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Cell lines from mouse embryos with early embryonic lethality

Howerton, Kyle; Schlaepfer, David D; Ilic, Dusko
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2008 Português
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It is often difficult to determine molecular mechanisms leading to early embryonic lethality of genetically modified mice due to lack of cells for further analyses. We describe here establishment of mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines from gastrulation stage embryos. In this example, using a combination of in vivo and in vitro techniques, we successfully generated MEF cell lines that lack both fibronectin (FN) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK).

Identification of mRNAs that are spliced but not exported to the cytoplasm in the absence of THOC5 in mouse embryo fibroblasts

Guria, Anuja; Tran, Doan Duy Hai; Ramachandran, Sheetal; Koch, Alexandra; El Bounkari, Omar; Dutta, Priyanka; Hauser, Hansjörg; Tamura, Teruko
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2011 Português
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The TREX (transcription/export) complex has been conserved throughout evolution from yeast to man and is required for coupled transcription elongation and nuclear export of mRNAs. The TREX complex in mammals and Drosophila is composed of the THO subcomplex (THOC1, THOC2, THOC5, THOC6, and THOC7), THOC3, UAP56, and Aly/THOC4. In human and Drosophila, various studies have shown that THO is required for the export of heat shock mRNAs, but nothing is known about other mRNAs. Our previous study using conditional THOC5 (or FMIP) knockout mice revealed that the presence of THOC5 is critical in hematopoietic cells but not for terminally differentiated cells. In this study, we describe the establishment of a mouse embryo fibroblast cell line (MEF), THOC5 flox/flox. Four days after infection of MEF THOC5 flox/flox with adenovirus carrying Cre-recombinase gene (Ad-GFP-Cre), THOC5 is down-regulated >95% at the protein level, and cell growth is strongly suppressed. Transcriptome analysis using cytoplasmic RNA isolated from cells lacking functional THOC5 reveals that only 2.9% of all genes were down-regulated more than twofold. Although we examined these genes in fibroblasts, one-fifth of all down-regulated genes (including HoxB3 and polycomb CBX2) are known to play a key role in hematopoietic development. We further identified 10 genes that are spliced but not exported to the cytoplasm in the absence of THOC5. These mRNAs were copurified with THOC5. Furthermore...

Carcinogen-induced squamous papillomas and oncogenic progression in the absence of the SSeCKS/AKAP12 metastasis suppressor correlates with FAK upregulation

Akakura, Shin; Bouchard, Rene; Bshara, Wiam; Morrison, Carl; Gelman, Irwin H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The ability of SSeCKS/Gravin/AKAP12 (SSeCKS) to negatively regulate cell cycle progression is thought to relate to its spatiotemporal scaffolding activity for key signaling molecules such as protein kinase A and C, calmodulin, and cyclins. SSeCKS is downregulated upon progression to malignancy in many cancer types, including melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. The forced re-expression of SSeCKS is especially potent in suppressing metastasis through the inhibition of VEGF-mediated neovascularization. We have previously shown that SSeCKS-null (KO) mice exhibit hyperplasia and focal dysplasia in the prostate marked by activated Akt. To address whether KO-mice exhibit increased skin carcinogenesis, WT and KO C57BL/6 mice were treated topically with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene. Compared to WT mice, KO mice developed squamous papillomas more rapidly and in greater numbers, and also exhibited significantly increased progression to squamous cell carcinoma. Untreated KO epidermal layers were thicker than those in age-matched WT mice, and exhibited significantly increased levels of FAK and phospho-ERK1/2, known mediators of carcinogen-induced squamous papilloma progression to carcinoma. Compared to protein levels in WT mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF)...

