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Effect of processing induced particle alignment on the fracture toughness and fracture behavior of multiphase dental ceramics

GONZAGA, Carla C.; OKADA, Cristina Yuri; CESAR, Paulo F.; MIRANDA JR., Walter G.; YOSHIMURA, Humberto N.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objective. To investigate the processing induced particle alignment on fracture behavior of four multiphase dental ceramics (one porcelain, two glass-ceramics and a glass-infiltrated-alumina composite). Methods. Disks (empty set12mm x 1.1 mm-thick) and bars (3 mm x 4 mm x 20 mm) of each material were processed according to manufacturer instructions, machined and polished. Fracture toughness (K(IC)) was determined by the indentation strength method using 3-point bending and biaxial flexure fixtures for the fracture of bars and disks, respectively. Microstructural and fractographic analyses were performed with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results. The isotropic microstructure of the porcelain and the leucite-based glass-ceramic resulted in similar fracture toughness values regardless of the specimen geometry. On the other hand, materials containing second-phase particles with high aspect ratio (lithium disilicate glass-ceramic and glass-infiltrated-alumina composite) showed lower fracture toughness for disk specimens compared to bars. For the lithium disilicate glass-ceramic disks, it was demonstrated that the occurrence of particle alignment during the heat-pressing procedure resulted in an unfavorable pattern that created weak microstructural paths during the biaxial test. For the glass-infiltrated-alumina composite...

Nonlinear estimation of neural processing time from BOLD signal with application to decision-making

Biazoli, Claudinei Eduardo, Jr.; Sato, Joao Ricardo; Cardoso, Ellison Fernando; Brammer, Michael John; Amaro, Edson, Jr.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The extraction of information about neural activity timing from BOLD signal is a challenging task as the shape of the BOLD curve does not directly reflect the temporal characteristics of electrical activity of neurons. In this work, we introduce the concept of neural processing time (NPT) as a parameter of the biophysical model of the hemodynamic response function (HRF). Through this new concept we aim to infer more accurately the duration of neuronal response from the highly nonlinear BOLD effect. The face validity and applicability of the concept of NPT are evaluated through simulations and analysis of experimental time series. The results of both simulation and application were compared with summary measures of HRF shape. The experiment that was analyzed consisted of a decision-making paradigm with simultaneous emotional distracters. We hypothesize that the NPT in primary sensory areas, like the fusiform gyrus, is approximately the stimulus presentation duration. On the other hand, in areas related to processing of an emotional distracter, the NPT should depend on the experimental condition. As predicted, the NPT in fusiform gyrus is close to the stimulus duration and the NPT in dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus depends on the presence of an emotional distracter. Interestingly...

Quantificação da dinâmica de estruturas em imagens de medicina nuclear na modalidade PET.; Quantification of dynamic structures in nuclear medicine images in the PET modality.

Flórez Pacheco, Edward
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/02/2012 Português
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A presença que tem hoje a Medicina Nuclear como modalidade de obtenção de imagens médicas é muito importante e um dos principais procedimentos utilizados hoje nos centros de saúde, tendo como grande vantagem a capacidade de conseguir analisar o comportamento metabólico do paciente, fazendo possíveis diagnósticos precoces. Este projeto está baseado em imagens médicas obtidas através da modalidade PET (Positron Emission Tomography) a qual está tendo uma crescente difusão e aceitação. Para isso, temos desenvolvido uma estrutura integral de processamento de imagens tridimensionais PET, a qual está constituída por etapas consecutivas que se iniciam na obtenção das imagens padrões (gold standard), sendo utilizados volumes simulados ou phantoms do Ventrículo Esquerdo do Coração criadas como parte do projeto, assim como geradas a partir do software NCAT-4D. A seguir, nos volumes simulados, é introduzido ruído quântico tipo Poisson que é o ruído característico das imagens PET e feita uma análise que busca certificar que o ruído utilizado corresponde efetivamente ao ruído Poisson. Em sequência é executada a parte de pré-processamento, utilizando para este fim, um conjunto de filtros tais como o filtro da mediana...

