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A situação na península coreana : estrutura, panorama e cenários

Brites, Pedro Vinícius Pereira
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
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O presente trabalho tem como tema a situação na Península Coreana, que permanece dividida entre norte e sul como herança da Guerra Fria e do colonialismo japonês, e as relações da República Popular Democrática da Coreia (Coreia do Norte) e da República da Coreia (Coreia do Sul) entre si e entre elas com os atores regionais. O objetivo central do mesmo é analisar os possíveis desdobramentos políticos que podem vir a ocorrer na região, bem como os impactos oriundos desses desdobramentos, através da utilização de ferramentas disponibilizadas pelo cálculo de cenários. Com isso, abstrai-se uma estrutura analítica comum para a compreensão dos desdobramentos políticos e militares na Península Coreana. Busca-se analisar também o papel dos principais atores regionais envolvidos no conflito: Coreia do Norte, Coreia do Sul, Estados Unidos da América (EUA), República Popular da China, Japão e Rússia. Para tanto, o trabalho divide-se em três capítulos. O primeiro foca a formação estrutural da identidade nacional atual dos coreanos, notadamente o passado comum, mas com a oposição entre as identidades das duas Coreias (ser sul-coreano é não ser norte-coreano e vice-versa). Um apanhado histórico de desde o final do séc. XIX até o final da Guerra Fria é realizado...

Reemerging vivax malaria: changing patterns of annual incidence and control programs in the Republic of Korea

Han, Eun-Taek; Lee, Duk-Hyoung; Park, Ki-Dong; Seok, Won-Seok; Kim, Young-Soo; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil
Fonte: The Korean Society for Parasitology Publicador: The Korean Society for Parasitology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Changing patterns of the reemerging Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) during the period 1993 to 2005 are briefly analyzed with emphasis on the control measures used and the effects of meteorological and entomological factors. Data were obtained from the Communicable Diseases Monthly Reports published by the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and webpages of World Health Organization and United Nations. Meteorological data of Kangwon-do (Province) were obtained from local weather stations. After its first reemergence in 1993, the prevalence of malaria increased exponentially, peaking in 2000, and then decreased. In total, 21,419 cases were reported between 1993 and 2005 in South Korea. In North Korea, a total of 916,225 cases were reported between 1999 and 2004. The occurrence of malaria in high risk areas of South Korea was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the mosquito population but not with temperature and rainfall. Control programs, including early case detection and treatment, mass chemoprophylaxis of soldiers, and international financial aids to North Korea for malaria control have been instituted. The situation of the reemerging vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea is remarkably improving during the recent years...

Unstable vivax malaria in Korea

Ree, Han-Il
Fonte: The Korean Society for Parasitology Publicador: The Korean Society for Parasitology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Korean vivax malaria had been prevalent for longtime throughout the country with low endemicity. As a result of the Korean war (1950-1953), malaria became epidemic. In 1959-1969 when the National Malaria Eradication Service (NMES) was implemented, malaria rates declined, with low endemicity in the south-west and south plain areas and high endemic foci in north Kyongsangbuk-do (province) and north and east Kyonggi-do. NMES activities greatly contributed in accelerating the control and later eradication of malaria. The Republic of Korea (South Korea) was designated malaria free in 1979. However, malaria re-emerged in 1993 and an outbreak occurred in north Kyonggi-do and north-west Kangwon-do (in and/or near the Demilitarized Zone, DMZ), bordering North Korea. It has been postulated that most of the malaria cases resulted from bites of sporozoite-infected females of An. sinensis dispersed from North Korea across the DMZ. Judging from epidemiological and socio-ecological factors, vivax malaria would not be possible to be endemic in South Korea. Historical data show that vivax malaria in Korea is a typical unstable malaria. Epidemics may occur when environmental, socio-economical, and/or political factors change in favor to malaria transmission...

Impact of economic crisis on cause-specific mortality in South Korea

Khang, Y.H.; Lynch, J.; Kaplan, G.
Fonte: Oxford Univ Press Publicador: Oxford Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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Background: Economic changes can be powerful determinants of health. In the late 1990s, South Korea experienced a steep economic decline. This study examines whether the massive economic changes affected trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in South Korea. Method: Mid-year population estimates of 5 year age groups (denominators) and death certificate data (numerators) from the National Statistical Office of Korea were used to compute cause-specific age-standardized mortality rates before and after the economic crisis. Results: All-cause mortality continued to decrease in both sexes and all age groups during the crisis. Cerebrovascular accidents, stomach cancer, and liver disease contributed most to this decline. A remarkable decrease in transport accident mortality rates was also observed. The most salient increase in mortality was suicidal death. Mortality from homicide, pneumonia, and alcohol dependence increased during the economic crisis, but these accounted for a small proportion of total mortality. Conclusions: Short-term mortality effects of the South Korean economic crisis were relatively small. It appears that any short-term effects of the economic decline were overwhelmed by the momentum of large declines in causes of death such as stroke...

