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Maritime Security in the Gulf of Guinea: Issues and Solutions for the 21st Century

Risley, Michael G.
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 Português
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A producer of 5.4 M bbl/d, totalling almost half of the consumption of the entire European Union, the Gulf of Guinea is a fundamental lifeline and maritime link between Europe, the Americas and Africa. Geographically positioned as a staging post for transit originating in Latin America and coupled with its relatively porous borders, the region is also the perfect stepping stone for contraband heading to European shores. While blessed with an enviable wealth of marine and mineral resources, the region is also plagued by an ever-increasing spectre of maritime piracy; accounting for around 30% of incidents in African waters from 2003 to 2011. It is for these reasons that this research centres around the issues of maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea, with a particular focus on the first two decades of the 21st century. This research looks to examine the overall picture of the present state of play in the area, before going on to provide an analysis of potential regional developments in maritime security. This research begins with the analysis of concepts/phenomena that have played a notable role in the shaping of the field of maritime security, namely Globalisation and security issues in the post-Cold War era. The ensuing chapter then focuses in on the Gulf of Guinea and the issues dominating the field of maritime security in the region. The penultimate chapter presents a SWOT analysis...

Animal Based Economy in Troia and the Troas During The Maritime Troy Culture (c. 3000-2200 BC.) and a General Summary for West Anatolia; Tierbasierte Wirtschaft in Troia und dem Troas während der Maritimen Troia Kultur (c. 3000-2200 v. Chr.) und eine allgemeine Zusammenfassung für West-Anatolien.

Gündem, Can Yümni
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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This study deals with animal bone remains (only mammals) from Troy I to III, the so-called the Maritime Troy Culture (c. 3000 – 2000 BC, mainly the Early Bronze Age - EBA). The animal bone remains from the excavations reflect basically the red meat consumption of the ancient societies. The data of Troy were compared first of all within the settlement phases to observe the development of the livestock management. Another comparison of the livestock management with Troy’s neighbouring settlements and archaeological sites in West Anatolia should show the similarities or differences within a culture and between the cultures. The classical methods of archaeozoology were applied to achieve the best results. The animal bone remains were identified according to the respective zoological species and were counted to estimate the proportions of the different domestic animals in the livestock. Bone remains were weighed in order to calculate their contribution to the meat consumption of the inhabitants. The measurable animal bone remains of all kinds were measured to observe the possible chronological developments. Then these results were used to draw conclusions of the domestic animals´ history. Bone remains of all species were classified according to their age distribution in order to determine the killing pattern of domestic animals...

War Termination: The Maritime Component

Tritten, James John
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
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Analysis of new Soviet defense military doctrine and strategy with emphasis on strategic role of Navy and war termination. Author concludes despite Soviet wars, the USSR has not and cannot repudiate all wars, including nuclear war, since the defense of th homeland remains a necessary and objective mission of all armed forces. Author argues against separation of war into nuclear and non-nuclear components. New strategic missions for Soviet armed forces analyzed along with special considerations for military operations in maritime theaters. Author concludes that nations can allow greater amount of uncertainty in war termination decisions than is normally thought and that war termination discussions need to be separated into those supporting programming, pre-war planning, and during war. Keywords: USSR Tactical Warfare, Strategic analysis, War potential. (cp)

The Eastern Mediterranean: energy, maritime security and strategic alliances

İlter, Kağan
Fonte: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Reissued 13 Mar 2013 to rearrange reference list and change distribution code from F to A.; Energy and maritime-history affairs have played particularly important parts in the alignment of regional and international relations in the Eastern Mediterranean, and Turkey has played a pivotal regional role in all these matters. This study examines the role of Turkey as it explores the Middle East more generally, from World War II to the present day, asking how dynamic strategic alliances and regional relations in the Eastern Mediterranean have been regulated in terms of energy and maritime-security issues. The thesis has five chapters: Chapter II discusses the geographic, political, military, and especially economic importance of the region. Chapter III provides a historical review of energy and maritime-related crises and case studies that occurred in the Eastern Mediterranean and their effect on the alignments of strategic alliances. Chapter IV presents the current situation in the Eastern Mediterranean in terms of energy and maritime security and examines Turkey`s increasing strategic role in the region. This chapter provides information about the importance of Eastern Mediterranean hydrocarbon resources, the geopolitical importance of Turkey as an energy hub...

