Página 1 dos resultados de 12669 itens digitais encontrados em 0.031 segundos

Contribution of Hemagglutinin/Protease and Motility to the Pathogenesis of El Tor Biotype Cholera

Silva, Anisia J.; Leitch, Gordon J.; Camilli, Andrew; Benitez, Jorge A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63659%
Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile organism that secretes a Zn-dependent metalloprotease, hemagglutinin/protease (HapA). HapA has been shown to have mucinase activity and contribute to the reactogenicity of live vaccine candidates, but its role in cholera pathogenesis is not yet clear. The contribution of motility to pathogenesis is not fully understood, since conflicting results have been obtained with different strains, mutants, and animal models. The objective of this work was to determine the contribution of HapA and motility to the pathogenesis of El Tor biotype cholera. To this end we constructed isogenic motility (motY) and mucinase (hapA) single and double mutants of an El Tor biotype V. cholerae strain. Mutants were characterized for the expression of major virulence factors in vitro and in vivo. The motility mutant showed a remarkable increase in cholera toxin (CT), toxin coregulated pilus major subunit (TcpA), and HapA production in vitro. Increased TcpA and CT production could be explained by increased transcription of tcpA, ctxA, and toxT. No effect was detected on the transcription of hapA in the motility mutant. The sodium ionophore monensin diminished production of HapA in the parent but not in the motility mutant. Phenamil...

Molecular and Functional Characterization of a ToxR-Regulated Lipoprotein from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

Pillai, Lakshmi; Sha, Jian; Erova, Tatiana E.; Fadl, Amin A.; Khajanchi, Bijay K.; Chopra, Ashok K.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58442%
Human diseases caused by species of Aeromonas have been classified into two major groups: septicemia and gastroenteritis. In this study, we reported the molecular and functional characterization of a new virulence factor, ToxR-regulated lipoprotein, or TagA, from a diarrheal isolate, SSU, of Aeromonas hydrophila. The tagA gene of A. hydrophila exhibited 60% identity with that of a recently identified stcE gene from Escherichia coli O157:H7, which encoded a protein (StcE) that provided serum resistance to the bacterium and prevented erythrocyte lysis by controlling classical pathway of complement activation by cleaving the complement C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). We purified A. hydrophila TagA as a histidine-tagged fusion protein (rTagA) from E. coli DE3 strain using a T7 promoter-based pET30 expression vector and nickel affinity column chromatography. rTagA cleaved C1-INH in a time-dependent manner. The tagA isogenic mutant of A. hydrophila, unlike its corresponding wild-type (WT) or the complemented strain, was unable to cleave C1-INH, which is required to potentiate the C1-INH-mediated lysis of host and bacterial cells. We indeed demonstrated colocalization of C1-INH and TagA on the bacterial surface by confocal fluorescence microscopy...

Molecular Variations in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli FimH Affect Function and Pathogenesis in the Urinary Tract▿

Rosen, David A.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Walker, Jennifer N.; Elam, Jennifer Stine; Jones, Jennifer M.; Hultgren, Scott J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.721675%
Type 1 pili mediate binding, invasion, and biofilm formation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in the host urothelium during urinary tract infection (UTI) via the adhesin FimH. In this study, we characterized the molecular basis of functional differences between FimH of the UPEC isolate UTI89 and the Klebsiella pneumoniae cystitis isolate TOP52. Type 1 pili characteristically mediate mannose-sensitive hemagglutination of guinea pig erythrocytes. Although the adhesin domain of K. pneumoniae TOP52 FimH (FimH52) is highly homologous to that of E. coli, with an identical mannose binding pocket and surrounding hydrophobic ridge, it lacks the ability to agglutinate guinea pig erythrocytes. In addition, FimH-dependent biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae is inhibited by heptyl mannose, but not methyl mannose, suggesting the need for contacts outside of the mannose binding pocket. The binding specificity differences observed for FimH52 resulted in significant functional differences seen in the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae UTI compared to E. coli UTI. Infections in a murine model of UTI demonstrated that although the K. pneumoniae strain TOP52 required FimH52 for invasion and IBC formation in the bladder, FimH52 was not essential for early colonization. This work reveals that a limited amount of sequence variation between the FimH of E. coli and K. pneumoniae results in significant differences in function and ability to colonize the urinary tract.