Morning calm, nuclear sunset: South Korea's atomic option

Pierce, Alden D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 184 p.;28 cm.
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; U.S. national security strategy sets nuclear nonproliferation as a high priority. However pursuing nonproliferation without regard for important traditional security relationships might yield undesired results. The Republic of Korea (ROK) requires a high degree of confidence in the U.S. security guarantee one that includes an extended nuclear deterrent. The nuclear weapons program that South Korea began and abandoned in the 1970s was prompted by a decrease in confidence in U.S. security commitments. Conciliatory actions taken recently by the United States toward the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (DPRK) to prevent a possible nuclear weapons program may undermine the U.S.-ROK security arrangement that has been in place for decades. This work examines perceived threats to South Korea and the U.S. security commitment to Korea since 1945 to reveal how U.S. nuclear nonproliferation policy affects Seoul's propensity to develop nuclear weapons. Recommendations are provided for policy makers regarding strengthening of ROK confidence in the U.S. commitment on the peninsula, with particular emphasis on preventing South Korea from pursuing a nuclear arsenal; http://www.archive.org/details/morningcalmnucle00pier; Lieutenant...

Naval ship concept design for the Republic of Korea Navy a systems engineering approach

Choi, Hanwool
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 63 p. : col. ill.
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; This thesis presents a new systems engineering based approach to naval ship concept design for the Republic of Korea (R.O.K.) Navy. The R.O.K. Navy currently uses a traditional naval architecture approach in concept design. Naval architects focus only on naval architecture issues such as speed, range, and displacement; combat systems engineers focus on the performance of combat systems, weapons, and sensors. This design process creates some integration problems in the late design stage and during construction. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the systems engineering approach design concept in the R.O.K. Navy. Naval ship design is an aggregate of engineering, computer science, management, and even strategy and policy. Naval ship engineers should consider not only naval architecture issues such as hull form, stability, structure, maneuverability and propulsion, but also mission needs, effectiveness, cost/risk benefits, and integration with all combat systems. Naval architecture and combat systems engineering are a part of the design process, and they must be considered simultaneously a systems engineering approach to combatant ship design. To properly design a naval ship...

Uri nara, our nation: Unification, identity and the emergence of a new nationalism amongst South Korean young people

Campbell, Emma Louise Gordon
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
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This research project investigates the growing ambivalence and antagonism of South Korean young people toward unification with North Korea. Historically, ideas of nation and identity, and thus unification, have been based upon the ethnic and cultural homogeneity of all Korean people. More recently, there has emerged a new type of nationalism based on strikingly different notions of identity. This work addresses the central puzzle of how long-held views of Korean nation and national identity have been challenged so dramatically in recent years – in particular amongst the young. Using data obtained from over 90 interviews, surveys and other documentary evidence collected in the field, I show how negativity toward unification with North Korea is increasing and argue that a new South Korean nationalism has arisen amongst South Korea’s young people. This new nationalism is demonstrated both by the changing attitudes to unification and North Korea and by a growing sense of national pride and confidence in South Korea. The new nationalism can be described as a globalised-cultural nationalism, reflecting the central role played by globalisation in its construction and expression. This work contests the assumption that unification ‘is the hope of all Koreans’ and the inevitable outcome for the Korean peninsula. It contributes to understanding short-term challenges as more North Koreans move to the South and provides insights into longer-term preparations for possible reunification. From a theoretical perspective...

Korea Rediscovers Organic Agriculture

Paull, John
Fonte: Bio-Dynamics Tasmania Publicador: Bio-Dynamics Tasmania
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Korea will host the 2011 Organic World Congress. The early pioneers of organic farming looked to Asia for both evidence and inspiration. Korea is rediscovering its organic farming heritage, and is now seeking recognition as an organic producer. South Korea has 46 members of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) and North Korea has two members. South Korean organic agriculture increased ten-fold from 2004 to 2009 with 9729 hectares now certified. South Korean organic farms increased six-fold in the period 2004 to 2009, from 1237 to 7507. Substantial further increases in Korea’s organic area seem likely in the immediate future. With Korea’s new-found commitment to organics comes the privilege of hosting the next triennial IFOAM Organic World Congress in 2011. In a further shift towards Asia, the new IFOAM World Board, elected at Modena in 2008, has four board members from Asia. Hosting the Organic Congress is expected to stimulate the Korean organic movement and be an opportunity to display local organic know-how, including organic rice cultivation techniques. Korea’s 17th IFOAM Organic World Congress has the theme “Toward an Environmentally Benign Community”, and the dates are 27 September to 5 October 2011. The Governor of Gyeonggi Province...