Exploração do paralelismo em arquiteturas para processamento de imagens e vídeo; Parallelism exploration in architectures for video and image processing

Soares, Andre Borin
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
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O processamento de vídeo e imagens é uma área de pesquisa de grande importância atualmente devido ao incremento de utilização de imagens nas mais variadas áreas de atividades: entretenimento, vigilância, supervisão e controle, medicina, e outras. Os algoritmos utilizados para reconhecimento, compressão, descompressão, filtragem, restauração e melhoramento de imagens apresentam freqüentemente uma demanda computacional superior àquela que os processadores convencionais podem oferecer, exigindo muitas vezes o desenvolvimento de arquiteturas dedicadas. Este documento descreve o trabalho realizado na exploração do espaço de projeto de arquiteturas para processamento de imagem e de vídeo, utilizando processamento paralelo. Várias características particulares deste tipo de arquitetura são apontadas. Uma nova técnica é apresentada, na qual Processadores Elementares (P.E.s) especializados trabalham de forma cooperativa sobre uma estrutura de comunicação em rede intra-chip; Nowadays video and image processing is a very important research area, because of its widespread use in a broad class of applications like entertainment, surveillance, control, medicine and many others. Some of the used algorithms to perform recognition...

Natural-based nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine : a review

Pina, S.; Oliveira, J. M.; Reis, R. L.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2015 Português
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Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine has been providing exciting technologies for the development of functional substitutes aimed to repair and regenerate damaged tissues and organs. Inspired by the hierarchical nature of bone, nanostructured biomaterials are gaining a singular attention for tissue engineering, owing their ability to promote cell adhesion and proliferation, and hence new bone growth, compared with conventional microsized materials. Of particular interest are nanocomposites involving biopolymeric matrices and bioactive nanosized fi llers. Biodegradability, high mechanical strength, and osteointegration and formation of ligamentous tissue are properties required for such materials. Biopolymers are advantageous due to their similarities with extracellular matrices, specifi c degradation rates, and good biological performance. By its turn, calcium phosphates possess favorable osteoconductivity, resorbability, and biocompatibility. Herein, an overview on the available natural polymer/calcium phosphate nanocomposite materials, their design, and properties is presented. Scaffolds, hydrogels, and fi bers as biomimetic strategies for tissue engineering, and processing methodologies are described. The specifi c biological properties of the nanocomposites...

Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array

Ustun, Teoman E.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Hammer, Daniel X.
Fonte: American Institute of Physics Publicador: American Institute of Physics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Real-time display of processed Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) images is important for applications that require instant feedback of image information, for example, systems developed for rapid screening or image-guided surgery. However, the computational requirements for high-speed FDOCT image processing usually exceeds the capabilities of most computers and therefore display rates rarely match acquisition rates for most devices. We have designed and developed an image processing system, including hardware based upon a field programmable gated array, firmware, and software that enables real-time display of processed images at rapid line rates. The system was designed to be extremely flexible and inserted in-line between any FDOCT detector and any Camera Link frame grabber. Two versions were developed for spectrometer-based and swept source-based FDOCT systems, the latter having an additional custom high-speed digitizer on the front end but using all the capabilities and features of the former. The system was tested in humans and monkeys using an adaptive optics retinal imager, in zebrafish using a dual-beam Doppler instrument, and in human tissue using a swept source microscope. A display frame rate of 27 fps for fully processed FDOCT images (1024 axial pixels×512 lateral A-scans) was achieved in the spectrometer-based systems.