Isolation and Characterization of Human Trophoblast Side-Population (SP) Cells in Primary Villous Cytotrophoblasts and HTR-8/SVneo Cell Line

Takao, Tomoka; Asanoma, Kazuo; Kato, Kiyoko; Fukushima, Kotaro; Tsunematsu, Ryosuke; Hirakawa, Toshio; Matsumura, Sueo; Seki, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Satoru; Wake, Norio
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/07/2011 Português
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Recently, numerous studies have identified that immature cell populations including stem cells and progenitor cells can be found among “side-population” (SP) cells. Although SP cells isolated from some adult tissues have been reported elsewhere, isolation and characterization of human trophoblast SP remained to be reported. In this study, HTR-8/SVneo cells and human primary villous cytotrophoblasts (vCTBs) were stained with Hoechst 33342 and SP and non-SP (NSP) fractions were isolated using a cell sorter. A small population of SP cells was identified in HTR-8/SVneo cells and in vCTBs. SP cells expressed several vCTB-specific markers and failed to express syncytiotrophoblast (STB) or extravillous cytotrophopblast (EVT)-specific differentiation markers. SP cells formed colonies and proliferated on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells or in MEF conditioned medium supplemented with heparin/FGF2, and they also showed long-term repopulating property. SP cells could differentiate into both STB and EVT cell lineages and expressed several differentiation markers. Microarray analysis revealed that IL7R and IL1R2 were exclusively expressed in SP cells and not in NSP cells. vCTB cells sorted as positive for both IL7R and IL1R2 failed to express trophoblast differentiation markers and spontaneously differentiated into both STB and EVT in basal medium. These features shown by the SP cells suggested that IL7R and IL1R2 are available as markers to detect the SP cells and that vCTB progenitor cells and trophoblast stem cells were involved in the SP cell population.

Proliferation and Pluripotency of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Maintained on Type I Collagen

Jones, Meredith B.; Chu, Chia H.; Pendleton, James C.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Shiloach, Joseph; Baljinnyam, Bolormaa; Rubin, Jeffrey S.; Shamblott, Michael J.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) require a balance of growth factors and signaling molecules to proliferate and retain pluripotency. Conditioned medium (CM) from a human embryonic germ-cell-derived cell culture, SDEC, was observed to support the growth of hESC on type I collagen (COL I) and on Matrigel (MAT) biomatricies. After 1 month, the population doubling of hESC grown in SDEC CM on COL I was equivalent to that of hESC grown in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) CM on MAT. hESC grown in SDEC CM on COL I expressed OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-4, alkaline phosphatase (AP), and TRA-1-60; retained a normal karyotype; and were capable of forming teratomas. DNA microarray analysis was used to compare the transcriptional profiles of SDEC and the less supportive WI38 and Detroit 551 human cell lines. The mRNA level of secreted frizzled-related protein (sFRP-1), a known antagonist of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, was significantly reduced in SDEC as compared with the other 2 cell lines, whereas the mRNA levels of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2 or COX-2) and prostaglandin I2 synthase (PGIS), two prostaglandin biosynthesis genes, were significantly increased in SDEC. The level of sFRP-1 protein was significantly reduced, and levels of 2 prostaglandins that are downstream products of PTGS2 and PGIS...

The HIV-1-Specific Protein Casp8p41 Induces Death of Infected Cells through Bax/Bak ▿

Sainski, Amy M.; Natesampillai, Sekar; Cummins, Nathan W.; Bren, Gary D.; Taylor, Julie; Saenz, Dyana T.; Poeschla, Eric M.; Badley, Andrew D.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2011 Português
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Casp8p41, a novel protein generated when HIV-1 protease cleaves caspase 8, independently causes NF-κB activation, proinflammatory cytokine production, and cell death. Here we investigate the mechanism by which Casp8p41 induces cell death. Immunogold staining and electron microscopy demonstrate that Casp8p41 localizes to mitochondria of activated primary CD4 T cells, suggesting mitochondrial involvement. Therefore, we assessed the dependency of Casp8p41-induced death on Bax/Bak and caspase 9. In wild-type (WT) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells, Casp8p41 causes rapid mitochondrial depolarization (P < 0.001), yet Casp8p41 expression in Bax/Bak double-knockout (DKO) MEF cells does not. Similarly, caspase 9-deficient T cells (JMR cells), which express Casp8p41, undergo minimal cell death, whereas reconstituting these cells with caspase 9 (F9 cells) restores Casp8p41 cytotoxicity (P < 0.01). The infection of caspase 9-deficient cells with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) HIV-1 reporter virus results in cell death in 32% of infected GFP-positive cells, while the restoration of caspase 9 expression in these cells restores infected-cell killing to 68% (P < 0.05), with similar levels of viral replication between infections. Our data demonstrate that Casp8p41 requires Bax/Bak to induce mitochondrial depolarization...