South Korean politics in transition: democratization, elections and the voters

Kwang-Bae, Sun
Fonte: The Department of Political and Social Change, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University Publicador: The Department of Political and Social Change, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper
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The restoration of direct presidential elections in 1987 provided momentum for democratization in South Korea. Indeed, popular election of the president had become a symbol of democratization since President Park Chung-hee abolished it in 1972. It may be still a matter for debate whether South Korea is a fully democratized country, but since the democratic 'founding' election of 1987, it has held free and competitive elections five times nationwide (a second presidential election in 1992, three more National Assembly elections in 1988, 1992 and 1996, and an election in 1995 for local government bodies) and the electoral process has begun to occupy a central place in South Korean politics. This paper focuses on the meaning of elections in South Korea during the democratization period (1985-92). It begins by briefly reviewing the political process from 19455 to 1987, with particular attention to South Korea's democratic experiments, and then discusses how the old and new cleavages - that is, the cleavages of government versus opposition, and of course regionalism - have shaped electoral choice in elections during the democratization period. The paper also discusses the role played by regional cleavages, which have continued to prevail in electoral contests since 1987...

The Trade Factor: Assessing the importance of China, Japan and South Korea's intra-regional trade as a security factor

Malcolm, Phoebe
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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China, Japan and South Korea are becoming global economic forces. Despite this economic development many observers have argued that the region is fundamentally insecure. Indeed all three nations have a long history of tension due to their political, cultural and historical differences. Despite this focus on the region's instability, little attention has been given to the region's economic ties. This research report thus endeavours to assess the extent to which the three nations are economically dependent through intra-regional trade and if this interdependence is an important regional security factor. This report's first conclusion was that the three nations do have a strong intraregional trading relationship. Intra-regional trading data from each nation's statistical yearbook was analysed to demonstrate this. China, Japan and South Korea all participate in a large amount of intra-regional trade of both imports and exports. Intra-regional trade of each state's major import and export commodities further highlighted this relationship. Intra-regional imports and exports of machinery in particular were very high. Considering that machinery is a major import and export commodity for all three nations, this finding provides further evidence of the three nation's strong intra-regional trading relationship. China...

North Korea: the land-mine in Australia's gold-mine

Godden, Nicholas
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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The report examined North Korea's effects on Australian interests in North-East Asia and explored potential Australian responses to positively alter the situation. It was written as North Korea again garners international diplomatic and media attention. Pyongyang and Washington are continuing their on-going wrangling over the implementation of Six-Party Talk agreements. Speculation also abounds concerning Kim Jong-il's health and any possible North Korean succession. The international community is more generally concerned with North Korea exporting its Weapons of Mass Destruction technology and material to other state or non-state actors. The report investigated four key questions. First, what is North Korea's effect on Australia's interests in North-East Asia? Second, how do key regional powers relate and behave towards North Korea? Third, what future problems will North Korea create? Fourth, can Australia do anything to minimise these problems? To answer these questions, the report began by considering North Korea's current situation. The DPRK is an impoverished totalitarian system unlikely to reform, but likely to continue its nuclear proliferation. The report then considered what Australian interests in North-East Asia were affected by North Korea. It was concluded that the DPRK threatened Australia's trade performance in North-East Asia and damaged Australia's worldwide and regional anti-nuclear proliferation efforts. Pyongyang also had the potential to endanger Australia's relationships with China and the US by increasing Sino-American tension. The report followed by examining North Korea's effect on the US and Washington's relationship and behaviour towards the DPRK. The US was considered to be most concerned with and largely negatively affected by North Korea's nuclear proliferation. However...

A comparative analysis of the policies and programs regarding veterans in Australia and South Korea

Lee, Ji Eun (Jen)
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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This paper examines the regarding veterans' affairs in many aspects: administration, commemoration, health, and the pensions offered to veterans in and South Korea. It is interesting to note that the differences between these two countries with very different histories, cultures, and values affect their policies and the programs provided for veterans and their family members. The war history of Australia involved engagement outside Australia. Therefore those who are eligible for veterans ' benefits are those who were engaged in war service overseas. Korea's history of conflict took place mostly inside Korea. Korea experienced many internal problems, such as colonial rule by Japan, the Korean War, and revolutions against autocracy and dictatorship. In Australia, the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) administers the welfare of their veterans. The budget is about 5.4-5.5 % of total government expenditure. In Korea, the Ministry of Patriots' and Veterans' Affairs (MPVA) takes care of veterans, but the status of this ministry is a little bit lower than the other Ministries. The budget allotted this Ministry is 1.7% of government spending. In Australia, the days for commemorating those who sacrificed their lives for national security are ANZAC Day and Remembrance Day. The deeds of all veterans...