The Prototypical Ranitidine Analog JWS-USC-75-IX Improves Information Processing and Cognitive Function in Animal Models

Terry, Alvin V.; Buccafusco, Jerry J.; Herman, Elizabeth J.; Callahan, Patrick M.; Beck, Wayne D.; Warner, Samantha; Vandenhuerk, Leah; Bouchard, Kristy; Schwarz, Gary M.; Gao, Jie; Chapman, James M.
Fonte: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Publicador: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2011 Português
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This study was designed to evaluate further a prototypical ranitidine analog, JWS-USC-75-IX, [(3-[[[2-[[(5-dimethylaminomethyl)-2-furanyl]methyl]thio]ethyl]amino]-4-nitropyridazine, JWS], for neuropharmacologic properties that would theoretically be useful for treating cognitive and noncognitive behavioral symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders. JWS was previously found to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, serve as a potent ligand at muscarinic M2 acetylcholine receptors, and elicit positive effects on spatial learning, passive avoidance, and working memory in rodents. In the current study, JWS was evaluated for binding activity at more than 60 neurotransmitter receptors, transporters, and ion channels, as well as for inhibitory activity at AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The results indicate that JWS inhibits AChE and BChE at low (micromolar) concentrations and that it is a functional antagonist at M2 receptors (KB = 320 nM). JWS was subsequently evaluated orally across additional behavioral assays in rodents (dose range, 0.03–10.0 mg/kg) as well as nonhuman primates (dose range, 0.05–2.0 mg/kg). In rats, JWS improved prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response in nonimpaired rats and attenuated PPI deficits in three pharmacologic impairment models. JWS also attenuated scopolamine and (−)-5-methyl-10...

Performing and Processing FNA of Anterior Fat Pad for Amyloid

Shidham, Vinod B.; Hunt, Bryan; Jaradeh, Safwan S.; Barboi, Alexandru C.; Devata, Sumana; Hari, Parameswaran
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/10/2010 Português
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Historically, heart, liver, and kidney biopsies were performed to demonstrate amyloid deposits in amyloidosis. Since the clinical presentation of this disease is so variable and non-specific, the associated risks of these biopsies are too great for the diagnostic yield. Other sites that have a lower biopsy risk, such as skin or gingival, are also relatively invasive and expensive. In addition, these biopsies may not always have sufficient amyloid deposits to establish a diagnosis. Fat pad aspiration has demonstrated good clinical correlation with low cost and minimal morbidity. However, there are no standardized protocols for performing this procedure or processing the aspirated specimen, which leads to variable and nonreproducible results. The most frequently utilized modality for detecting amyloid in tissue is an apple-green birefringence on Congo red stained sections using a polarizing microscope. This technique requires cell block preparation of aspirated material. Unfortunately, patients presenting in early stage of amyloidosis have minimal amounts of amyloid which greatly reduces the sensitivity of Congo red stained cell block sections of fat pad aspirates. Therefore, ultrastructural evaluation of fat pad aspirates by electron microscopy should be utilized...

A quantitative study of motion estimation methods on 4D cardiac gated SPECT reconstruction

Qi, Wenyuan; Yang, Yongyi; Niu, Xiaofeng; King, Michael A.
Fonte: American Association of Physicists in Medicine Publicador: American Association of Physicists in Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Purpose: Motion-compensated temporal processing can have a major impact on improving the image quality in gated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this work, we investigate the effect of different optical flow estimation methods for motion-compensated temporal processing in gated SPECT. In particular, we explore whether better motion estimation can substantially improve reconstructed image quality, and how the estimated motion would compare to the ideal case of known motion in terms of reconstruction.

Reduction of image noise in low tube current dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging using HYPR processing: A time-attenuation curve analysis

Speidel, Michael A.; Bateman, Courtney L.; Tao, Yinghua; Raval, Amish N.; Hacker, Timothy A.; Reeder, Scott B.; Van Lysel, Michael S.
Fonte: American Association of Physicists in Medicine Publicador: American Association of Physicists in Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Purpose: This study describes a HighlY constrained backPRojection (HYPR) image processing method for the reduction of image noise in low tube current time-resolved CT myocardial perfusion scans. The effect of this method on myocardial time-attenuation curve noise and fidelity is evaluated in an animal model, using varying levels of tube current.

