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Desafios e possibilidades jurídicas para o desenvolvimento dos transportes no Mercosul: a opção pela multimodalidade; Challenges and legal possibilities for to development of Southern Common Market transports: an option for multimodal operations

Botelho, Martinho Martins
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/10/2010 Português
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A partir da década de 1980, passou-se a adotar um regime de transporte internacional mais condizente com a redução de custos operacionais e com a facilidade de contratação. Esse misto de operação de transporte com aspectos contratuais específicos fora denominado transporte multimodal, sendo utilizado também para o fortalecimento da integração regional em transportes no âmbito de blocos econômicos regionais. A preocupação inicial de organizações internacionais tais como a CNUCED, CNUDCI, OMI, OACI e de órgão privados internacionais tais como a CCI, ATAI, CMI foi fundamental no despertar da sociedade internacional para o papel essencial dos transportes no comércio internacional, sendo protagonista de várias modificações no cenário global. No plano regional mercosulista, essa preocupação com os temas relacionados aos transportes também foi abordado por meio do estabelecimento de regras relacionadas ao transporte multimodal de cargas, seguindo o modelo convencional estabelecido na Associação Latino-Americana de Integração, com a implementação do Acordo parcial para a facilitação do transporte multimodal nos Estados-partes do Mercosul de 1994. O objetivo do presente estudo é realizar uma avaliação dos desafios e dos limites jurídicos estabelecidos atualmente para a consecução da eficiência da multimodalidade no Mercosul...

Justiça do trabalho e mercado de trabalho : trajetoria e interação judiciario e a regulação do trabalho no Brasil; Labour justice and labour market trajectory and interaction between judiciary court and labour regulation in Brazil

Marcus Menezes Barberino Mendes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/02/2007 Português
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Esta dissertação busca descrever a trajetória de um ramo específico do Poder Judiciário brasileiro a partir das decisões estruturantes que marcam a formação do Estado nacional em bases modernas, urbanas e, obviamente, capitalistas. Nessa trajetória, explicita as relações dinâmicas entre o sistema de justiça, a regulação de um mercado de trabalho nacional e urbano ? aqui nominada de Sistema de Relações de Trabalho, e a tensão permanente entre economia, política, direito e sistema de justiça. Com um recorte estruturalista, procura demonstrar o caráter modernizante da Justiça Federal do Trabalho como parte da disseminação de uma relação institucional entre Estado e classe sociais. Destaca, sobretudo, o papel da classe trabalhadora que emergiu no século XX como agente político relevante no contexto de uma economia de capitalismo tardio, periférica, com graus variáveis de subordinação. Esse caráter modernizador da Justiça do Trabalho é mediado pelo grau de inserção da economia nacional na economia global e pela interação entre regime político e classes sociais. Nesse contexto, a trajetória do sistema da Justiça do Trabalho organizada como parte do Estado nacional sofre inflexões, sempre envoltas e relativamente asseguradas por regulações e políticas públicas. Elas são descritas e analisadas a partir dos conceitos de assimetria político-econômica e de mercantilização/desmercantilização do trabalho. Assim...

Politics or Economics? International Migration during the Nicaraguan Contra War*

Lundquist, Jennifer H.; Massey, Douglas S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/2005 Português
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The issue of whether Central Americans in the United States are ‘political’ or ‘economic’ migrants has been widely debated, yet little empirical research has informed the controversy. Earlier studies have relied primarily on cross-sectional aggregate data. In order to overcome these limitations we draw on recent surveys conducted in five Nicaraguan communities by the Latin American Migration Project. Using retrospective data, we reconstruct a history of a family’s migration to the United States and Costa Rica from the date of household formation to the survey date and link these data to national-level data on GDP and Contra War violence. While out migration to both Costa Rica and the United States is predicted by economic trends, US-bound migration was more strongly linked to the level of Contra War violence independent of economic motivations, especially in an interactive model that allows for a higher wartime effect of social networks. We conclude that elevated rates of Nicaraguan migration to the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s were a direct result of the US-Contra intervention. The approach deployed here – which relates to the timing of migration decisions to macro-level country trends – enables us to address the issue of political versus economic motivations for migration with more precision than prior work.

