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Brazilian roasted coffee oil obtained by mechanical expelling: compositional analysis by GC-MS

Oliveira,Alessandra L. de; Cruz,Paulo Marcio; Eberlin,Marcos N.; Cabral,Fernando A.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 Português
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A preliminary analysis by GC-MS comparing the mass spectrum of the compounds with the Wiley 275 L mass spectral data base was used to identify the fatty acids and mainly, some volatile compounds responsible for the flavor of the roasted coffee oil. The oil was obtained by mechanical expelling of Brazilian beans (Coffea arabica) roasted at 238ºC for 10 minutes. Different sample preparation methodologies such as headspace, adsorbent suction trapping and esterification were used. It was possible to identify pyrazines, pyridines, furan derivatives and other compounds not reported in the literature.

Activation of pausing F1 motor by external force

Hirono-Hara, Yoko; Ishizuka, Koji; Kinosita, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Masasuke; Noji, Hiroyuki
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A rotary motor F1, a catalytic part of ATP synthase, makes a 120° step rotation driven by hydrolysis of one ATP, which consists of 80° and 40° substeps initiated by ATP binding and probably by ADP and/or Pi dissociation, respectively. During active rotations, F1 spontaneously fails in ADP release and pauses after a 80° substep, which is called the ADP-inhibited form. In the present work, we found that, when pushed >+40° with magnetic tweezers, the pausing F1 resumes its active rotation after releasing inhibitory ADP. The rate constant of the mechanical activation exponentially increased with the pushed angle, implying that F1 weakens the affinity of its catalytic site for ADP as the angle goes forward. This finding explains not only its unidirectional nature of rotation, but also its physiological function in ATP synthesis; it would readily bind ADP from solution when rotated backward by an Fo motor in the ATP synthase. Furthermore, the mechanical work for the forced rotation was efficiently converted into work for expelling ADP from the catalytic site, supporting the tight coupling between the rotation and catalytic event.

Extração e pirólise do óleo de girassol (Helianthus annus l.) visando a produção de biocombustíveis

Correia, Iara Michelle Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Tecnologias Regionais Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Tecnologias Regionais
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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Nowadays, the growing environmental worry leads research the focus the application of alternative materials from renewable resources on the industrial process. The most common vegetable oil extractant using around the world is the hexane, a petroleum derived, toxic and flammable. Based on this fact, the goal of this work was to test vegetable oil extractions from sunflower seeds cultivated on the Rio Grande do Norte State using two extraction process, the mechanical expelling and solvent extraction, this one using hexane and ethanol as a alternative solvent. The solvent extractions were carried out in the Soxhlet extractor in three different extraction times (4, 6, and 8 hours). The effect of solvent and extraction time was evaluated. The mechanical extraction was carried out in a expeller and the sunflower oil obtained was characterized by its physical-chemical properties and compared with sunflower refinery oil. Furthermore this work also explored the pyrolysis reaction carried out by thermogravimetry measurement as alternative route to obtain biofuel. For this purpose the oil samples were heated to ambient temperature until 900°C in heating rate of 5, 10, 20ºC min-1 with the objective evaluated the kinetics parameters such activation energy and isoconversion. The TG/DTG curves show the thermal profile decomposition of triglycerides. The curves also showed that antioxidant presents on the refinery oil not influence on the thermal stability of sunflower oil. The total yield of the extraction s process with hexane and ethanol solvent were compared...

Extração mecanica de oleos de amendoim e de girassol para produção de biodiesel via catalise basica; Mechanical expelling of peanut and sunflower oils to biodiesel production by basic catalyst

Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli Pighinelli
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/02/2007 Português
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O biodiesel é um combustível produzido a partir de triacilglicerídios encontrados na natureza, como óleos vegetais e gorduras animais. Tem ocupado posição de destaque no Brasil, principalmente após a criação de uma lei que autoriza sua mistura ao diesel. Todo o destaque dado ao novo combustível exige um estudo completo de toda sua cadeia produtiva, a qual compreende desde a parte agrícola, com fornecimento e processamento das matérias-primas (grãos oleaginosos) até a parte química via reações de transesterificação. A prensagem mecânica de grãos oleaginosos é uma alternativa viável para pequenas comunidades de agricultores e sua eficiência depende das condições iniciais da matéria-prima, como sua temperatura e teor de umidade. A transesterificação, embora seja uma reação química simples, pode ser otimizada, em função das condições experimentais como razão molar entre triacilglicerídios e álcool, concentração de catalisador e temperatura da reação. Neste trabalho, os grãos de amendoim e de girassol foram prensados, conforme condições experimentais estabelecidas. Os óleos brutos obtidos foram caracterizados e utilizados na transesterificação metílica com hidróxido de potássio. Para a extração mecânica de óleo de amendoim...

Interaction between the intergalactic medium and central radio source in the NGC 4261 group of galaxies

O'Sullivan, Ewan; Worrall, Diana M.; Birkinshaw, Mark; Trinchieri, Ginevra; Wolter, Anna; Zezas, Andreas; Giacintucci, Simona
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/06/2011 Português
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Using observations from the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories, we examine the interaction between the intra-group medium and central radio source in the nearby NGC 4261 galaxy group. We confirm the presence of cavities associated with the radio lobes and estimate their enthalpy to be ~2.4x10^58 erg. The mechanical power output of the jets is >=10^43 erg/s, at least a factor of 60 greater than the cooling luminosity in the region the lobes inhabit. We identify rims of compressed gas enclosing the lobes, but find no statistically significant temperature difference between them and their surroundings, suggesting that the lobe expansion velocity is approximately sonic (Mach<=1.05). The apparent pressure of the radio lobes, based on the synchrotron minimum energy density argument, is a factor of 5 lower than that of the intra-group medium. Pressure balance could be achieved if entrainment of thermal gas provided additional non-radiating particles in the lobe plasma, but the energy required to heat these particles would be ~20 per cent. of the mechanical energy output of the radio source. NGC 4261 has a relatively compact cool core, which should probably be categorised as a galactic corona. The corona is capable of fuelling the active nucleus for considerably longer than the inferred source lifetime...