A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

Sechopoulos, Ioannis
Fonte: American Association of Physicists in Medicine Publicador: American Association of Physicists in Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis.

Techniques for Processing Eyes Implanted With a Retinal Prosthesis for Localized Histopathological Analysis

Nayagam, David A. X.; McGowan, Ceara; Villalobos, Joel; Williams, Richard A.; Salinas-LaRosa, Cesar; McKelvie, Penny; Lo, Irene; Basa, Meri; Tan, Justin; Williams, Chris E.
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/08/2013 Português
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With the recent development of retinal prostheses, it is important to develop reliable techniques for assessing the safety of these devices in preclinical studies. However, the standard fixation, preparation, and automated histology procedures are not ideal. Here we describe new procedures for evaluating the health of the retina directly adjacent to an implant. Retinal prostheses feature electrode arrays in contact with eye tissue. Previous methods have not been able to spatially localize the ocular tissue adjacent to individual electrodes within the array. In addition, standard histological processing often results in gross artifactual detachment of the retinal layers when assessing implanted eyes. Consequently, it has been difficult to assess localized damage, if present, caused by implantation and stimulation of an implanted electrode array. Therefore, we developed a method for identifying and localizing the ocular tissue adjacent to implanted electrodes using a (color-coded) dye marking scheme, and we modified an eye fixation technique to minimize artifactual retinal detachment. This method also rendered the sclera translucent, enabling localization of individual electrodes and specific parts of an implant. Finally, we used a matched control to increase the power of the histopathological assessments. In summary...

Interactions between Affective and Cognitive Processing Systems in Problematic Gamblers: A Functional Connectivity Study

van Holst, Ruth J.; van der Meer, Johan N.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Goudriaan, Anna E.; McLaren, Donald George
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Motivational and cognitive abnormalities are frequently reported in pathological gambling. However, studies simultaneously investigating motivational and cognitive processing in problematic gamblers are lacking, limiting our understanding of the interplay between these systems in problematic gambling. Studies in non-clinical samples indicate that interactions between dorsal “executive” and ventral “affective” processing systems are necessary for adequate responses in various emotive situations. Methods: We conducted a generalized Psycho-Physiological Interaction (gPPI) analysis to assess the influence of affective stimuli on changes in functional connectivity associated with response inhibition in 16 treatment seeking problematic gamblers (PRGs) and 15 healthy controls (HCs) using an affective Go-NoGo fMRI paradigm including neutral, gambling-related, positive and negative pictures as neutral and affective conditions. Results: Across groups, task performance accuracy during neutral inhibition trials was positively correlated with functional connectivity between the left caudate and the right middle frontal cortex. During inhibition in the gambling condition, only in PRGs accuracy of task performance was positively correlated with functional connectivity within sub-regions of the dorsal executive system. Group interactions showed that during neutral inhibition...

Individual Differences in Holistic Processing Predict the Own-Race Advantage in Recognition Memory

DeGutis, Joseph MIchael; Mercado, Rogelio J.; Wilmer, Jeremy Bennet; Rosenblatt, Andrew
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Individuals are consistently better at recognizing own-race faces compared to other-race faces (other-race effect, ORE). One popular hypothesis is that this recognition memory ORE is caused by differential own- and other-race holistic processing, the simultaneous integration of part and configural face information into a coherent whole. Holistic processing may create a more rich, detailed memory representation of own-race faces compared to other-race faces. Despite several studies showing that own-race faces are processed more holistically than other-race faces, studies have yet to link the holistic processing ORE and the recognition memory ORE. In the current study, we sought to use a more valid method of analyzing individual differences in holistic processing by using regression to statistically remove the influence of the control condition (part trials in the part-whole task) from the condition of interest (whole trials in the part-whole task). We also employed regression to separately examine the two components of the ORE: own-race advantage (regressing other-race from own-race performance) and other-race decrement (regressing own-race from other-race performance). First, we demonstrated that own-race faces were processed more holistically than other-race faces...

