series arising from the collaboration between JSRP and The Asia Foundation. This is the second paper on Sri Lanka's mediation boards and builds on the conclusion of the previous paper that 'further research on how different forms of social injustice affect mediation boards would be an important conceptual and practical step'. There is a clear need to assess the effect of different forms of social injustice on the process of mediation. This is necessary because the mediation boards are rooted in the social, ethnic, gender and class structures of their environment. The current research focuses on one particular form of injustice: discrimination against women. The paper presents a study of the nature of justice experienced by women at mediation boards given the character, context and function of this dispute resolution system in Sri Lanka. The mediation boards hold many similarities with alternative dispute resolution systems all over the world (often labelled 'hybrid' or 'informal' systems). This paper has sought to provide some nuance to a common generalisation: that such a system necessarily discriminates against women. In our research locations we observed a range of mediator attitudes and behaviour that did not promote women's equality. Yet we also often saw a genuine desire to facilitate outcomes that were perceived as beneficial for women in difficult situations. This seemed to be driven...

Americans may view government negatively, but in film they see positive depictions of individual civil servants

Pautz, Michelle; Warnement, Megan
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/09/2013 Português
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Even in the Internet age, film is still an incredibly important source of entertainment, and a significant informer of opinions. But do films enhance or detract from American’s already negative views of government? Looking at the top grossing films from 2002 to 2009, Michelle Pautz and Megan Warnement find that films generally have a mixed view of government with more negative depictions than positive. However, films portray individual government characters, such as, police officers, soldiers, and politicians, in a much more positive light.

Politics in coalition formation of local governments

Saarimaa, Tuukka; Tukiainen, Janne
Fonte: Spatial Economics Research Centre (SERC), London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Spatial Economics Research Centre (SERC), London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2012 Português
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We analyze empirically the coalition formation of local governments using a novel reduced form econometric procedure that allows for multi-partner mergers. Using Finnish municipal merger data where mergers were decided independently at the local level, we find that merger decisions are largely in line with voter preferences. Most importantly, mergers are clearly less likely when the distance of the median voter to the coalition centre is large. However, councillors seem also to prefer mergers where post-merger political competition is lower which indicates a concern for re-election. Interestingly, municipalities do not seem to be seeking economies of scale through merging. This is possibly due to existing cooperation in service production which we find to be a strong predictor of merging.

Mixed companies and local governance: no man can serve two masters

da Cruz, Nuno Ferreira; Marques, Rui Cunha
Fonte: Blackwell Publishers Publicador: Blackwell Publishers
Tipo: Article; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 Português
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This article looks at the use of institutionalized public–private partnership (PPP) arrangements by local governments for the delivery of different types of infrastructure. It starts by analyzing the mixed company model from a theoretical point of view, in particular the potential for internal regulation and the achievement of a relational agreement. Then, after discussing the practicalities of crafting this type of governance structure, four Portuguese case studies are examined. The empirical evidence on mixed companies operating in the water, waste, transportation, and education sectors shows that the extreme complexity involved in the whole life-cycle management of these companies usually leads to a poor protection of the public interest.

Viability of municipal companies in the provision of urban infrastructure services

da Cruz, Nuno Ferreira; Marques, Rui Cunha
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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This article discusses the organisational and institutional model of municipal company in the provision of urban infrastructure services in Portugal. The law recently enacted which defined the legal regime for the local business sector, as well as the growing awareness that the new public management models represent great advantages in comparison with the bureaucratic ones that characterise the traditional public administration, make this a current and relevant issue. For the purpose of investigating the viability of this provision model, this research encompasses three complementary analyses. First, the results obtained from a nationwide questionnaire on the features of municipal companies are analysed. Second, a SWOT matrix is constructed to examine the model of municipal company and, third, the total factor productivity (TFP) of these organisations is determined using the index number theory, in order to evaluate their performance and compare it with that of the traditional bureaucratic models. Although the concept of municipal company is based on noble principles and, in theory, it shows advantages compared to other means of service provision, this research points to very negative results regarding the model and leads to the conclusion that the aimed benefits are not achieved in Portugal. There are many causes contributing to this effect...

Government proposals that local councils can retain business rates will give incentives for growth, but with some funding inequalities across councils

Overman, Henry G.
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/07/2011 Português
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This week sees the launch of a government consultation on allowing local authorities to retain business rates. Henry Overman looks at the pros and cons of the proposals and finds that while the proposals may give local authorities a greater incentive to provide more sites for businesses, they may also lead to some funding inequalities across councils.

The use of the misleading ‘No Overall Control’ designation means some voters still don’t know who won their local election

Berry, Richard
Fonte: Democratic Audit UK Publicador: Democratic Audit UK
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/05/2014 Português
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Elections took place in 172 English and Northern Irish local authorities last week, alongside the European Parliament election. For most councils there was a decisive result, with a single majority party emerging. But there were dozens of councils where no party won a majority, and were therefore designated as ‘No Overall Control’. Democratic Audit’s Richard Berry believes both the media and councils fail to provide adequate information to voters about the results of these elections. In this post he sets out how practices can be improved to give voters a clearer picture of what happened in their area.

On public values and information technology in government: a critical discourse analysis of trade regulations in Mexico

Bonina, Carla
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2012 Português
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The use of the internet and related information and communication technologies (ICT) in public administration (known as 'e-government') has gained notable space within the processes of public sector reform. Arguably, ICT provide an attractive strategy to reorganize internal government tasks, routines and processes and to make them more efficient, responsive as well as accountable to citizens. Yet, the linkages between public values and e-government programmes remain understudies or taken for granted. My research focuses on this particular aspect of public sector reforms and organising. It engages with the debates towards modernisation of central government services while contributing to discussion of the relation between technologically induced programmes and public values over time. Using critical discourse analysis, I trace the discourses on public values and technology within a longitudinal case of a technology-enabled platform to facilitate foreign trade regulations in Mexico - the Mexican Single Window for Foreign Trade. In my empirical analysis, I examine a combination of key government texts and extensive data from fieldwork to address two related questions: what public values are presented, enacted or marginalised during the trajectory of the case...