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Libya: narrative construction as a driver for international intervention

Pereira, Pascoal Santos
Fonte: Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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The popular uprisings commonly known as Arab Spring have been a challenge for analysts in the field of Political Science and International Politics. Whole populations rose against corrupt and authoritarian political elites which had controlled their lives for too long and eventually achieved their goals at least in Tunisia and Egypt, where the former rulers were removed from power. Some elements of these popular uprisings are striking: the resilience, determination, and peacefulness of the demonstrators; the virtual absence of a recognizable leader or of a defined political project; the gradual contagion effect from these two trendsetters to the whole Maghreb and Middle East; the role played by the media and individual tools of communications in the dissemination of the events; the non-direct interference of external actors on each of the uprisings, with the exception of Libya and Bahrain. The revolution in Libya seems to be somehow dissonant in the creation of a linear narrative around this Arab Spring, since an international military intervention was necessary to stop the slaughter of Libyan civilians at the hand of its own government, which was toppled consequently. But within the framework of international interventions mandated by the United Nations (UN)...

Petrogenesis of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the NW sector of the Gharyan volcanic field, Libya

Lustrino, Michele; Cucciniello, Ciro; Melluso, Leone; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta; de Gennaro, Roberto; Serracino, Marcello
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The north-western sector of the Gharyan volcanic field (northern Libya) consists of trachytic-phonolitic domes emplaced between similar to 41 and 38 Ma, and small-volume mafic alkaline volcanic centres (basanites, tephrites. alkali basalts. hawaiites and rare benmoreites) of Middle Miocene-Pliocene age (similar to 12-2 Ma). Two types of trachytes and phonolites have been recognized on the basis of petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry. Type-1 trachytes and phonolites display a smooth spoon-shaped REE pattern without negative Europium anomalies. Type-2 trachytes and phonolites show a remarkable Eu negative anomaly, higher concentration in HFSE (Nb-Ta-Zr-Hf), REE and Ti than Type-1 rocks. The origin of Type-1 trachytes and phonolites is compatible with removal of clinopyroxene, plagioclase, alkali feldspar, amphibole. magnetite and titanite starting from benmoreitic magmas. found in the same outcrops. Type-2 trachytes and phonolites could be the result of extensive fractional crystallization starting from mafic alkaline magma, without removal of titanite. In primitive mantle-normalized diagrams, the mafic rocks (Mg#= 62-68, Cr up to 514 ppm, Ni up to 425 ppm) show peaks at Nb and Ta and troughs at K. These characteristics, coupled with low Sr-87/Sr-86(i) (0.7033-0.7038) and positive epsilon(Nd) (from +4.2 to + 5.3) features typical of the mafic anorogenic magmas of the northern African plate and of HIMU-OIB-like magma in general. The origin of the mafic rocks is compatible from a derivation from low degree partial melting (3-9%) shallow mantle sources in the spinel/gamet facies. placed just below the rigid plate in the uppermost low-velocity zone. The origin of the igneous activity is considered linked to passive lithospheric thinning related to the development of continental rifts like those of Sicily Channel (e.g.. Pantelleria and Linosa) and Sardinia (e.g....

Breast cancer patients in Libya: Comparison with European and central African patients

BODER, JAMELA MOSTAFA E.; ELMABROUK ABDALLA, FATHI B.; ELFAGEIH, MOHAMED AHMED; ABUSAA, ABUAGELA; BUHMEIDA, ABDELBASET; COLLAN, YRJÖ
Fonte: D.A. Spandidos Publicador: D.A. Spandidos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The present study evaluated the incidence of breast cancer in Libya and described the clinicopathological and demographic features. These features were then compared with corresponding data from patients from sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria) and Europe (Finland). The study consisted of 234 patients with breast carcinoma, admitted to the African Oncology Institute in Sabratha, Libya, during the years 2002–2006. The pathological features were collected from pathology reports, patient histories from hospital files and the Sabratha Cancer Registry. The demographic differences between the Libyan, Nigerian and Finnish populations were prominent. The mean age of breast cancer patients in Libya was 46 years which was almost identical to that of Nigeria, but much lower than that of Finland. The Libyan breast cancer incidence was evaluated as 18.8 per 100,000 female individuals. This incidence was markedly higher in Finland, but was also high in Nigeria. Libyan and Nigerian breast cancer is predominantly of premenopausal type and exhibits unfavorable characteristics such as high histological grade and stage, large tumor size and frequent lymph node metastases. However, the histological types and histopathological risk features show similar importance regarding survival as European breast cancer cases. Survival in Libya ranks between the rates of survival in Nigeria (lowest) and Finland (highest). In conclusion...