Attachment Patterns Trigger Differential Neural Signature of Emotional Processing in Adolescents

Escobar, Maria Josefina; Rivera-Rei, Alvaro; Decety, Jean; Huepe, David; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Canales-Johnson, Andres; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Helgiu, Elena; Baez, Sandra; Manes, Facundo; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibañez, Agustín
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Research suggests that individuals with different attachment patterns process social information differently, especially in terms of facial emotion recognition. However, few studies have explored social information processes in adolescents. This study examined the behavioral and ERP correlates of emotional processing in adolescents with different attachment orientations (insecure attachment group and secure attachment group; IAG and SAG, respectively). This study also explored the association of these correlates to individual neuropsychological profiles. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a modified version of the dual valence task (DVT), in which participants classify stimuli (faces and words) according to emotional valence (positive or negative). Results showed that the IAG performed significantly worse than SAG on tests of executive function (EF attention, processing speed, visuospatial abilities and cognitive flexibility). In the behavioral DVT, the IAG presented lower performance and accuracy. The IAG also exhibited slower RTs for stimuli with negative valence. Compared to the SAG, the IAG showed a negative bias for faces; a larger P1 and attenuated N170 component over the right hemisphere was observed. A negative bias was also observed in the IAG for word stimuli...

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of MicroRNA Processing Machinery Genes and Outcome of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Liu, Shuang; An, Jie; Lin, Jianhong; Liu, Yanli; Bao, Lidao; Zhang, Wen; Zhao, Jian-Jun
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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MicroRNA (miRNA)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (miR-SNPs) can affect cancer development, treatment efficacy and patients prognosis. We examined 6 miR-SNPs in miRNA processing machinery genes including exportin 5 (XPO5) (rs11077), Ran-GTPase (RAN) (rs14035), Dicer (rs3742330), Trinucleotide Repeat Containing 6B (TNRC6B) (rs9623117), GEMIN3 (rs197412), GEMIN4 (rs2740348) in 108 surgically resected HCC patients and evaluated the impact of these miR-SNPs on HCC outcome. Among the 6 SNPs, only the A/A genotype of rs11077 located in XPO5 3′UTR was identified to associated independently with worse survival in HCC patients by multivariate analysis with relative risk, 0.395; 95% CI, 0.167–0.933; p = 0.034. This is the first study reporting that polymorphisms related to miRSNPs have prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma and identify the A/A genotype of rs11077 SNP site located in XPO5 3′UTR can help to predict worse prognosis in patients.

Evidence-based medicine evaluation of electrophysiological studies of the anxiety disorders

Clark, C.; Galletly, C.; Ash, D.; Moores, K.; Penrose, R.; McFarlane, A.
Fonte: Electroencephalography and Clinical Neuroscience Society Publicador: Electroencephalography and Clinical Neuroscience Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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We provide a systematic, evidence-based medicine (EBM) review of the field of electrophysiology in the anxiety disorders. Presently, electrophysiological studies of anxiety focus primarily on etiological aspects of brain dysfunction. The review highlights many functional similarities across studies, but also identifies patterns that clearly differentiate disorder classifications. Such measures offer clinical utility as reliable and objective indicators of brain dysfunction in individuals and indicate potential as biomarkers for the improvement of diagnostic specificity and for informing treatment decisions and prognostic assessments. Common to most of the anxiety disorders is basal instability in cortical arousal, as reflected in measures of quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG). Resting electroencephalographic (EEG) measures tend to correlate with symptom sub-patterns and be exacerbated by condition-specific stimulation. Also common to most of the anxiety disorders are condition-specific difficulties with sensory gating and the allocation and deployment of attention. These are clearly evident from evoked potential (EP) and event-related potential (ERP) electrical measures of information processing in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)...