microRNAs modulate iPS cell generation

Yang, Chao-Shun; Li, Zhonghan; Rana, Tariq M.
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2011 Português
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Although induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for customized regenerative medicine, the molecular basis of reprogramming is largely unknown. Overcoming barriers that maintain cell identities is a critical step in the reprogramming of differentiated cells. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) modulate target genes tissue-specifically, we reasoned that distinct mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)–enriched miRNAs post-transcriptionally modulate proteins that function as reprogramming barriers. Inhibiting these miRNAs should influence cell signaling to lower those barriers. Here we show that depleting miR-21 and miR-29a enhances reprogramming efficiency in MEFs. We also show that the p53 and ERK1/2 pathways are regulated by miR-21 and miR-29a and function in reprogramming. In addition, we provide the first evidence that c-Myc enhances reprogramming partly by repressing MEF-enriched miRNAs, such as miR-21 and miR-29a. Our results demonstrate the significance of miRNA function in regulating multiple signaling networks involved in iPSC generation. These studies should facilitate development of clinically applicable reprogramming strategies.

Feasibility of Using Bimetallic Plasmonic Nanostructures to Enhance the Intrinsic Emission of Biomolecules

Chowdhury, Mustafa H.; Chakraborty, Sudipto; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Ray, Krishanu
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/2011 Português
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Detection of the intrinsic fluorescence from proteins is important in bio-assays because it can potentially eliminate the labeling of external fluorophores to proteins. This is advantageous because using external fluorescent labels to tag biomolecules requires chemical modification and additional incubation and washing steps which can potentially perturb the native functionality of the biomolecules. Hence the external labeling steps add expense and complexity to bio-assays. In this paper, we investigate for the first time the feasibility of using bimetallic nanostructures made of silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al) to implement the metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) phenomenon for enhancing the intrinsic emission of biomolecules in the ultra-violet (UV) spectral region. Fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of a tryptophan analogue N-acetyl-L-tryptophanamide (NATA) and a tyrosine analogue N-acetyl-L-tyrosinamide (NATA-tyr) were measured. Increase in fluorescence intensities of upto 10-fold and concurrent decrease in lifetimes for the amino acids were recorded in the presence of the bimetallic nanostructures when compared to quartz controls. We performed a model protein assay involving biotinylated bovine serum albumin (bt-BSA) and streptavidin on the bimetallic nanostructured substrate to investigate the distance dependent effects on the extent of MEF from the bimetallic nanostructures and found a maximum enhancement of over 15-fold for two layers of bt-BSA and streptavidin. We also used finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculations to explore how bimetallic nanostructures interact with plane waves and excited state fluorophores in the UV region and demonstrate that the bimetallic substrates are an effective platform for enhancing the intrinsic emission of proteins and other biomolecules.

Synergic reprogramming of mammalian cells by combined exposure to mitotic Xenopus egg extracts and transcription factors

Ganier, Olivier; Bocquet, Stéphane; Peiffer, Isabelle; Brochard, Vincent; Arnaud, Philippe; Puy, Aurore; Jouneau, Alice; Feil, Robert; Renard, Jean-Paul; Méchali, Marcel
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Transfer of somatic cell nuclei to enucleated eggs and ectopic expression of specific transcription factors are two different reprogramming strategies used to generate pluripotent cells from differentiated cells. However, these methods are poorly efficient, and other unknown factors might be required to increase their success rate. Here we show that Xenopus egg extracts at the metaphase stage (M phase) have a strong reprogramming activity on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). First, they reset replication properties of MEF nuclei toward a replication profile characteristic of early development, and they erase several epigenetic marks, such as trimethylation of H3K9, H3K4, and H4K20. Second, when MEFs are reversibly permeabilized in the presence of M-phase Xenopus egg extracts, they show a transient increase in cell proliferation, form colonies, and start to express specific pluripotency markers. Finally, transient exposure of MEF nuclei to M-phase Xenopus egg extracts increases the success of nuclear transfer to enucleated mouse oocytes and strongly synergizes with the production of pluripotent stem cells by ectopic expression of transcription factors. The mitotic stage of the egg extract is crucial, because none of these effects is detected when using interphasic Xenopus egg extracts. Our data demonstrate that mitosis is essential to make mammalian somatic nuclei prone to reprogramming and that...

