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A Novel Efflux System in Inducibly Erythromycin-Resistant Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes

Giovanetti, Eleonora; Brenciani, Andrea; Burioni, Roberto; Varaldo, Pietro Emanuele
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2002 Português
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Streptococcus pyogenes strains inducibly resistant (iMLS phenotype) to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLS) antibiotics can be subdivided into three phenotypes: iMLS-A, iMLS-B, and iMLS-C. This study focused on inducibly erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes strains of the iMLS-B and iMLS-C types, which are very similar and virtually indistinguishable in a number of phenotypic and genotypic features but differ clearly in their degree of resistance to MLS antibiotics (high in the iMLS-B type and low in the iMLS-C type). As expected, the iMLS-B and iMLS-C test strains had the erm(A) methylase gene; the iMLS-A and the constitutively resistant (cMLS) isolates had the erm(B) methylase gene; and a control M isolate had the mef(A) efflux gene. mre(A) and msr(A), i.e., other macrolide efflux genes described in gram-positive cocci, were not detected in any test strain. With a radiolabeled erythromycin method for determination of the intracellular accumulation of the drug in the absence or presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, active efflux of erythromycin was observed in the iMLS-B isolates as well as in the M isolate, whereas no efflux was demonstrated in the iMLS-C isolates. By the triple-disk (erythromycin plus clindamycin and josamycin) test...

Binary system for selective photoaffinity labeling of base excision repair DNA polymerases

Lavrik, Olga I.; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M.; Prasad, Rajendra; Sobol, Robert W.; Wilson, Samuel H.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/07/2002 Português
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A system of photoaffinity reagents for selective labeling of DNA polymerases in extracts has been examined. To create the photoreactive DNA probe in situ, DNA substrates containing a synthetic abasic site are incubated in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cellular extract in the presence of base-substituted arylazido derivatives of dNTPs. This results in synthesis of a photoreactive long patch base excision repair (BER) intermediate. The arylazido photoreactive group is then activated through energy transfer from the pyrene group of a dNTP analog (Pyr-dUTP), following 365 nm UV light exposure. Pyr-dUTP binds to the active site of DNA polymerases, and the pyrene group, when excited by 365 nm UV light, activates the nearby photoreactive group in the BER intermediate resulting in crosslinking of DNA-bound DNA polymerases. Under these conditions, various DNA binding proteins that are unable to bind Pyr-dUTP are not crosslinked to DNA. DNA polymerase β is the predominant crosslinked protein observed in the MEF extract. In contrast, several other DNA binding proteins are labeled under conditions of direct UV light activation of the photoreactive group at 312 nm. This study illustrates use of a new method of selective labeling of DNA polymerases in a crude cellular extract.

CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein α Interacts with ZTA and Mediates ZTA-Induced p21CIP-1 Accumulation and G1 Cell Cycle Arrest during the Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Cycle

Wu, Frederick Y.; Chen, Honglin; Wang, Shizhen Emily; apRhys, Collette M. J.; Liao, Gangling; Fujimuro, Masahiro; Farrell, Christopher J.; Huang, Jian; Hayward, S. Diane; Hayward, Gary S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2003 Português
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Cellular CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) promotes cellular differentiation and has antimitotic activities involving cell cycle arrest at G1/S through stabilization of p21CIP-1/WAF1 and through transcriptional activation of the p21 promoter. The Epstein-Barr virus lytic-cycle transactivator protein ZTA is known to arrest the host cell cycle at G1/S via a p53-independent p21 pathway, but the detailed molecular mechanisms involved have not been defined. To further evaluate the role of ZTA in cell cycle arrest, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus vector expressing ZTA (Ad-ZTA), whose level of expression at a low multiplicity of infection in normal human diploid fibroblast (HF) cells was lower than or equal to the physiological level seen in Akata cells lytically induced by EBV (EBV-Akata cells). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of HF cells infected with Ad-ZTA confirmed that G1/S cell cycle arrest occurred in the majority of ZTA-positive cells, but not with an adenovirus vector expressing green fluorescent protein. Double-label immunofluorescence assays (IFA) performed with Ad-ZTA-infected HF cells revealed that only ZTA-positive cells induced the expression of both endogenous C/EBPα and p21 and blocked the progression into S phase...