Pulsed ultraviolet laser ablation: Theoretical considerations and applications in medicine

Pettit, George H.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 161 p.; application/pdf
Português
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Pulsed ultraviolet lasers can be used to induce clean etching in organic and some inorganic materials. This effect is called photoablation or ablative photodecomposition. Although the precise cause remains unknown, this phenomenon is becoming of vital importance in micromachining, materials processing, and medicine. To better understand the photoablation process, a theoretical description of the process has been developed. This description is based on a treatment of the radiation transport of intense ultraviolet light pulses through absorbing organic material. The theory predicts deviations from Beer's Absorption Law at high intensities which are in fact observed. These discrepancies are due to three main effects: saturation of the finite number of chromophores in the material, multiphoton absorption, and attenuation of laser light by ablation products. Using the analysis to model the ablation process it is possible to describe observed ablation behaviors for a variety of synthetic and biological substrates. Excimer laser photoablation has also been studied experimentally as a means of removing occlusive arterial thrombi. Thrombi induced in canine coronary arteries were removed with XeF excimer laser light (351 nm) delivered via flexible optical fiber. The results of this study indicated that it was possible to remove significant thrombi (27 mg mass) within 3 minutes...

The Highly Conserved Bacterial RNase YbeY Is Essential in Vibrio cholerae, Playing a Critical Role in Virulence, Stress Regulation, and RNA Processing

Vercruysse, Maarten; Köhrer, Caroline; Davies, Bryan W.; Arnold, Markus F. F.; Mekalanos, John J.; RajBhandary, Uttam L.; Walker, Graham C.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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YbeY, a highly conserved protein, is an RNase in E. coli and plays key roles in both processing of the critical 3′ end of 16 S rRNA and in 70 S ribosome quality control under stress. These central roles account for YbeY's inclusion in the postulated minimal bacterial genome. However, YbeY is not essential in E. coli although loss of ybeY severely sensitizes it to multiple physiological stresses. Here, we show that YbeY is an essential endoribonuclease in Vibrio cholerae and is crucial for virulence, stress regulation, RNA processing and ribosome quality control, and is part of a core set of RNases essential in most representative pathogens. To understand its function, we analyzed the rRNA and ribosome profiles of a V. cholerae strain partially depleted for YbeY and other RNase mutants associated with 16 S rRNA processing; our results demonstrate that YbeY is also crucial for 16 S rRNA 3′ end maturation in V. cholerae and that its depletion impedes subunit assembly into 70 S ribosomes. YbeY's importance to V. cholerae pathogenesis was demonstrated by the complete loss of mice colonization and biofilm formation, reduced cholera toxin production, and altered expression levels of virulence-associated small RNAs of a V. cholerae strain partially depleted for YbeY. Notably...

Effects of Domain-Specific Noise on Visual Motion Processing in Schizophrenia

Chen, Yue; Norton, Daniel; McBain, Ryan
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Visual perception impairments in schizophrenia stem from abnormal information processing. Information processing requires neural response to a stimulus (signal) against a backdrop of 1) random variation in baseline neural activity (internal noise) and sometimes irrelevant environmental stimulation (external noise). Filtering out noise is a critical aspect of information processing, and needs to be critically examined in schizophrenia. Methods: To understand how noise in the visual system constrains perceptual processing, we devised a novel paradigm to build in both signal and external noise on same visual stimulus. Here, instead of uniformed noise, domain-specific noise—variations in stimulus speed—was introduced to evaluate the performance of schizophrenia patients in speed discrimination. Each motion stimulus—a random dot pattern (RDP) comprising 200 moving dots—included a range of speeds, drawn individually from a Gaussian distribution for each dot. The task for patients (n = 26) and controls (n = 28) was to identify which of two stimuli moved faster based on their mean speeds. Findings: Patients exhibited deficient speed discrimination at baseline, in the absence of speed noise. Their speed discrimination was further degraded in the presence of low and medium levels of external noise. In the presence of a high levels of noise...