Activation of Bmp2-Smad1 Signal and Its Regulation by Coordinated Alteration of H3K27 Trimethylation in Ras-Induced Senescence

Kaneda, Atsushi; Fujita, Takanori; Anai, Motonobu; Yamamoto, Shogo; Nagae, Genta; Morikawa, Masato; Tsuji, Shingo; Oshima, Masanobu; Miyazono, Kohei; Aburatani, Hiroyuki
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cellular senescence involves epigenetic alteration, e.g. loss of H3K27me3 in Ink4a-Arf locus. Using mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF), we here analyzed transcription and epigenetic alteration during Ras-induced senescence on genome-wide scale by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing and microarray. Bmp2 was the most activated secreted factor with H3K4me3 gain and H3K27me3 loss, whereas H3K4me3 loss and de novo formation of H3K27me3 occurred inversely in repression of nine genes, including two BMP-SMAD inhibitors Smad6 and Noggin. DNA methylation alteration unlikely occurred. Ras-activated cells senesced with nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8. Senescence was bypassed in Ras-activated cells when Bmp2/Smad1 signal was blocked by Bmp2 knockdown, Smad6 induction, or Noggin induction. Senescence was induced when recombinant BMP2 protein was added to Bmp2-knocked-down Ras-activated cells. Downstream Bmp2-Smad1 target genes were then analyzed genome-wide by ChIP-sequencing using anti-Smad1 antibody in MEF that was exposed to BMP2. Smad1 target sites were enriched nearby transcription start sites of genes, which significantly correlated to upregulation by BMP2 stimulation. While Smad6 was one of Smad1 target genes to be upregulated by BMP2 exposure...

D,L-Sulforaphane-Induced Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells Is Regulated by the Adapter Protein p66Shc

Sakao, Kozue; Singh, Shivendra V.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2012 Português
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Cancer chemopreventive response to D,L-sulforaphane (SFN), a synthetic racemic analogue of broccoli constituent L-sulforaphane, is partly attributable to apoptosis induction, but the mechanism of cell death is not fully understood. The present study demonstrates a critical role for adapter protein p66Shc in SFN -induced apoptosis. Immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) derived from p66shc knockout mice were significantly more resistant to SFN-induced apoptosis, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production compared with MEF obtained from the wild-type mice. Notably, a spontaneously immortalized and non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A) was resistant to SFN-induced ROS production and apoptosis. Stable overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells conferred near complete protection against SFN-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. SFN treatment resulted in increased S36 phosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation of p66shc in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, and SFN-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated by RNA interference of p66shcin both cells. SFN-treated MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells also exhibited a marked decrease in protein level of peptidyl prolyl isomerase (Pin1)...

Rb/E2F1 Regulates the Innate Immune Receptor Toll-Like Receptor 3 in Epithelial Cells

Taura, Manabu; Suico, Mary Ann; Koyama, Kosuke; Komatsu, Kensei; Miyakita, Rui; Matsumoto, Chizuru; Kudo, Eriko; Kariya, Ryusho; Goto, Hiroki; Kitajima, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Chiaki; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Okada, Seiji; Kai, Hirofumi
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
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Tumor suppressor genes regulate the antiviral host defense through molecular mechanisms that are not yet well explored. Here, we show that the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma (Rb) protein positively regulates Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) expression, the sensing receptor for viral double-stranded RNA and poly(I·C). TLR3 expression was lower in Rb knockout (Rb−/−) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and in mammalian epithelial cells transfected with Rb small-interfering RNA (siRNA) than in control cells. Consequently, induction of cytokines interleukin-8 and beta interferon after poly(I·C) stimulation was impaired in Rb−/− MEF and Rb siRNA-transfected cells compared to controls. TLR3 promoter analysis showed that Rb modulates the transcription factor E2F1, which directly binds to the proximal promoter of TLR3. Exogenous addition of E2F1 decreased TLR3 promoter activity, while Rb dose dependently curbed the effect of E2F1. Interestingly, poly(I·C) increased the Rb expression, and the poly(I·C)-induced TLR3 expression was impaired in Rb-depleted cells, suggesting the importance of Rb in TLR3 induction by poly(I·C). Together, these data indicated that E2F1 suppresses TLR3 transcription, but during immune stimulation, Rb is upregulated to block the inhibitory effect of E2F1 on TLR3...