Alphavirus Minus-Strand Synthesis and Persistence in Mouse Embryo Fibroblasts Derived from Mice Lacking RNase L and Protein Kinase R

Sawicki, Dorothea L.; Silverman, Robert H.; Williams, Bryan R.; Sawicki, Stanley G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2003 Português
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We report our studies to probe the possible role of the host response to double-stranded RNA in cessation of alphavirus minus-strand synthesis. Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) from Mx1-deficient mice that also lack either the protein kinase R (PKR) or the latent RNase L or both PKR and RNase L were screened. In RNase L-deficient but not wild-type or PKR-deficient MEF, there was continuous synthesis of minus-strand templates and the formation of new replication complexes producing viral plus strands. Inhibiting translation caused minus-strand synthesis to stop and a loss of transcription activity of the mature replication complexes. This turnover of replication complexes that were stable in cells containing RNase L suggested that RNase L plays some role, albeit possibly indirect, in the formation of stable replication complexes during alphavirus infection. In addition, confluent monolayers of RNase L-deficient murine cells readily established persistent infections and were not killed. This phenotype is contrary to what has been observed for infection in vertebrate cells with a presumably functional RNase L gene and more resembled alphavirus replication in Aedes mosquito cells, in which the activity of replication complexes making plus stands was also found to decay with inhibition of translation.

Loss of Oncogenic H-ras-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation by Disruption of Gadd45a

Bulavin, Dmitry V.; Kovalsky, Oleg; Hollander, M. Christine; Fornace Jr., Albert J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2003 Português
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The activation of p53 is a guardian mechanism to protect primary cells from malignant transformation; however, the details of the activation of p53 by oncogenic stress are still incomplete. In this report we show that in Gadd45a−/− mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF), overexpression of H-ras activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not p38 kinase, and this correlates with the loss of H-ras-induced cell cycle arrest (premature senescence). Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation correlated with the deregulation of p53 activation, and both a p38 MAPK chemical inhibitor and the expression of a dominant-negative p38α inhibited p53 activation in the presence of H-ras in wild-type MEF. p38, but not ERK or JNK, was found in a complex with Gadd45 proteins. The region of interaction was mapped to amino acids 71 to 96, and the central portion (amino acids 71 to 124) of Gadd45a was required for p38 MAPK activation in the presence of H-ras. Our results indicate that this Gadd45/p38 pathway plays an important role in preventing oncogene-induced growth at least in part by regulating the p53 tumor suppressor.

Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Tetracycline- and Erythromycin-Resistant Strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Montanari, Maria P.; Cochetti, Ileana; Mingoia, Marina; Varaldo, Pietro E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2003 Português
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Sixty-five clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, all collected in Italy between 1999 and 2002 and resistant to both tetracycline (MIC, ≥8 μg/ml) and erythromycin (MIC, ≥1 μg/ml), were investigated. Of these strains, 11% were penicillin resistant and 23% were penicillin intermediate. With the use of the erythromycin-clindamycin-rokitamycin triple-disk test, 14 strains were assigned to the constitutive (cMLS) phenotype of macrolide resistance, 44 were assigned to the partially inducible (iMcLS) phenotype, 1 was assigned to the inducible (iMLS) phenotype, and 6 were assigned to the efflux-mediated (M) phenotype. In PCR assays, 64 of the 65 strains were positive for the tetracycline resistance gene tet(M), the exception being the one M isolate susceptible to kanamycin, whereas tet(K), tet(L), and tet(O) were never found. All cMLS, iMcLS, and iMLS isolates had the erythromycin resistance gene erm(B), and all M phenotype isolates had the mef(A) or mef(E) gene. No isolate had the erm(A) gene. The int-Tn gene, encoding the integrase of the Tn916-Tn1545 family of conjugative transposons, was detected in 62 of the 65 test strains. Typing assays showed the strains to be to a great extent unrelated. Of 16 different serotypes detected...

Cloning and characterization of a novel macrolide efflux gene, mreA, from Streptococcus agalactiae.