A Solution to Overoptimistic Forecasts and Fiscal Procyclicality: The Structural Budget Institutions Pioneered by Chile

Frankel, Jeffrey A.
Fonte: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University Publicador: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
Português
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Historically, many countries have suffered a pattern of procyclical fiscal policy: spending too much in booms and then forced to cut back in recessions, thereby exacerbating the business cycle. This problem has especially plagued Latin American commodity-producers. Since 2000, fiscal policy in Chile has been governed by a structural budget rule that has succeeded in implementing countercyclical fiscal policy. The key innovation is that the two most important estimates of the structural versus cyclical components of the budget – trend output and the 10-year price of copper – are made by expert panels and thus insulated from the political process. Chile’s fiscal institutions could usefully be emulated everywhere, but especially in other commodity-exporting countries. This paper finds statistical support for a series of hypotheses regarding forecasts by official agencies that have responsibility for formulating the budget. 1) Official forecasts of budgets and GDP in a 33-country sample are overly optimistic on average. 2) The bias toward over-optimism is stronger the longer the horizon 3) The bias is greater among European governments that are politically subject to the budget rules in the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP). 4) The bias is greater at the extremes of the business cycle...

Inequality in Latin America : Determinants and Consequences

Lopez, J. Humberto; Perry, Guillermo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Latin America is together with Sub-Saharan Africa the most unequal region of the world. This paper documents recent inequality trends in the Latin American region, going beyond traditional measures of income inequality. The paper also reviews some of the explanations that have been put forward to understand the current situation, and discusses why reducing income inequality should be an important policy priority. In particular, the authors discuss channels through which inequality can affect growth and output volatility. On the whole, the analysis suggests a two-pronged approach to reduce inequality in the region that combines policies aimed at improving the distribution of assets (especially education) with elements aimed at improving the capacity of the state to redistribute income through taxes and transfers.

Party Age and Party Color : New Results on the Political Economy of Redistribution and Inequality

Keefer, Philip; Milanovic, Branko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper advances research on inequality with unique, new data on income distribution in 61 countries, including 20 Latin American countries, to explore the effects of political parties on redistribution. First, consistent with a central -- but still contested -- assumption of the political economy literature, left-wing governments redistribute more. In addition, consistent with recent research on the importance of party organization and the organizational differences between younger and older parties, older left-wing parties are more likely to internalize the long-run costs of redistribution and to be more credible in their commitment to redistribution, leading them to redistribute less. With entirely different data, the paper also provides evidence on mechanisms: left-wing governments not only redistribute more, they tax more; older left-wing parties, though, tax less than younger ones.

Sustainable rural development through alternative economic networks: Redefining relations in the commodity chain for export vegetables in western Guatemala

Klotz, Ryan J
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The current research considers the capacity of a local organic food system for producer and consumer empowerment and sustainable development outcomes in western Guatemala. Many have argued that the forging of local agricultural networks linking farmers, consumers, and supporting institutions is an effective tool for challenging the negative economic, environmental, and sociopolitical impacts associated with industrial models of global food production. But does this work in the context of agrarian development in the developing world? Despite the fact that there is extensive literature concerning local food system formation in the global north, there remains a paucity of research covering how the principles of local food systems are being integrated into agricultural development projects in developing countries. My work critically examines claims to agricultural sustainability and actor empowerment in a local organic food system built around non-traditional agricultural crops in western Guatemala. Employing a mixed methods research design involving twenty months of participant observation, in-depth interviewing, surveying, and a self-administered questionnaire, the project evaluates the sustainability of this NGO-led development initiative and local food movement along several dimensions. Focusing on the unique economic and social networks of actors and institutions at each stage of the commodity chain...