American naval thinking in the post-Cold War era: the U.S. Navy and the emergence of a maritime strategy, 1989-2007

Haynes, Peter D.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The study links a description and what is at times an unpleasant analysis of the evolution of U.S. naval strategy from 1989 to 2007, which marked the release of a maritime strategy called A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower, to an explanation of the forces that influenced its course. The study seeks to understand how the U.S. Navy arrived at its current strategic outlook and why it took nearly two decades for a maritime strategy to emerge in an era in which the relative saliency of such should have been more apparent. It argues that the Cold Wars unexpected passing did little to alter the conceptual framework that governed U.S. strategy or the structure of American naval thinking, whose respective elements and their interactions pushed maritime-oriented ideas to the margins during the post-Cold War era as they had during the Cold War. It took an implausible series of events for a maritime strategy to emerge, which included the shock that the United States could lose its war in Iraq which called into question long-standing assumptions about U.S. strategy, threatened the Navys relevance, and brought about a systemically oriented U.S. strategic approachand the appearance of two maritime-minded Navy leaders.

Naval Operations: a closr look at the operational level of war at sea

Hughes, Wayne P., Jr.
Fonte: Naval War College Publicador: Naval War College
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Today's American navy writes prolifically about maritime strategies but has not devoted equal attention to campaign plans or analysis that tests the strategies' viability. We illustrate herein how the operational--or campaign--level links policy and strategy to the tactical and technological elements of war at sea. First, we relate how the U.S. Navy reluctantly came to accept the existence of an operational level of warfare but having done so will find it useful. Second, we describe important properties of naval operations in terms of constants, trends and variables in warfare at and from the sea. Third, we demonstrate how operational level planning would help if the Navy and the nation were to adopt six clearly stated, twenty-first century strategies that would serve present and future national policies better than do current strategy documents.

Rapidly deployable, self forming, wireless networks for maritime interdiction operations

Stavroulakis, Georgios.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 83 p. : col. ill. ;
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The term "Maritime Interdiction Operations" usually refers to Visit, Board, Search and Seizure (VBSS) operations executed today all over the world. These operations are conducted as a part of the maritime law enforcement policy of each country inside their respective territorial waters or as a part of the homeland security requirements as they are mandated today by the global war against terrorism. Very often lately, they are conducted by allied maritime forces in international waters as well. Although such operations might seem quite simple in execution, the global war against terrorism has dramatically increased their level of complexity. In the past, searching cargo ships for illegal or contraband cargo was not that complicated or that important for national security, but now, searching for non-proliferation, radiological or bio-chemical material, as well as for possible terrorists among the crew members of a ship, is a very complex operation that cannot tolerate mistakes or omissions. This thesis examines the requirements posed by a boarding team, either from the navy or the law enforcement community, on information flow from and to them, in order to enhance their situational awareness and decision making capability during Maritime Interdiction Operations. That information flow is provided by several wireless network technologies...

Maritime shipping container security and the Defense Transportation System: problems and policy in the 21st century

Jankowski, William M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 49 p. : ill. (some col.), map
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; The Defense Transportation System (DTS), led by the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC), depends on the commercial maritime industry to provide movement of supplies and equipment around the world. The maritime shipping container is a critical asset in providing for this logistical support to the war fighter abroad. These 20- or 40-foot containers have become the backbone of the maritime industry, and will continue to proliferate as global commerce continues to expand. While the growth in the use of maritime shipping containers in the 21st century has accelerated the nation's economic trade substantially, it may also have become a significant problem. Containers are an indispensable but vulnerable link in the chain of global trade; approximately 90 percent of the world's cargo moves by container. Because of DoD's dependency on the maritime industry and these containers, it will and must continue to ride the wave of commercial practices, specifically in pursuit of better security throughout the maritime industry. In the wake of September 11, 2001, and with the new threats of WMD, the maritime shipping container may become a weapons delivery system. This thesis documented the need for security improvements for the maritime shipping container in protecting global commerce and DoD cargo shipments. Comprehensive reviews of government reports...

Implications of Sino-American strategic competition on Southeast Asia's post-Cold War regional order

Suryodipuro, Sidharto R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 107 p.
Português
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; Southeast Asia is a maritime crossroad and an arena of strategic great power interaction. The study of international politics after the Cold War has rediscovered the importance of regional interaction as the framework for understanding countries' security strategies and the great powers' impact on specific regions. A review of various theories, furthermore, reveals the revival of geopolitics in theoretical constructions and policy formulations. This thesis reviews United States-China relations as the independent variable. The U.S. grand strategy has been consistent since the first Bush administration, namely to prevent the rise of a peer competitor. The American instruments in pursuit of its strategy are derived from its nature as a maritime power. China is a continental power that is recently expanding seaward and reemerging as East Asia's indispensable power. China's success in promoting its vision of order in maritime Southeast Asia will potentially undermine America's influence. Southeast Asia's regional order, the dependent variable, is dynamic when viewed from its two dimensions: time and space. Time refers to historical cycles, while space refers to the diverse views in dealing with the major powers...