Clancy, J; Dib-Hajj, F; Petitpas, J W; Yuan, W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1997 Português
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A strain of Streptococcus agalactiae displayed resistance to 14-, 15-, and 16-membered macrolides. In PCR assays, total genomic DNA from this strain contained neither erm nor mef genes. EcoRI-digested genomic DNA from this strain was cloned into lambda Zap II to construct a library of S. agalactiae genomic DNA. A clone, pAES63, expressing resistance to erythromycin, azithromycin, and spiramycin in Escherichia coli was recovered. Deletion derivatives of pAES63 which defined a functional region on this clone that encoded resistance to 14- and 15-membered, but not 16-membered, macrolides were produced. Studies that determined the levels of incorporation of radiolabelled erythromycin into E. coli were consistent with the presence of a macrolide efflux determinant. This putative efflux determinant was distinct from the recently described Mef pump in Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae and from the multicomponent MsrA pump in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Its gene has been designated mreA (for macrolide resistance efflux).

ΔNp73 Facilitates Cell Immortalization and Cooperates with Oncogenic Ras in Cellular Transformation In Vivo

Petrenko, Oleksi; Zaika, Alexander; Moll, Ute M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2003 Português
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TP73, despite significant homology to TP53, is not a classic tumor suppressor gene, since it exhibits upregulation of nonmutated products in human tumors and lacks a tumor phenotype in p73-deficient mice. We recently reported that an N-terminally truncated isoform, ΔNp73, is upregulated in breast and gynecological cancers. We further showed that ΔNp73 is a potent transdominant inhibitor of wild-type p53 and TAp73 in cultured human tumor cells by efficiently counteracting their target gene transactivations, apoptosis, and growth suppression functions (A. I. Zaika et al., J. Exp. Med. 6:765-780, 2002). Although these data strongly suggest oncogenic properties of ΔNp73, this can only be directly shown in primary cells. We report here that ΔNp73 confers resistance to spontaneous replicative senescence of primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and immortalizes MEFs at a 1,000-fold-higher frequency than occurs spontaneously. ΔNp73 cooperates with cMyc and E1A in promoting primary cell proliferation and colony formation and compromises p53-dependent MEF apoptosis. Importantly, ΔNp73 rescues Ras-induced senescence. Moreover, ΔNp73 cooperates with oncogenic Ras in transforming primary fibroblasts in vitro and in inducing MEF-derived fibrosarcomas in vivo in nude mice. Wild-type p53 is likely a major target of ΔNp73 inhibition in primary fibroblasts since deletion of p53 or its requisite upstream activator ARF abrogates the growth-promoting effect of ΔNp73. Taken together...

Gene Expression Profiling of Embryo-Derived Stem Cells Reveals Candidate Genes Associated With Pluripotency and Lineage Specificity

Tanaka, Tetsuya S.; Kunath, Tilo; Kimber, Wendy L.; Jaradat, Saied A.; Stagg, Carole A.; Usuda, Masayuki; Yokota, Takashi; Niwa, Hitoshi; Rossant, Janet; Ko, Minoru S.H.
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2002 Português
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Large-scale gene expression profiling was performed on embryo-derived stem cell lines to identify molecular signatures of pluripotency and lineage specificity. Analysis of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells, extraembryonic-restricted trophoblast stem (TS) cells, and terminally-differentiated mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cells identified expression profiles unique to each cell type, as well as genes common only to ES and TS cells. Whereas most of the MEF-specific genes had been characterized previously, the majority (67%) of the ES-specific genes were novel and did not include known differentiated cell markers. Comparison with microarray data from embryonic material demonstrated that ES-specific genes were underrepresented in all stages sampled, whereas TS-specific genes included known placental markers. Investigation of four novel TS-specific genes showed trophoblast-restricted expression in cell lines and in vivo, whereas one uncharacterized ES-specific gene, Esg-1, was found to be exclusively associated with pluripotency. We suggest that pluripotency requires a set of genes not expressed in other cell types, whereas lineage-restricted stem cells, like TS cells, express genes predictive of their differentiated lineage.

Synergistic interactions between heterologous upstream activation elements and specific TATA sequences in a muscle-specific promoter.