Analysing the changing trajectory of South Korea’s ICT business environment

Callinan, Nigel
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
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peer-reviewed; This thesis aims to provide a new perspective on the development of South Korea’s Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) Business Environment by taking a cross-disciplinary look at the area. Most studies on this subject have tended to remain within the boundaries of a single discipline. In this study, an interdisciplinary approach is taken to trace more of the paths that have influenced the development. This will provide a better understanding of the area and this insight should make it easier for any prospective organisation hoping to enter the Korean market to be successful. In little over two generations, South Korea has transformed from being one of the poorest countries in the world into a global business leader. Currently, information technology products are at the forefront of exports from the country and the world’s largest electronics company hails from a city just south of Seoul. In order to understand how this transition took place and how some of these small infant startups became international giants, this study begins with a look at Korean history with the focus on early interactions with foreign cultures. The information provides a foundation for understanding why certain decisions were taken when Korea began its post-war journey towards industrialisation in the 1960s. Then...

O mito do desenvolvimento Sul-Coreano; The myth of South-Korean development : dependency, autocracy and economic miracle

Rodrigo Luiz Medeiros da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/12/2007 Português
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Nas últimas quatro décadas, a Coréia do Sul tem vivenciado um processo extremamente acelerado de crescimento econômico e modernização estrutural. Alçado ao patamar de 'modelo' para os demais países periféricos, o chamado 'caso coreano' deu origem a duas interpretações teóricas mais vastamente difundidas. A primeira, de inspiração ortodoxa, enfatiza as condições estruturais vigentes na Coréia e advoga pela adequação das políticas econômicas ali implantadas, que teriam respeitado os mecanismos de mercado, dadas as vantagens comparativas estruturais supostamente detidas pelo país. A segunda, de inspiração heterodoxa, enfatiza o papel do Estado na criação de condições para o desenvolvimento industrial, distorcendo os mecanismos de mercado em setores taticamente eleitos. O objetivo desta dissertação é problematizar estas duas vertentes analíticas, com base nos ensinamentos de Celso Furtado. Para tal, as principais tarefas desta dissertação são: 1) apresentar um quadro geral das transformações ocorridas no país no pós-guerra, 2) discutir, à luz da obra de Furtado, a diferença qualitativa entre desenvolvimento e crescimento, 3) retomar contribuições de autores das duas vertentes mais difundidas no debate sobre o 'caso coreano'...

Phanerozoic high-pressure eclogite and intermediate-pressure granulite facies metamorphism in the Gyeonggi Massif, South Korea: implications for the eastward extension of the Dabie-Sulu continental collision zone

Kim, Sung Won; Oh, Chang Whan; Williams, Ian; Rubatto, Daniela; Ryu, In-Chang; Rajesh, V.J.; Kim, Cheong-Bin; Guo, Jinghui; Zhai, Mingguo
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Petrological analysis, zircon trace element analysis and SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of retrogressed eclogite and garnet granulite from Bibong, Hongseong area, SW Gyeonggi Massif, South Korea provide compelling evidence for Triassic (231.4 ± 3.3 Ma) high-p

Encounters with Samulnori: The Cultural Politics of South Korea's Dynamic Percussion Genre

Lee, Katherine In-Young
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
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This dissertation interrogates how diverse actors ascribe semantic, affective, and political meanings to instrumental music under changing historical circumstances and in different performance contexts. In what I call an “ethnographic reception study,” I employ historical and ethnographic methods to assess the ways in which the popular samulnori percussion genre from South Korea has been imbued with associations as divergent as a sonic symbol of Korea to narratives of resistance against the state. Through five chapters, I track some of the contested and multiple meanings as they interact, both in historical moments in South Korea and vis-à-vis transnational circulations that led to the genre’s transmission outside Korea. As a genre of percussion music that was first created in South Korea in 1978, samulnori has had a complex reception during three dramatic decades in modern Korean history—leading to life-changing encounters from its fans while also eliciting scorn from its detractors. As a dynamic musical genre that is now notated and largely nonverbal, samulnori has served as a user-friendly sonic canvas upon which identities and affinities have been easily grafted by non-Korean fans, leading to the development of amateur samulnori ensembles and musical communities around the world. By considering the ways in which the samulnori genre has been evaluated...