A Role for CARM1-Mediated Histone H3 Arginine Methylation in Protecting Histone Acetylation by Releasing Corepressors from Chromatin

Wu, Jing; Cui, Nan; Wang, Rui; Li, Jiwen; Wong, Jiemin
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/06/2012 Português
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Arginine methylation broadly occurs in histones and has been linked to transcriptional regulation, cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. While numerous proteins (histone code effectors) that specifically recognize or read the methylated lysine residues in core histones have been identified, little is known for effectors specific for methylated arginines in histones. In this study, we attempted to identify effector(s) recognizing asymmetrically methylated R17 and R26 in H3, which are catalyzed by CARM1/PRMT4, through an unbiased biochemical approach. Although we have yet to identify such effector using this approach, we find that these modifications function cooperatively with histone acetylation to inhibit the binding of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex (NuRD) and TIF1 family corepressors to H3 tail in vitro. In support of this finding, we show that overexpression of CARM1 in 293 T cells leads to reduced association of NuRD with chromatin, whereas knockdown of CARM1 in HeLa cells leads to increased association of NuRD with chromatin and decreased level of histone acetylation. Furthermore, in the Carm1−/− MEF cells there is an increased association of NuRD and TIF1β with chromatin and a global decrease in histone acetylation. By chromatin immunoprecipitation assay...

Recombinant Rabbit Leukemia Inhibitory Factor and Rabbit Embryonic Fibroblasts Support the Derivation and Maintenance of Rabbit Embryonic Stem Cells

Xue, Fei; Ma, Yinghong; Chen, Y. Eugene; Zhang, Jifeng; Lin, Tzu-An; Chen, Chien-Hong; Lin, Wei-Wen; Roach, Marsha; Ju, Jyh-Cherng; Yang, Lan; Du, Fuliang; Xu, Jie
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2012 Português
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The rabbit is a classical experimental animal species. A major limitation in using rabbits for biomedical research is the lack of germ-line-competent rabbit embryonic stem cells (rbESCs). We hypothesized that the use of homologous feeder cells and recombinant rabbit leukemia inhibitory factor (rbLIF) might improve the chance in deriving germ-line-competent rbES cells. In the present study, we established rabbit embryonic fibroblast (REF) feeder layers and synthesized recombinant rbLIF. We derived a total of seven putative rbESC lines, of which two lines (M5 and M23) were from culture Condition I using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as feeders supplemented with human LIF (hLIF) (MEF+hLIF). Another five lines (R4, R9, R15, R21, and R31) were derived from Condition II using REFs as feeder cells supplemented with rbLIF (REF+rbLIF). Similar derivation efficiency was observed between these two conditions (8.7% vs. 10.2%). In a separate experiment with 2×3 factorial design, we examined the effects of feeder cells (MEF vs. REF) and LIFs (mLIF, hLIF vs. rbLIF) on rbESC culture. Both Conditions I and II supported satisfactory rbESC culture, with similar or better population doubling time and colony-forming efficiency than other combinations of feeder cells with LIFs. Rabbit ESCs derived and maintained on both conditions displayed typical ESC characteristics...

n-Butylidenephthalide (BP) Maintains Stem Cell Pluripotency by Activating Jak2/Stat3 Pathway and Increases the Efficiency of iPS Cells Generation