Plague Outbreak in Libya, 2009, Unrelated to Plague in Algeria

Cabanel, Nicolas; Leclercq, Alexandre; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Annajar, Badereddin; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Bekkhoucha, Souad; Bertherat, Eric; Carniel, Elisabeth
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2013 Português
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After 25 years of no cases of plague, this disease recurred near Tobruk, Libya, in 2009. An epidemiologic investigation identified 5 confirmed cases. We determined ribotypes, Not1 restriction profiles, and IS100 and IS1541 hybridization patterns of strains isolated during this outbreak. We also analyzed strains isolated during the 2003 plague epidemic in Algeria to determine whether there were epidemiologic links between the 2 events. Our results demonstrate unambiguously that neighboring but independent plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya. They also indicate that these outbreaks were most likely caused by reactivation of organisms in local or regional foci believed to be dormant (Libya) or extinct (Algeria) for decades, rather than by recent importation of Yersinia pestis from distant foci. Environmental factors favorable for plague reemergence might exist in this area and lead to reactivation of organisms in other ancient foci.

Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970–2011

Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin
Fonte: Co-Action Publishing Publicador: Co-Action Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/03/2013 Português
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Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970–2011 using the terms ‘antibiotic resistance in Libya’, ‘antimicrobial resistance in Libya’, ‘tuberculosis in Libya’, and ‘primary and acquired resistance in Libya’ in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54–68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%...

Patterns of inborn errors of metabolism: A 12 year single-center hospital-based study in Libya

AlObaidy, Hanna
Fonte: Bloomsbury Qatar Foundation Journals Publicador: Bloomsbury Qatar Foundation Journals
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/12/2013 Português
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Background: Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are mostly transmitted as autosomal recessive disorders and are therefore more frequent in countries with high consanguinity rates such as in the Arab world. Objective: To study the socio-demographic characteristics and the clinical presentation of IEM in Libyan children and to shed light on our experience in dealing with these disorders. Methods: This is a descriptive case series hospital-based study of 107 children attending the Metabolic Unit at El-Khadra Teaching Hospital (MUKH) in Tripoli, Libya. The study took place between January 2001 and December 2012. Information was collected from caregivers and from all available hospital records on the following variables: age, sex, birth order, place of residence, age at onset, presenting complaints and family history of the same illness. Results: During the 12-year study period, there were 55,422 live births at El-Khadra Teaching Hospital and 107 children were diagnosed with 46 different metabolic disorders. A significantly high consanguinity rate was observed (86.9%) among parents of the affected children. Family history of previous affected children was noted in 63.5% of cases. Male to female ratio was 1.18:1. The most frequent IEM cases were amino acids disorders (25%)...

Sand Dune Ridge Alignment Effects on Surface BRF over the Libya-4 CEOS Calibration Site

Govaerts, Yves M.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/02/2015 Português
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The Libya-4 desert area, located in the Great Sand Sea, is one of the most important bright desert CEOS pseudo-invariant calibration sites by its size and radiometric stability. This site is intensively used for radiometer drift monitoring, sensor intercalibration and as an absolute calibration reference based on simulated radiances traceable to the SI standard. The Libya-4 morphology is composed of oriented sand dunes shaped by dominant winds. The effects of sand dune spatial organization on the surface bidirectional reflectance factor is analyzed in this paper using Raytran, a 3D radiative transfer model. The topography is characterized with the 30 m resolution ASTER digital elevation model. Four different regions-of-interest sizes, ranging from 10 km up to 100 km, are analyzed. Results show that sand dunes generate more backscattering than forward scattering at the surface. The mean surface reflectance averaged over different viewing and illumination angles is pretty much independent of the size of the selected area, though the standard deviation differs. Sun azimuth position has an effect on the surface reflectance field, which is more pronounced for high Sun zenith angles. Such 3D azimuthal effects should be taken into account to decrease the simulated radiance uncertainty over Libya-4 below 3% for wavelengths larger than 600 nm.

Highly-skilled Migration (Libya): Legal aspects

MAGHUR, Azza K.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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Libya, a country that gained independence in 1951, has known only two contradictory regimes: a monarchy from 1951-1969, and a revolution since 1969. With oil as its main source of revenue, and after ten years of UN backed-sanctions, in addition to a decade of public sector dominance, Libya suffers from both brain drain and brain waste. The active Libyan market of today, after its return to the international community, and given decades of economic and administrative instability, requires skilled and unskilled labour. Libya’s labour policies have always been motivated by politics. There has not been a labour strategy, and the need for skilled labour has been a constant in a rich country with only six million inhabitants.Libya today is country full of promise that offers opportunities to its own citizens. It is still, however, unable either to contain brain waste, or to stop brain drain, especially in the medical field. The private sector which has been reactivated after years of public sector dominance is hungry for labour and regulation is imminent. Economic activities, in infrastructure and building for example, need the labour market, private and public, to be properly regulated. La Libye, devenue indépendante en 1951, n’a connu que deux régimes opposés : une monarchie de 1951 à 1969 et une révolution depuis 1969. Avec le pétrole comme principale source de revenu...