Disintegration in Peru - consolidation in Chile: the case for militant Capitalism in Latin America

Quinn, Edward J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: vi, 165 p.
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Over the past two decades, Peru and Chile have each experienced both military regimes and civilian governments. Peru's experience has been dominated by the political left; Chile's by the right. In contrast to Peru's populist politics and interventionist economics, Chile, in 1973, experienced a militant capitalist revolution. Almost twenty years later, Peru is a nation torn by political violence of both the left and right; on the brink of economic and cultural ruin. Conversely, Chile has passed beyond military government and begun democratic consolidation. With the healthiest economy in contemporary Latin America, Chile is poised to move beyond underdevelopment to modernity. Chile's success is the direct result of the fundamental restructuring and redirection of the nation's politics-economics paradigm undertaken by General Pinochet and the military but accepted, and today embraced, by the Chilean people. Development of a free market economic model that transcends partisan politics is the key to Chile's success and future. It is likewise a lesson Latin American states should incorporate in both national policies and international relations.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Long-Run Effects of Democracy on Income Inequality : Evidence from Repeated Cross-Sections

Balcazar, Carlos Felipe
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper assesses the link between democracy and inequality. Inequality is measured at the cohort level with pseudo-panel data built from nine Latin American countries' household surveys (1995-2009, biannual). Democracy is measured as a stock during long periods of time both before and after each cohort's year of birth. The paper presents evidence that long-run historical patterns in the degree of democracy relate to income inequality. However, this relationship is non-monotonic: inequality first increases with the stock of democracy before falling. The paper also presents evidence that education may be a mechanism explaining this result.

In memory of Pedro Vuskovic

Schatan, Jacobo
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
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For those of us who shared many years of friendship and professional collaboration with Pedro Vuskovic, the news of his recent death in Mexico has been the cause of great sorrow, not only because of the circumstances of his death, following a cruel disease that gradually sapped his physical -but not intellectual- strength, but also because it signifies the loss of a great Latin American, of a teacher who helped shape so many generations of young people in our region, and of a companion during so many days of intellectual strivings and political struggle. Pedro joined the Commission in 1950, shortly after its birth as an institution. For nearly 20 years he served it brilliantly in a professional capacity, with his career in ECLAC culminating in the position of Director of the Development Division. He played a crucial role in structuring and disseminating the thinking of ECLAC during a time when the very air teemed with the ideas and concerns of a pleiad of gifted economists and social scientists. These were the post-war years, the 1950s and 1960s, when we all had to "construct" Latin America. Pedro Vuskovic laid many of the bricks in that collective theoretical and political edifice which has been of such importance to the countries of the region. Concurrently...

Economía, política y cultura de la desigualdad de ingresos en Chile/Economics, politics and culture of the income inequality in Chile

Raúl González Meyer; Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano
Fonte: Revista de Economía del Caribe Publicador: Revista de Economía del Caribe
Tipo: article; publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Português
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R e s u m e nEl trabajo presente explora las causas de la desigualdad del ingreso enChile, buscando ampliar el panorama de factores existentes y enfatizandoalgunos poco tratados en la actualidad –al menos en Chile–, ya sea porsesgos ideológicos o por sus significados políticos más cuestionadoresdel status quo.En una primera sección plantea la magnitud y el carácter de la desigualdadde ingresos en Chile. Luego, en las secciones 2 a 8, identificaun conjunto de factores y su presencia en el caso chileno. Ello se refiere,en forma secuencial, a las cuestiones de la concentración patrimonial yde la riqueza; a la repartición de las ganancias de la productividad y elpago a los “factores productivos”; a la posesión de capital humano; a laheterogeneidad de la estructura productiva y de empleo; a las estructurasfamiliares y sus tasas de dependencia; a las estructuras impositivas y degasto social; a las discriminaciones socio-culturales; y a los poderes delos agentes en el mercado y en la fijación de las reglas que encuadransu accionar. Finalmente, concluye en la multiplicidad de factores queintervienen para producir la desigualdad.En cuanto a los énfasis que el trabajo quiere destacar, está, primero, elde la fuerte relación entre concentración patrimonial o de la riqueza conla distribución del ingreso; segundo...