Moving Outside of the Hermit Kingdom: Policies & Programs that Aid North Korean Adolescent Refugees in South Korean Alternative High Schools

Heo, Kelly
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 13/05/2013 Português
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Currently, there are over 20,000 North Korean refugees in South Korea with at least 2,000 entering each year. North Koreans hope to experience freedom and comfort in their new home but tend to find only poverty and discrimination. With growing public dissent towards unification, policy makers have turned to adolescent refugees’ education in hopes of refuting South Koreans’ negative stereotypes as well as to nurture the future leaders of unification . As a result, several groups outside of the government have opened alternative schools that cater to these young refugees. After conducting interviews with sixteen refugee students and six teachers/school administrators, this study will identify as well as analyze policies and programs that aid North Korean refugees in being academically and acculturatively successful.; Honors thesis

Economic Voting and Regionalism in South Korea: A Statistical Analysis of the 2007 Presidential Election

Lee, Sophie Jiseon
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Although economic voting is a common phenomenon in most democracies, voters in young democracies do not necessarily vote based on the economy because at the early stage of democratization, the salience of political issues, regarding transition, overwhelms economic issues. Similarly, economic voting has not been observed in newly democratized South Korea since its first meaningful election in 1987. The absence of economic voting in Korea has widely been attributed to the overriding effect of regionalism, the phenomenon in which Jeolla and Gyeongsang natives vote for candidates born in their provinces. Against this backdrop, this paper argues that economic voting recently gained strength with 1) the consolidation of Korean democracy and 2) the traumatic experience of the IMF. In the meantime, the pre-democratic resource allocation political division, regionalism, has developed into the ideologies of native Jeolla and Gyeongsang voters today; liberal Jeolla natives tend to value distributive justice and freedom of speech, while conservative Gyeongsang natives value economic growth and security. To support this theory, the study provides empirical evidence for the rise of economic voting in Korea. The results of the empirical analysis are fourfold. First...

Towards an equitable cap-and-trade scheme in South Korea: based on input-output analysis of the distributional implications of carbon pricing mechanisms

Kim, Hana
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Wang, Young-Doo; While the efficiency of cap-and-trade programs has attracted the attention of several countries, equity implications of the programs require equal attention. The programs impact income distribution as the cost of mitigation is passed on to consumers in the form of increased prices. A great deal of literature shows that the incidence of these programs is regressive in developed countries, indicating that this program will exacerbate the distributional equity without appropriate countermeasures. Facing the impending implementation of cap-and trade schemes in South Korea in 2015, a handful of experts have studied the equity implications of the scheme. The literature often provides a partial analysis on equity implications of the scheme focusing only on regional distribution or on distribution between different income groups. However, this dissertation evaluates the comprehensive equity implications of a carbon pricing policy as well as the impacts on other dimensions. Input-output analysis (IOA) is employed to assess the comprehensive impacts of a carbon pricing policy in South Korea. Beyond a typical IOA, hybrid IO tables are developed to estimate energy consumption and CO 2 emissions by sector and to analyze the impacts of the implementation on different sectors. In addition...

Ideological changes identified in and through Linguistic expressions: what should stand for Korea in Chinese, chaoxian1 or Hanguo ?; Ideological changes identified in and through Linguistic expressions: what should stand for Korea in Chinese, chaoxian1 or Hanguo ?

Song, Stanley Zhongwei
Fonte: UFSC Publicador: UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2006 Português
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This paper presents an attempt to explain changes of China’s dominant ideology, the socialist ideology identified in and through linguistic expressions. By analysing from a historical perspective the meanings potential of the word Korea with its correlated expressions in Chinese, it highlights how deeply the way of referring to two Koreas has been influenced under the traditional ideology of the Chinese society, manipulated by the communist ideology in socialist China and challenged by less powerful yet emerging ideologies in market-oriented China. With the major linguistic references in Chinese to two political entities in the Korean peninsula, North and South Korea, the paper studies the relationship between ideological changes in modern Chinese society and linguistic expressions that, as part of the system of language, reflect ideological investments in and political implications of the changes. Added with a translation-related case study with a focus of emphasis on the word Korea, it concludes that with a flourishing of cultural pluralism in China, usually a forerunner of political pluralism, less dominant ideologies do compete with the official ideology in various ways and forms, and the competition can be traced and identified in and through linguistic expressions. In other words...