Grayson, J; Williams, R S; Yu, Y T; Bassel-Duby, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1995 Português
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Previous investigations have defined three upstream activation elements--CCAC, A/T, and TATA sequences--necessary for muscle-specific transcription of the myoglobin gene. In the present study, we demonstrate that these three sequences elements, prepared as synthetic oligonucleotide cassettes, function synergistically to constitute a cell-type-specific transcription unit. Previously, cognate binding factors that recognize the CCAC and TATA elements were identified. In this study we determine that the A/T element binds two nuclear factors, including myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF-2) and an apparently unknown factor we provisionally termed ATF35 (A/T-binding factor, 35 kDa). Mutations that alter in vitro binding of either MEF-2 or ATF35 to this site diminish promoter function in vivo. Functional synergism between factors binding the CCAC and A/T elements is sensitive to subtle mutations in the TATA sequence, recapitulating the unusual preference for specific TATA variants exhibited by the native myoglobin promoter. These results provide new insights into mechanisms that underlie the distinctive pattern of myoglobin gene regulation in mammalian muscle development and lay a foundation for further studies to elucidate general principles of transcriptional control of complex mammalian promoters through combinatorial actions of heterologous transcriptional factors.

EFIA/YB-1 is a component of cardiac HF-1A binding activity and positively regulates transcription of the myosin light-chain 2v gene.

Zou, Y; Chien, K R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1995 Português
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Transient assays in cultured ventricular muscle cells and studies in transgenic mice have identified two adjacent regulatory elements (HF-1a and HF-1b/MEF-2) as required to maintain ventricular chamber-specific expression of the myosin light-chain 2v (MLC-2v) gene. A rat neonatal heart cDNA library was screened with an HF-1a binding site, resulting in the isolation of EFIA, the rat homolog of human YB-1. Purified recombinant EFIA/YB-1 protein binds to the HF-1a site in a sequence-specific manner and contacts a subset of the HF-1a contact points made by the cardiac nuclear factor(s). The HF-1a sequence contains AGTGG, which is highly homologous to the inverted CCAAT core of the EFIA/YB-1 binding sites and is found to be essential for binding of the recombinant EFIA/YB-1. Antiserum against Xenopus YB-3 (100% identical in the DNA binding domain and 89% identical in overall amino acid sequence to rat EFIA) can specifically abolish a component of the endogenous HF-1a complex in the rat cardiac myocyte nuclear extracts. In cotransfection assays, EFIA/YB-1 increased 250-bp MLC-2v promoter activity by 3.4-fold specifically in the cardiac cell context and in an HF-1a site-dependent manner. EFIA/YB-1 complexes with an unknown protein in cardiac myocyte nuclear extracts to form the endogenous HF-1a binding activity. Immunocoprecipitation revealed that EFIA/YB-1 has a major associated protein of approximately 30 kDa (p30) in cardiac muscle cells. This study suggests that EFIA/YB-1...

Abrogation of simian virus 40 DNA-mediated transformation of primary C57BL/6 mouse embryo fibroblasts by exposure to a simian virus 40-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clone.

Karjalainen, H E; Tevethia, M J; Tevethia, S S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1985 Português
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Primary mouse embryo fibroblasts of C57BL/6 origin (B6/MEF) were transformed in vitro by transfection with simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA. The transformation frequency was markedly reduced if the SV40 DNA-transfected cultures were briefly exposed to K11 cells, an SV40-specific clone of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This abrogation of SV40 transformation in vitro by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clone K11 was specific, since transformation of B6/MEF cells by adenovirus type 5 DNA was not affected. The approach described here should serve as an ideal model of dissecting immunological events during in vivo tumorigenesis.

Otitis media in children: local immune response to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

Faden, H; Brodsky, L; Bernstein, J; Stanievich, J; Krystofik, D; Shuff, C; Hong, J J; Ogra, P L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1989 Português
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Twenty children experienced 30 episodes of otitis media with effusion due to nontypeable (NT) Haemophilus influenzae in the first 2 years of life. The local and systemic immune responses to homologous strains of NT H. influenzae were determined by an immunodot assay. Strain-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody predominated in the middle ear fluid (MEF). It was detected in 91% of the children, compared with IgM in 48% (P less than 0.005), IgA in 52% (P less than 0.005), and secretory IgA in 18% (P less than 0.005). The titer (log2) of NT H. influenzae-specific IgG antibody (mean +/- standard error, 8.2 +/- 0.1) exceeded the titers of IgM (3.4 +/- 0.1), IgA (3.7 +/- 0.1), and secretory IgA (1.2 +/- 0.3). NT H. influenzae-specific antibody was detected exclusively in MEFs of individuals who possessed homologous serum antibody. Although antibody titers in MEF declined over time, serum antibody titers remained stable. These data suggest that immunity to NT H. influenzae in the middle ear, in part, reflects systemic immunity. Whereas local antibody disappears after resolution of the infection, systemic antibody persists.