Liu, Shih-Ping; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chien, Ying-Jiun; Chang, Cheng-Hsuan; Hsu, Chien-Yu; Fu, Ru-Huei; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Shih-Yin; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/09/2012 Português
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In 2006, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from somatic cells by introducing Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. The original process was inefficient; maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) and iPS cell cultures required an expensive reagent–leukemia induced factor (LIF). Our goal is to find a pure compound that not only maintains ES and iPS cell pluripotency, but also increases iPS cell generation efficiency. From 15 candidate compounds we determined that 10 µg/ml n-Butylidenephthalide (BP), an Angelica sinensis extract, triggers the up-regulation of Oct4 and Sox2 gene expression levels in MEF cells. We used ES and iPS cells treated with different concentrations of BP to test its usefulness for maintaining stem cell pluripotency. Results indicate higher expression levels of several stem cell markers in BP-treated ES and iPS cells compared to controls that did not contain LIF, including alkaline phosphatase, SSEA1, and Nanog. Embryoid body formation and differentiation results confirm that BP containing medium culture was capable of maintaining ES cell pluripotency after six time passage. Microarray analysis data identified PPAR, ECM, and Jak-Stat signaling as the top three deregulated pathways. We subsequently determined that phosphorylated Jak2 and phosphorylated Stat3 protein levels increased following BP treatment and suppressed with the Jak2 inhibitor...

Sirtuin 1 Facilitates Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts through the miR-34a and p53 Pathways

Lee, Yin Lau; Peng, Qian; Fong, Sze Wan; Chen, Andy C. H.; Lee, Kai Fai; Ng, Ernest H. Y.; Nagy, Andras; Yeung, William S. B.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/09/2012 Português
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Forced-expression of transcription factors can reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Recent studies show that the reprogramming efficiency can be improved by inclusion of small molecules that regulate chromatin modifying enzymes. We report here that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a member of the sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases, is involved in iPSC formation. By using an efficient mouse secondary fibroblast reprogramming system with doxycycline (DOX) inducible Yamanaka’s transcription factors delivered by piggyBac (PB) transposition (2°F/1B MEF), we show that SIRT1 knockdown decreased while resveratrol (RSV) increased the efficiency of iPSC formation. The treatments were associated with altered acetylated p53 and its downstream Nanog but not p21 expression. The stimulatory effect was also confirmed by SIRT1 over-expression, which stimulated the formation of colonies with induced Nanog and reduced p21 expression. Furthermore, the effects of RSV and SIRT1 knockdown on reprogramming were most pronounced during the initiation phase of reprogramming. MicroRNA-34a is a known regulator of SIRT1. Its inhibitor increased, while its mimics reduced iPSC formation. The stimulatory effect of SIRT1 during reprogramming was also confirmed in the primary MEF. RSV increased while tenovin-6...

Efficient Generation of Virus-Free iPS Cells Using Liposomal Magnetofection

Park, Hyo Young; Noh, Eun Hyung; Chung, Hyung-Min; Kang, Man-Jong; Kim, Eun Young; Park, Se Pill
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/09/2012 Português
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The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is a powerful tool in regenerative medicine, and advances in nanotechnology clearly have great potential to enhance stem cell research. Here, we introduce a liposomal magnetofection (LMF) method for iPS cell generation. Efficient conditions for generating virus-free iPS cells from mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells were determined through the use of different concentrations of CombiMag nanoparticle-DNA(pCX-OKS-2A and pCX-cMyc)-lipoplexes and either one or two cycles of the LMF procedure. The cells were prepared in a short reprogramming time period (≤8 days, 0.032–0.040%). Among the seven LMF-iPS cell lines examined, two were confirmed to be integration-free, and an integration-free LMF-iPS cell line was produced under the least toxic conditions (single LMF cycle with a half-dose of plasmid). This cell line also displayed in vitro/in vivo pluripotency, including teratoma formation and chimeric mouse production. In addition, the safety of CombiMag-DNA lipoplexes for the transfection of MEF cells was confirmed through lactate dehydrogenase activity assay and transmission electron microscopy. These results demonstrated that the LMF method is simple, effective, and safe. LMF may represent a superior technique for the generation of virus-free or integration-free iPS cell lines that could lead to enhanced stem cell therapy in the future.