Factors of East Asian maritime security

Butler, Bryce D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 93 p. : maps ;
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; Since the end of the Cold War, the principle naval powers of East Asia--China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea --have increased the importance they attach to their maritime strategies relative to the changing situation in East Asia and adjoining waters. With the growing reliance on each of these countries on seaborne trade and supply of resources, including oil, the countries' maritime defense policies, including the sea lanes of communications (SLOCs), are more important than ever. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the maritime visions of these three countries, the changing maritime security environment they address the maritime territorial disputes, in which they are engaged and the potential for a naval arms race in East Asia. It assesses the impact of Korean reunification and Chinese reunification on their maritime strategies and prospects for a regional multilateral maritime security regime. This thesis emphasizes the importance of the U.S. Navy's forward presence in stabilizing potential problems at sea in East Asia.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

The U.S. maritime strategy in the North Atlantic and Norwegian Sea: an evolving strategy in need of reassesment

Woodard, Jimmy Clifford.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 122 p.;28 cm.
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Approved for public release; distribution unlimited; This thesis examines the evolution, and theoretical basis of the United States' maritime strategy in the North Atlantic and what is referred to as NATO's Northern Flank. The strategy associated with past Secretary of the Navy, John Lehman, is no longer considered applicable in the context of today's East-west relationship and is in need of reassessment. The paper then assesses the current, post Cold War situation and looks at future security interests the United States may have in the region. Additionally, the security and defense capabilities of our allies in the region are examined. Given the United States will remain closely linked with European security issues, by examining the successes and failures of past strategies and the strengths and weaknesses of our allies, one will be better able to develop a new strategy.; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy

Maritime strategy in Pakistan

Nawaz, Raja Rab
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 109 p. : col. ill., col. map
Português
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; As a maritime nation, Pakistan has not been able to effectively exploit the sea and its resources. Decades of neglect have hampered the development of the maritime sector, which in turn has hurt both economic growth and the national security of the country. While seaborne trade is the backbone of Pakistan's economy, the domestic shipping and shipbuilding industries are in disarray. The exploitation of offshore natural resources is restricted to coastal fisheries. Despite its animosity with neighboring India, Pakistan has until recently relied on two colocated ports at Karachi, which would be a vulnerable target in any war. The continental mindset of the policymakers has affected the development of the Pakistan Navy as an effective element of the military strategy. This thesis argues that development of the maritime sector is important for both economic growth and the national security of Pakistan. In economic terms, the maritime sector can diversify the economic base and stimulate Pakistan's economic growth. The development of the Pakistan Navy both as a credible conventional and strategic force is important for protection of growing economic maritime interests against predation and coercion and also necessary to safeguard the strategic interests of the country.; Lieutenant Commander...

Planning and Investigating for a Maritime Reconnaissance Strike Complex: The U.S. Navy in the 21st Century

Healy, Paul F.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School. Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School.
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.; Currently, three factors are re-shaping the U.S. Navy as it enters the 21st Century. First, as a results of the end of the Cold War, a new strategic direction has been mapped out by the Navy in "...From the Sea." Secondly, with the dramatic advances in microcomputers and information technologies, the Navy has the opportunity to embark on a "Military Technological Revolution." Lastly, significant resource constraints will limit the Navy's ability to develop, procure, and maintain forces. This study considers the implications of these three factors for the development of a Maritime Reconnaissance Strike Complex (MRSC). Forces incorporated within an MRSC are then analyzed and compared in terms of capital value and operating and support costs. The results provide one approach to developing an investment strategy for future forces in an era of limited resources.; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy

Japan's maritime imperative

Goff, Jonathan C.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 106 p.
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis identifies factors that may induce Japan to create greater military capabilities and normalize military force as a potential source of national power in its security policies. A realist theoretical framework for analysis and assumptions is constructed. It consists of Great Power Theory, the Law of Comparative Advantage, and the Utility of Military Force, and dismisses the artificial divisions between levels of analysis. The thesis examines the failure of Japan's national security doctrine in the post-Cold War world. It explores the impact of economics, Japan's national goals, security threats, and the U.S.-Japan alliance on the country's construction and normalization of increased military capabilities. Japan's primary obstacles to military normalization, Article 9 of its constitution and domestic opinion, are assessed. The thesis concludes that Japan's national talents, production capabilities, and status as a maritime nation make it likely that it will construct more capable naval forces to respond to imperatives in the post-Cold War environment.; http://www.archive.org/details/japansmaritimeim00goff; Major, United States Marine Corps

Nguyen Ngoc Sinh, Vietnamese Embassy spokesman, addresses the crowded Sydney WWF Branch Hall on the tenth anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War