An M-CAT binding factor and an RSRF-related A-rich binding factor positively regulate expression of the alpha-cardiac myosin heavy-chain gene in vivo.

Molkentin, J D; Markham, B E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1994 Português
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Cardiac muscle-restricted expression of the alpha-myosin heavy-chain (alpha-MHC) gene is regulated by multiple elements in the proximal enhancer/promoter. Within this region, an M-CAT site and an A-rich site were identified as potential regulatory elements. Site-specific mutations in each site, individually, reduced activity from the wild-type promoter by approximately 85% in the adult rat heart, demonstrating that these sites were positive regulatory elements. alpha-MHC, beta-MHC, and chicken cardiac troponin T (cTnT) M-CAT sites interacted with an M-CAT-binding factor (MCBF) from rat heart nuclear extracts that was immunologically related to transcriptional enhancer factor 1, a factor that binds within the simian virus 40 enhancer. The factor that bound the A-rich region (ARF) was antigenically related to the RSRF family of proteins, ARF was distinct from myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2 (MEF-2) on the basis of DNA-binding specificity and developmental expression. Like MEF-2, ARF DNA-binding activity was present in the heart and brain; however, no ARF activity was detected in extracts from skeletal muscle or C2C12 myotubes. MCBF and ARF DNA-binding activities were developmentally regulated with peak levels in the 1- to 2-day neonatal heart. The activity of both factors increased nearly fivefold in adult rat hearts subjected to a pressure overload. By comparison...

Detection of Multiple Macrolide- and Lincosamide-Resistant Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes from Patients in the Boston Area

Hasenbein, Meredith E.; Warner, John E.; Lambert, Kathleen G.; Cole, Sarah E.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; McAdam, Alexander J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2004 Português
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Macrolide (including erythromycin and azithromycin) and lincosamide (including clindamycin) antibiotics are recommended for treatment of penicillin-allergic patients with Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngitis. Resistance to erythromycin in S. pyogenes can be as high as 48% in specific populations in the United States. Macrolide and lincosamide resistance in S. pyogenes is mediated by several different genes. Expression of the erm(A) or erm(B) genes causes resistance to erythromycin and inducible or constitutive resistance to clindamycin, respectively, whereas expression of the mef(A) gene leads to resistance to erythromycin but not clindamycin. We studied the resistance of S. pyogenes to erythromycin and clindamycin at an urban tertiary-care hospital. Of 196 sequential isolates from throat cultures, 15 (7.7%) were resistant to erythromycin. Three of these were also constitutively resistant to clindamycin and had the erm(B) gene. Five of the erythromycin-resistant isolates were resistant to clindamycin upon induction with erythromycin and had the erm(A) gene. The remaining seven erythromycin-resistant isolates were susceptible to clindamycin even upon induction with erythromycin and had the mef(A) gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis and emm typing demonstrated that the erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes comprised multiple strains. These results demonstrate that multiple mechanisms of resistance to macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics are present in S. pyogenes strains in the United States.

Expression of an E1A/E7 Chimeric Protein Sensitizes Tumor Cells to Killing by Activated Macrophages but Not NK Cells

Miura, Tanya A.; Li, Han; Morris, Kristin; Ryan, Sharon; Hembre, Kristine; Cook, James L.; Routes, John M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2004 Português
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Adenovirus (Ad) E1A and human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 express homologous conserved regions (CRs) that mediate their shared biological functions. Despite their similarities, the expression of E1A sensitizes tumor cells to killing by NK cells and macrophages but the expression of E7 does not, a factor that may contribute to the dissimilar oncogenicities of Ad and HPV. This study was undertaken to define molecular differences between E1A and E7 that are responsible for the ability of E1A and the inability of E7 to sensitize cells to killing by NK cells and macrophages. Genetic mapping studies using human fibrosarcoma cells (H4) that stably expressed mutant forms of E1A showed that only those forms of E1A that interacted with the transcriptional coadaptor protein p300 sensitized cells to killing by NK cells and macrophages. E7 lacks the N-terminal p300-binding region present in E1A. Therefore, a chimeric E1A/E7 gene was constructed that included the N terminus and the CR1 (p300-binding) domain of E1A fused to CR2 and the C-terminal sequences of E7. The E1A/E7 protein interacted with p300 and pRb and immortalized primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF). The expression of E1A/E7 sensitized H4 and MEF cells to killing by activated macrophages but not to killing by NK cells. Therefore...