Oil Workers, Trade Unions and the Emergence of Oil Nationalism in Libya, 1956-1969

BINI, Elisabetta
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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This paper analyzes the ways in which U.S. oil companies transformed Libya’s economy and society between the Suez Crisis of 1956 and the rise of Muammar Qaddafi’s regime in 1969, as the country became one of the main oil producers in North Africa and the Middle East. It examines the forms of exploitation and resistance that were carried out in American oil fields and the role oil workers had in challenging U.S. labor policies by organizing trade unions, promoting strikes, and sabotaging pipelines. This paper argues that oil workers in Libya challenged the politics of informal empire pursued by U.S. oil companies and shaped the emergence of oil nationalism. They resisted the forms of segregation and discrimination introduced in oil camps and company towns, by demanding the right to redefine labor relations through trade unions. In the early 1960s, a concerted effort led by the Libyan government, conservative Libyan trade unions, the U.S. administration and the main American trade union, the AFL-CIO, marginalized them. Nevertheless, during the Six Day War of 1967, oil workers constituted one of the main forces behind Libya’s attempt to promote oil nationalism, by placing an embargo on oil exports. By doing so, they set the stage for the emergence of Qaddafi’s regime in 1969.

Regional responses to forced migration : the case of Libya

NITA, Sonja
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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The 2011 Libyan civil war, part of the wider Arab Spring, triggered considerable population displacements. These displacements included both Libyans and third-country nationals fleeing the country by land, air and sea. Data available for spring/summer 2011 shows that an estimated 1,128,985 people left Libya to seek shelter in Tunisia, Egypt, Niger, Algeria, Chad and Sudan as well as in Malta and Italy. Research has, thus far, mainly focused on the response of the international community (UNHCR and IOM, above all), the European Union and individual countries in dealing with large numbers of displaced persons (Kelly and Wadud 2012, Fargues and Fandrich 2012, Tucci 2012, Forced Migration Review 2012). Less attention has been given to those regional entities of which Libya has been a member. These include: the African Union (AU), the League of Arab States (LAS), the Community of Sahel Saharan States (CEN-SAD), the Arab Maghreb Union (AMU), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the Organization for the Islamic Conference (OIC). The aim of this paper is, therefore, to shed light on the (actual and potential) role of these regional organizations in alleviating those fleeing from Libya.; Migration Policy Centre; The MPC is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union

Libya: a contemporary conflict in a failing state

Basic, Alija
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The Arab Spring spread throughout the Middle East and North Africa, and what started in hope quickly devolved into struggles for formal and informal power. Violence in Libya was intensified by institutions’ inabilities to maintain governance, contain violence, and quell the rise of armed groups. Power in Libya is in constant contention by opportunistic tribal and regional militias, Islamist groups, and government and military power brokers. Libya is on the verge of becoming a failed state; allowing Libya to fail will have local, regional, and international repercussions. The challenge is to understand why the loosely formed alliances between government and tribal, regional, and Islamist militias are falling apart. The introduction of the Islamic State in Libya increases the urgency for these disparate groups to resolve their differences. This thesis concludes that Gaddafi nurtured a sentiment of distrust between the people, Islamists, and government institutions. This trust deficit in post-revolutionary Libya has stymied cooperation and progress. Any meaningful solutions will have to address the core issue of social trust, the emergence of the Islamic State, and economic weakness before reconciliation or reforms can occur.

Explaining Humanitarian Intervention in Libya and Non-Intervention in Syria

Hasler, Stefan
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The emergence of the revolutionary movements of the 'Arab Spring' in early 2011 surprised the world. For the western democracies the often-violent reaction of the ruling regimes in the concerned countries caused political and moral challenges. Different approaches are discernible when for the Libyan case the west was willing to intervene against the regime but for the Syrian case no decisive action was taken. This thesis examines the importance and influence of humanitarian interventions in comparison to national geo-strategic interests and the influence of domestic politics. The thesis argues that the three examined western states U.S., Germany and France, acknowledge and stress the normative importance of humanitarian interventions but finally prefer geo-strategic interests and domestic politics. Next to own interests the parameters of the respective conflict are of highest importance as shown by the comparison of the political, social and military framework of Syria and Libya. The thesis concludes that normative arguments in international politics are overestimated and dominated by state interests and demands of governments. For western democracies normative reasons are of theoretical importance and part of their own self-awareness but in realpolitik their influence is minuscule.; Outstanding Thesis; Major (GS)...