Photographer: not known
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Imagem Formato: 10.5cm x 24cm; photograph; b&w
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L-R: Tom Supple (Secretary, WWF Sydney Branch); Tas Bull (Acting General Secretary, WWF); Pat Geraghty (Federal Secretary, SUA); Rick Divers (President, WWF Sydney Branch); Nguyen Ngoc Sinh (Councillor, Vietnamese Embassy); Bob Galleghan (Federal Secretary, Federated Ship Painters & Dockers Union of Australia); John Garrett (Secretary, NSW Firemen’s and Deckhands’ Union); Harry Mitchell (Assistant Secretary, Miscellaneous Workers’ Union); Reproduced in Maritime Worker, Jun 1985

Joe Carter, as a member of the Waterside Workers' Federation of Australia, Port Kembla Branch, and former member of the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War

Photographer: not known
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Imagem Formato: 24cm x 19cm; photograph; b&w
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Reproduced in Maritime Worker, 1994

Rupert Lockwood, Waterside Workers’ Federation of Australia historian, editor Maritime Worker and author Black Armada, War on the Waterfront, Ship to Shore

Photographer: not known
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Imagem Formato: 15cm x 12cm; photograph; b&w
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Humanitarian crisis as a by-product of civil war in Mindanao: an internal issue for a security time bomb for Australia?

Russell-Farnham, Sarah
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Though Australia is officially part of Oceania, our immediate strategic space is South East Asia (SEA) and as such our geographical proximity to the Philippines makes it an integral part of our security concerns. With the fourteenth largest population in the world and the second largest population in South East Asia (second lonely to Indonesia), the Philippines is a very important member of Australia's regional neighbourhood. Mindanao, the Philippines second largest island, has been gripped by civil war for the last three and a half decades. The separatist aspirations of the Moro people has see n them engage the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) in a long and bloody civil war, spanning decades and fluctuating in severity. The social and humanitarian implications of the ongoing civil war have been severe. Over the last thirty-three years an estimated 120,000 people have been killed and millions more have been displaced from their homes. The ongoing conflict has seen the fabric of Mindanaoan society tom, dividing the island along religious lines and imbedding mutually reinforcing distrust and resentment throughout the island's population. Although numerous attempts have been made to restore peace to Mindanao over the decades...

Las galeras en la política militar española en el Mediterráneo durante el siglo XVI

Thompson, I. A. A.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Article; info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 Português
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Las galeras fueron el instrumento marítimo más efectivo en la lucha naval en el Mediterráneo durante el siglo XVI. Aunque la monarquía hispánica trató de competir en este campo con el imperio turco, finalmente, se tuvo que contentar con desarrollar una estrategia defensiva. El autor analiza la decadencia de las galeras después de 1574, matizando la tesis de Gilmartin.; Les galeres foren l’instrument marítim més efectiu en la lluita naval a la Mediterrània durant el segle XVI. Tot i que la monarquia hispànica va intentar competir en aquest camp amb l’imperi turc, finalment, es va haver d’acontentar a desenvolupar una estratègia defensiva. L’autor analitza la decadència de les galeres després de 1574, tot matisant la tesi de Gilmartin.; The galleys were the most effective maritime instrument in the naval fight in the Mediterranean Sea during the 16th century. Although the Hispanic monarchy tried to compete with the Turkish Empire, finally, it had to be content by developing a defensive strategy. The author analyzes the decay of the galleys after 1574, changing Gilmartin thesis slightly.

Coastal State Competences Regarding Safety of Maritime Navigation: recent trends; Competência dos Estados Costeiros Relativa à Segurança da Navegação Marítima: tendências recentes

Virzo, Roberto; Università degli Studi del Sannio (Itália) University of Florida (Estados Unidos)
Fonte: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux Publicador: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/11/2015 Português
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2015v36n71p19The erosion of the freedom of the seas regime that has been taking place especially since the end of World War II seems to be continuing more gradually and in a different manner. In order to protect the interests of the international community coinciding more or less with their own needs, the coastal states, the archipelagic states, the regional fishing organizations for the highseas and the International Seabed Authority are ever more often exercising functions thatpreviously had been carried out above all by the flag state. In this work we examine theevolution of international law governing the safety of maritime navigation. The analysiscovers, first, the cooperation between coastal states and the International Maritime Organization and, subsequently, coastal states’independently exercisable competences: both topics concerning the reinforcement of the safety maritime navigation.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2015v36n71p19A erosão do regime da liberdade dos mares que se tem verificado especialmente desde ofim da Segunda Guerra Mundial parece estar prosseguindo de modo mais intenso e de outra maneira. A fim de proteger os interesses da comunidade internacional que coincidem mais ou menos com suas próprias necessidades...