Cyclin G is a transcriptional target of the p53 tumor suppressor protein.

Okamoto, K; Beach, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/10/1994 Português
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Through a PCR-based differential screening method, cyclin G was identified as a novel transcriptional target of the p53 tumor suppressor gene product. In both a mouse p53 temperature-sensitive leukemic cell line and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) after gamma-irradiation, cyclin G mRNA was rapidly induced. MEF from a p53-deficient mouse expressed cyclin G at a level > 10-fold lower than that from a wild-type mouse. Using a DNA binding assay, a specific p53 binding site was identified upstream from the cyclin G gene, which functioned as a p53-dependent cis-acting element in a transient transfection assay. These results suggest that cyclin G might participate in a p53-mediated pathway to prevent tumorigenesis.

Abortive Infection of Human Diploid Cells by Murine Cytomegalovirus

Kim, Kwang Soo; Carp, Richard I.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1972 Português
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Inoculation of human diploid cells (WI-38) with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) did not result in the synthesis of any infectious virions. However, morphological changes typical of the cytopathic effects (CPE) of MCMV were detectable within 12 hr of infection. The CPE included rounding, swelling, and detachment of cells. The nuclei of infected cells were enlarged, and intranuclear inclusions were visible by May Grunwald-Giemsa staining and by the indirect fluorescent-antibody test. All cells infected at a multiplicity of infection of 3 showed CPE, and these cells could not be passaged successfully. Cell lysates and exhausted media from infected WI-38 cultures did not produce any CPE in WI-38 cells. The virus absorbed to WI-38 cells with the same efficiency as to mouse embryo fibroblast cells (MEF). Samples of MCMV in which virus infectivity for MEF cells had been inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation or by exposure to 56 C failed to produce any of the above signs. MCMV-specific CPE did not occur in the presence of actinomycin D (1 μg/ml) or puromycin (20 μg/ml), but 5′-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine at 1 × 10−4m did not prevent CPE or the development of intranuclear inclusions.

Interaction of Staphylococcal Exfoliative Toxin with Concanavalin A

Rogolsky, Marvin; Wiley, Bill B.; Keyhani, Massoud; Glasgow, Lowell A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1974 Português
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Treatment of mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) grown in vitro with purified staphylococcal exfoliative toxin (ET) increased the concanavalin A (Con A) agglutinability of MEF 3.5-fold over control cells. Possible explanations for this phenomenon were investigated. ET lacked proteolytic activity on denatured casein. Con A, however, was found to interact directly with ET as evidenced by the formation of precipitation in an agar gel diffusion plate and in increased turbidity in solution. This interaction was inhibited by α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside. The ability of Con A to precipitate with ET suggests that the toxin contains a carbohydrate component and that the carbohydrate associated with ET is branched rather than linear. An analysis of a purified preparation of ET indicated the presence of 9% carbohydrate and no lipid.

Lung mechanics in subjects showing increased residual volume without bronchial obstruction.

Vulterini, S; Bianco, M R; Pellicciotti, L; Sidoti, A M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1980 Português
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Fourteen subjects showing an increase of residual volume (RV) without any clinical or functional signs of bronchial obstruction were studied. Maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curves were obtained with a pressure-corrected volume plethysmograph. Static pressure-volume curves were obtained by stepwise interruption of a slow expiration from total lung capacity (TLC) to RV. Static compliance was measured by the slope of pressure-volume curve between functional residual capacity (FRC) and FRC+20% of TLC. Maximum flow static recoil (MFSR) curves were constructed by plotting MEF obtained from MEFV curves against elastic pressure (Pst) obtained from pressure-volume curves at the same lung volumes. Most patients demonstrated a decrease of MEF 50% and 25% of VC. From the MFSR curves it was clear that this reduction was not the result of increased airways resistance, but rather of loss of elastic recoil. Most patients showed a significant decrease of Pst at different volumes and changes seem likely to be evidence of emphysema.