The Electoral Politics of Vulnerability and the Incentives to Cast an Economic Vote

Singer, Matthew McMinn
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 2480669 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 16/10/2007 Português
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The relationship between economic performance and support for the incumbent government varies across voters and electoral contexts. While some of this variation can be explained by factors that make it easier or harder to hold politicians accountable, an additional explanation is that the electoral importance of economic issues varies systematically across groups and contexts. Because issues that are personally important tend to be more easily accessible when voting, we prose that exposure to economic shocks generates higher incentives to place more weight on economic conditions when voting. We test this hypothesis using archived and original survey data from Argentina, Mexico, and Peru. The analysis demonstrates that economic vulnerability enhances the economy's salience. Specifically, poverty generates incentives to cast an egotropic vote while wealth, insecure employment, informal employment, and exclusion from governments welfare programs enhances sociotropic voting because these groups have greater stakes in the national economy. By implication, elections in developing countries with large numbers of vulnerable voters should be more strongly contested over economics despite the weak institutional environment that potentially undermines the ability of voters to hold politicians accountable. Aggregate elections returns and the CSES survey support this proposition and demonstrate that economic voting is substantially more common in Latin American than in Western Europe or North America. Thus variations in economic voting provide opportunities to not only learn about the conditions under which elections can serve as mechanisms of accountability but also a laboratory to model the process of preference formation and the demands voters place on their representatives.; Dissertation

Book review: the UK, with its sophisticated system of media regulation and the respect and popularity of the BBC, is a model of broadcasting from which Brazil can learn

Dinneen, Mark
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/08/2012 Português
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In this recent book, Carolina Matos considers how the media might enhance democracy and development in Latin America, and how public service broadcasting can play a vital part in the process. Mark Dinneen sees it as essential reading for all those studying the Latin American media, but it is also likely to be of interest to many with a general interest in media systems or in Latin American politics. Media and Politics in Latin America: Globalization, Democracy and Identity. Carolina Matos. I.B.Tauris. November 2011.

Book review: America’s blind spot: Chávez, oil and US security

Boscan, Luis
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/05/2013 Português
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Latin America holds some of the world’s biggest oil reserves, but unstable political events in the region are hindering its potential, especially in Venezuela. Global U.S. security would benefit from a revamping of outdated policies towards Latin America, argue Andrés Cala and Michael Economides. This is a blind spot in American politics, one that threatens U.S. geopolitical and economic interests. In this book, the authors aim to offer a thorough analysis of key geopolitical and economic threats to the U.S., highlighting the need for a new Latin American policy doctrine based on military and strategic priorities. Reviewed by Luis Boscán. America’s Blind Spot: Chávez, Oil and US Security. Andrés Cala and Michael Economides. Continuum Books. 2012

Multilayered international parliamentarism: the case of EU-Brazil relations

Jancic, Davor
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2014 Português
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Challenging the predominant scholarly focus on international parliamentary institutions as the sole and sufficient object of inquiry into the global role of parliaments, this article argues that international interparliamentary relations do not occur merely within isolated forums, but may and do de facto evolve in layers of overlapping forums whenever circumstances allow it. This article conceptualises multilayered international parliamentarism as developing in webs of formal and informal linkages between the same parliamentary institutions in a variety of bilateral and multilateral frameworks regarding the same region. To this end, I conduct an in-depth case study of bilateral and multilateral relations between the parliaments of the EU and Brazil through the lens of institutional arrangements as well as by examining the reaction of the Brazilian and certain other Latin American parliaments to the EU’s Returns Directive. The analysis shows that intensified international contacts among parliamentarians accentuate the deliberative function of parliaments and foster their ‘diplomatic’ actorship in foreign affairs in a concerted attempt to counterbalance globalisation-propelled ‘negotiated democracy’ nurtured by intergovernmental and transgovernmental ways of doing politics and making law.

Optimism betrayed: The golden age of Mexican-Spanish relations, 1931-1939.

Pliego-Moreno, Ivan Hilmardel
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 Português
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Mexico and Spain have had a long and complex relationship since the former achieved independence from the latter at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1836, yet it took almost a century before relations became meaningful and mutually beneficial. The establishment of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931 signified a new era in Spanish politics, and Spain's foreign policy towards the Americas adopted a more pragmatic and progressive approach. In particular, this led to a new era in transatlantic relations towards Mexico. During the next five years, Spain and Mexico developed amicable and cooperative social, economic and political ties. The military uprising in Spain in the summer of 1936 put the Spanish Republic's international relations to the test, revealing her true friends and allies. Mexico proved to be, beyond any doubt, Spain's firmest supporter, although the relationship was unable to counterbalance the influence of European Non- Intervention, and American neutrality. Mexican efforts to gather sympathy and support for the Republican cause in the League of Nations had little effect. Mexico, along with the Soviet Union, and the contribution of the International Brigades...