The Alliance Decides the Mission? Multilateral Decision Making at the UN and NATO on Libya, 2010-2011

Lawrence, David F.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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The UN Security Council quickly authorized the use of force, and NATO allies speedily took action in March of 2011 to prevent a potential humanitarian crisis in Libya when it appeared to the international community that civil protest would be met with state sponsored violence on the level of genocide. How did the multilateral decision making processes in NATO and the UN, two separate but related organizations, work in this case What forces led to a slow or fast decision What factors contributed to international support for intervention, and what was the character of politics that led to action The underlying multilateral decision making framework of each organization, a function of structure and original design, will be investigated and compared in light of an historical and in-depth study on multilateralism. Within the contemporary crisis management mindset of the last twenty years, it is easily forgotten that these organizations were created for other purposes. Their raison d'tre was the prevention of catastrophic world war amongst great powers, not the management of small-scale crises or humanitarian interventions. Thus, their decision making in crisis management is blunt. Libya stands out as an exceptional case, with potential future implications on the use of force.; Major...

Carrots or sticks? Libya and U.S. efforts to influence rogue states

Calabrese, Jamie Ann.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 109 p. ;
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Dramatic changes in the international system since the early nineties, namely the end of the Cold War and the post-9/11 ascendancy of the Bush Doctrine, have left many to wonder whether Cold War era influence strategies such as deterrence, compellence, and engagement are viable against new U.S. threats-rogue states. This thesis will examine U.S. efforts between 1986 and 2004 to convince Libya to cease its support for international terrorism and weapons of mass destruction (WMD). U.S. influence strategy towards Libya was a short term failure and a long term success. The compellence and deterrence policies established by President Reagan and strengthened by later administrations served to isolate Libya economically and diplomatically and set the conditions for successful conditional engagement. Positive behavior change by Libya began first with the Clinton Administration's introduction of conditional engagement. The Bush Administration, benefiting from years of Libyan isolation and the positive response to conditional engagement, continued to engage Libya in an incremental fashion. Libya renounced its terrorist ties in August 2003 and weapons of mass destruction in December 2003. Since then Tripoli has taken actionable steps to verify this change of policy and both governments are currently on course for reconciliation.

'Tesco for terrorists' reconsidered : arms and conflict dynamics in Libya and in the Sahara-Sahel region

STRAZZARI, Francesco; THOLENS, Simone
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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How does arms availability affect armed conflict? What implications does increased arms availability have for the organisation of armed groups involved in war against the state? This article explores these questions by looking into the civil war in Libya and the subsequent proliferation of weapons in the broader Sahel/North Africa region. Its argument is based on secondary sources : online databases, international organisations reports and news media. First, we examine the question of firearms in Libya in order to understand how changing conditions of weapons availability affected the formation of armed groups during different phases of war hostilities (February-October 2011). We highlight that, as weapons became more readily available to fighters in the field during this period, a process of fragmentation occurred, hindering efforts to build mechanisms that would allow control of the direction of the revolutionary armed movement. Next, as security continued to be a primary challenge in the new Libya, we consider the way in which unaccountable firearms and light weapons have affected the post-war landscape in the period from October 2011 to the end of 2013. Finally, we put the regional and international dimensions under scrutiny, and consider how the proliferation of weapons to nearby insurgencies and armed groups has raised major concern among Libya's neighbours. Short of establishing any causal relationship Italic stricto sensu ...

Promoting the responsibility to protect : the way forward after Libya

Aharoni, Bechor
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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This report presents a range of criticisms of the Responsibility to Protect that arose in the aftermath of the 2011 international intervention in Libya. It evaluates the negative implications of these criticisms for the continued development and effectiveness of the Responsibility to Protect as an international norm, and proposes measures to address them. The research demonstrates that there are two broad categories into which the criticisms of the Responsibility to Protect may be divided. The first set of criticisms, voiced by a small number of states, rejects the idea of the Responsibility to Protect on the grounds that it is an illegitimate violation of the principle of state sovereignty. The second set of criticisms, which have resurfaced with greater force following the intervention in Libya, accepts the Responsibility to Protect in principle, but argues that it is susceptible to being abused when applied in practice. While rejecting the first set of criticisms, the report shows that the second set carries significant force. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that these criticisms have damaged the legitimacy of the Responsibility to Protect, and have made states reluctant to invoke the norm in relation to new situations of mass atrocities...

Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Libya Country Report

Hamdy, Amr
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev) - supported survey of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. Libya boasts the highest literacy rate in the Arab world, and the United Nations (UN's) Human Development Index, which ranks standard of living, social security, health care and other factors for development, places Libya at the top of all African countries. Government reform plans in developing ICT infrastructure in Libya and incorporating ICT in education as key components in its overall development plans. Libya has intentions to be seen taking a leadership role on the African continent through sponsorship of major initiatives and projects, including those in the neighboring countries of Chad, Niger, and Rwanda. That said, the challenges of poor existing infrastructure and a lack of skilled and ICT-equipped teachers is a great challenge to the current reform process.

PubMed Medical publications from Libya

Bakoush, O; Al-Tubuly, AA; Ashammakhi, N; Elkhammas, EA
Fonte: CoAction Publishing Publicador: CoAction Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/2007 Português
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Medical research and publications are the back-bone for advancing the medical field. We identified the Pubmed medical publications that are affiliated with Libya to shed some light on the contribution of this country's medical community to the PubMed database. All publications affiliated with Libya in the PubMed were counted over a five year period ending December 2006. We also used the same method to obtain data on the PubMed medical publications from Tunisia, Morocco and Yemen. Tunisia had the largest number of PubMed publications among the studied countries: 20.4 publications per million population per year and 7.2 publications per year per one billion US$ GDP. Libya had much fewer publications: 2.4 publications per million population per year and 0.4 publications per one billion US$ GDP. The citation frequency for Libyan published research was very low compared to Tunisian and Moroccan related research. Conclusion: This preliminary analysis shows that medical research output in Libya is about twenty times less than in other countries with similar backgrounds, and that it needs to be enhanced.

Childhood Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Libya: Epidemiological and Clinical features

Ahmaida, AI; Al-Shaikhi, SA
Fonte: CoAction Publishing Publicador: CoAction Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2009 Português
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Background & Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease is thought to be rare in Libya. The aim is to determine the prevalence of juvenile onset inflammatory bowel disease in Libya. Setting: Al-Fateh childrens' hospital, Benghazi, Libya. Methods: This is a retrospective study of all cases diagnosed over 10 years (1997–2006) with either ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease or indeterminate colitis. Inclusion criteria were age <15 years at time of presentation who were resident in the eastern part of the country and who diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical features were outlined using a proforma. Results: Sixteen cases were diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease, of whom 11 were males (M:F ratio of 1.5:1). The prevalence and incidence rates in the year 2006 were 3.6 and 0.9 per 100,000 children, respectively. The incidence rate increased from 0.2 in 2002 to 0.9 in 2006 (Z score of 39.87, p= 0.00). The age at presentation ranged from 5 months to 14 years. Nine had Crohn's disease (6 males) and 6 had ulcerative colitis (4 males). One patient had indeterminate colitis. The most common clinical features were diarrhea in 10 (62.5%), abdominal pain, anorexia and weight loss in 9 (56.2%), anemia in 7 (43.75%) and vomiting in 6 (37%). Ileopancolitis was found in 3 patients whereas 6 patients had ileocecal disease. Conclusions: Childhood inflammatory bowel disease in this population is not so rare and it is increasing. The clinical pattern is similar to that reported by others.

Planeamento urbano na Libia entre a realidade e as perspectivas. Estudo de caso: região de Benghazi e sub-região de Al Jabal Al Akhdar

Taha, Mohamed Hamed Mohamed
Fonte: Repositório Científico Lusófona Publicador: Repositório Científico Lusófona
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
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O estudo tem como objectivo identificar o impacto da disseminação da construção urbana não prevista nos programas de planeamento urbano e de desenvolvimento regional da região de Al Jabal Al Akhdar, considerada como a província mais importante e distinta do resto das províncias do país pela particularidade das suas características ambientais naturais, e destaca as reformas do planeamento urbano na Líbia e as mais importantes etapas experimentadas pelas partes interessadas nesta área, como evidenciam as legislações e ferramentas aplicadas no domínio do planeamento urbano e regional. Este estudo é uma extensão do esforço do autor de preparação e de análise das informações de leitura para a Autoridade do Planeamento Urbano (UPA) onde se verificou uma grande prevalência da construção urbana não planificada resultando de vários problemas que afectaram os planos regionais e urbanos preparados para o desenvolvimento da região Al Jabal Al Akhdar. Vários factores sociais, económicos e políticos contribuíram para a propagação da construção urbana à volta das cidades, com diferentes padrões contrários às normas e formas de design urbano planificado, em termos de estrutura urbana externa e interna, bem como a distribuição de uso das terras...