Aberrant Neuromagnetic Activation in the Motor Cortex in Children with Acute Migraine: A Magnetoencephalography Study

Guo, Xinyao; Xiang, Jing; Wang, Yingying; O’Brien, Hope; Kabbouche, Marielle; Horn, Paul; Powers, Scott W.; Hershey, Andrew D.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/11/2012 Português
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Migraine attacks have been shown to interfere with normal function in the brain such as motor or sensory function. However, to date, there has been no clinical neurophysiology study focusing on the motor function in children with migraine during headache attacks. To investigate the motor function in children with migraine, twenty-six children with acute migraine, meeting International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria and age- and gender-matched healthy children were studied using a 275-channel magnetoencephalography system. A finger-tapping paradigm was designed to elicit neuromagnetic activation in the motor cortex. Children with migraine showed significantly prolonged latency of movement-evoked magnetic fields (MEF) during finger movement compared with the controls. The correlation coefficient of MEF latency and age in children with migraine was significantly different from that in healthy controls. The spectral power of high gamma (65–150 Hz) oscillations during finger movement in the primary motor cortex is also significantly higher in children with migraine than in controls. The alteration of responding latency and aberrant high gamma oscillations suggest that the developmental trajectory of motor function in children with migraine is impaired during migraine attacks and/or developmentally delayed. This finding indicates that childhood migraine may affect the development of brain function and result in long-term problems.

Investigation of Receptor interacting protein (RIP3)-dependent Protein Phosphorylation by Quantitative Phosphoproteomics*

Wu, Xiurong; Tian, Lili; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yingying; Han, Victor; Li, Yuanyue; Xu, Xiaozheng; Li, Hanjie; Chen, Xi; Chen, Jinan; Jin, Wenhai; Xie, Yongming; Han, Jiahuai; Zhong, Chuan-Qi
Fonte: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3) is a protein kinase that plays a key role in programmed necrosis. Despite the importance of RIP3-dependent necrosis in many pathological processes, current knowledge on the function of RIP3 is very limited. Here we present the results of a proteome-wide analysis of RIP3-regulated phosphorylation sites using cells from wildtype (RIP3+/+) and RIP3 knockout (RIP3−/−) mice. Because the activation of RIP3 requires stimulation by certain extracellular stimuli such as ligands of death receptors or Toll-like receptors, we compared the phosphorylation sites of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated peritoneal macrophages from RIP3+/+ and RIP3−/− mice and the phosphorylation sites of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-treated RIP3+/+ and RIP3−/− mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture and spike-in stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture were used in the analyses of the MEFs and macrophages, respectively. Proteomic analyses using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture coupled with immobilized metal affinity chromatography-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography fractionation and nanoLC MS/MS identified 14,057 phosphopeptides in 4306 proteins from the macrophages and 4732 phosphopeptides in 1785 proteins from the MEFs. Analysis of amino acid sequence motifs among the phosphopeptides identified a potential motif of RIP3 phosphorylation. Among the phosphopeptides identified...

Targeted Proteomics of the Secretory Pathway Reveals the Secretome of Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts and Human Embryonic Stem Cells*

Sarkar, Prasenjit; Randall, Shan M.; Muddiman, David C.; Rao, Balaji M.
Fonte: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Proteins endogenously secreted by human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and those present in hESC culture medium are critical regulators of hESC self-renewal and differentiation. Current MS-based approaches for identifying secreted proteins rely predominantly on MS analysis of cell culture supernatants. Here we show that targeted proteomics of secretory pathway organelles is a powerful alternate approach for interrogating the cellular secretome. We have developed procedures to obtain subcellular fractions from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and hESCs that are enriched in secretory pathway organelles while ensuring retention of the secretory cargo. MS analysis of these fractions from hESCs cultured in MEF conditioned medium (MEF-CM) or MEFs exposed to hESC medium revealed 99 and 129 proteins putatively secreted by hESCs and MEFs, respectively. Of these, 53 and 62 proteins have been previously identified in cell culture supernatants of MEFs and hESCs, respectively, thus establishing the validity of our approach. Furthermore, 76 and 37 putatively secreted proteins identified in this study in MEFs and hESCs, respectively, have not been reported in previous MS analyses.