The rules of the game: Allende's Chile, the United States and Cuba, 1970-1973.

Harmer, Tanya
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
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This thesis is an international history of Chile and inter-American relations during the presidency of Salvador Allende. On the one hand, it investigates the impact external actors and international affairs had on Chilean politics up to and immediately following the brutal coup d'etat that overthrew Allende on 11 September 1973. On the other hand, it explores how the rise and fall of Allende's peaceful democratic road to socialism affected the Cold War in Latin America and international affairs beyond. Based on multi-archival research, online resources and interviews conducted in Havana and Santiago, it places Chile - and the regional and international context in which Allende existed - at the heart of a story that has too often been told from Washington's perspective and in isolation from the history of Latin American and Third World politics. It argues that the direct significance Allende's Chile had for Latin America - and more specifically, the Southern Cone - between 1970 and 1973 was to reinvigorate a battle for control of the continent between those who sought socialist revolution and those who wanted to destroy it.

Sumner Welles, postwar planning and the quest for a new world order, 1937-1943.

O'Sullivan, Christopher
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 Português
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Throughout the early years of the Second World War no official better expressed the U.S. desire to reconfigure international politics than Sumner Welles. He had known Franklin Roosevelt since childhood, and entered the diplomatic corps, with Roosevelt's assistance, just prior to American entry into World War One. During the early years of Roosevelt's presidency, Welles served as ambassador to Cuba and assistant secretary of state for Latin America, helping to design the Good Neighbor policy, which he believed essential to his aim of politically and economically integrating Latin America under U.S. hegemony. As under secretary after 1937 Welles became Roosevelt's closest foreign affairs adviser. His 1937 peace program, also known as the Welles plan, represented one of America's most significant international endeavors of the decade, while his 1940 mission to Europe, where he met with Hitler and Mussolini, was Roosevelt's most serious attempt to achieve a negotiated solution to the war. In August of 1941, at the peak of his influence, Welles helped draft the Atlantic Charter, which he sought to define as a declaration extending the Four Freedoms to the entire world. Welles's most significant contribution to American diplomacy came after U.S. entry in the war...

Remittances and votes: Emigrant political participation in Mexico.

Jimenez-Cuen, Adriana
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Few recent studies have shown how Mexico, like many other Latin American countries at the beginning of this century, has adopted new policies and programmes in order to maintain and (re)build economic, social and cultural bonds with its migrant communities in the US, who represent about 15 percent of Mexico's population. Less research has been conducted on the constitutional reforms and electoral laws that allow Mexicans abroad to participate politically in their home country's domestic affairs from afar. Employing a transnationalist approach to international migration and democratization studies, this thesis is the first major study of the politics of Mexican emigration to the US and the impact of migrants' electoral participation in their home country's affairs presented in political and institutional terms. The main question is how and with what consequences did the Mexican state extend formal political membership to its emigrant population both at the national and subnational level. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, this thesis shows that the implementation of emigrants' political rights in Mexico has resulted from cross-border coalition formations between US-based political migrant groups and domestic non-PRI political parties (mainly the centre-left PRD) in a context of democratization and decentralization unfolding in Mexico...

Sexuality, rights and development: Peruvian feminist connections

Williams, Carolyn
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
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This thesis is a study of the ways in which the concept of sexuality changes in meaning over time and as it travels through different Peruvian feminist discursive fields and sites of action. Although academic research on Latin American feminists' politics of sexuality has been very limited to date, their own documents reveal a notable absence of debates on same-sex sexuality within the field of sexual and reproductive rights. Moreover, when same-sex sexuality is incorporated into discourse, conceptualized as lesbian rights, it does not refer to low-income women. This paradox is mirrored in feminist connections with British international development agencies. Combining multisited ethnography with a variety of qualitative research methods, I examine the effects of the shifting meanings and normative assumptions in the deployment of 'sexuality' by key Peruvian feminist individuals and organizations in their work at local, national, regional and global levels. In this thesis I show that feminist discourse on sexual rights is implicitly heteronormative with reference to women in Lima's low-income settlements and related national policy advocacy. This limitation is influenced by and reinforces the discursive and funding pressures emanating from international development agencies. Meanwhile...