Inherited pancreatic endocrine tumor syndromes: advances in molecular pathogenesis, diagnosis, management and controversies

Jensen, Robert T.; Berna, Marc J.; Bingham, David B; Norton, Jeffrey A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.643726%
Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) can occur in as part of four inherited disorders including: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), neurofibromatosis 1(NF-1) [von Recklinghausen’s disease] and the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The relative frequency with which patients with these disorders develop PETs is MEN1>VHL>NF-1>TSC. Over the last few years there have been major advances in the understanding of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of these disorders as well in the localization, medical and surgical treatment of the PETs in these patients. The study of the PETs in these disorders has not only provided insights into the possible pathogenesis of sporadic PETs, but have also presented a number of unique management and treatment issues, some of which are applicable to patients with sporadic PETs. Therefore the study of PETs in these uncommon disorders has provided valuable insights that in many cases are applicable to the general group of patients with sporadic PETs. In this article these areas are briefly reviewed as well as the current state of knowledge of the PETs in these disorders and the controversies that exist in their management are briefly summarized and discussed.

The host response and molecular pathogenesis associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection

Oshansky, Christine M; Zhang, Wenliang; Moore, Elizabeth; Tripp, Ralph A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.85411%
Since the isolation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in 1956, its significance as an important human pathogen in infants, the elderly and the immunocompromised has been established. Many important mechanisms contributing to RSV infection, replication and disease pathogenesis have been uncovered; however, there is still insufficient knowledge in these and related areas, which must be addressed to facilitate the development of safe and effective vaccines and therapeutic treatments. A better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of RSV infection, particularly the host-cell response and transcription profiles to RSV infection, is required to advance disease intervention strategies. Substantial information is accumulating regarding how RSV proteins modulate molecular signaling and regulation of cytokine and chemokine responses to infection, molecular signals regulating programmed cell death, and innate and adaptive immune responses to infection. This review discusses RSV manipulation of the host response to infection and related disease pathogenesis.

Thoracic aortic disease in tuberous sclerosis complex: molecular pathogenesis and potential therapies in Tsc2+/− mice

Cao, Jiumei; Gong, Limin; Guo, Dong-chuan; Mietzsch, Ulrike; Kuang, Shao-Qing; Kwartler, Callie S.; Safi, Hazim; Estrera, Anthony; Gambello, Michael J.; Milewicz, Dianna M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.643726%
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder with pleiotropic manifestations caused by heterozygous mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. One of the less investigated complications of TSC is the formation of aneurysms of the descending aorta, which are characterized on pathologic examination by smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation in the aortic media. SMCs were explanted from Tsc2+/− mice to investigate the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms caused by TSC2 mutations. Tsc2+/− SMCs demonstrated increased phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), S6 and p70S6K and increased proliferation rates compared with wild-type (WT) SMCs. Tsc2+/− SMCs also had reduced expression of SMC contractile proteins compared with WT SMCs. An inhibitor of mTOR signaling, rapamycin, decreased SMC proliferation and increased contractile protein expression in the Tsc2+/− SMCs to levels similar to WT SMCs. Exposure to α-elastin fragments also decreased proliferation of Tsc2+/− SMCs and increased levels of p27kip1, but failed to increase expression of contractile proteins. In response to artery injury using a carotid artery ligation model, Tsc2+/− mice significantly increased neointima formation compared with the control mice, and the neointima formation was inhibited by treatment with rapamycin. These results demonstrate that Tsc2 haploinsufficiency in SMCs increases proliferation and decreases contractile protein expression and suggest that the increased proliferative potential of the mutant cells may be suppressed in vivo by interaction with elastin. These findings provide insights into the molecular pathogenesis of aortic disease in TSC patients and identify a potential therapeutic target for treatment of this complication of the disease.

Growth Hormone (GH)-dependent Expression of a Natural Antisense Transcript Induces Zinc Finger E-box-binding Homeobox 2 (ZEB2) in the Glomerular Podocyte: A NOVEL ACTION OF GH WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PATHOGENESIS OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY*

Kumar, P. Anil; Kotlyarevska, Kateryna; Dejkhmaron, Prapai; Reddy, Gaddameedi R.; Lu, Chunxia; Bhojani, Mahaveer S.; Menon, Ram K.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.721675%
Growth hormone (GH) excess results in structural and functional changes in the kidney and is implicated as a causative factor in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Glomerular podocytes are the major barrier to the filtration of serum proteins, and altered podocyte function and/or reduced podocyte number is a key event in the pathogenesis of DN. We have previously shown that podocytes are a target for GH action. To elucidate the molecular basis for the effects of GH on the podocyte, we conducted microarray and RT-quantitative PCR analyses of immortalized human podocytes and identified zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) to be up-regulated in a GH dose- and time-dependent manner. We established that the GH-dependent increase in ZEB2 levels is associated with increased transcription of a ZEB2 natural antisense transcript required for efficient translation of the ZEB2 transcript. GH down-regulated expression of E- and P-cadherins, targets of ZEB2, and inhibited E-cadherin promoter activity. Mutation of ZEB2 binding sites on the E-cadherin promoter abolished this effect of GH on the E-cadherin promoter. Whereas GH increased podocyte permeability to albumin in a paracellular albumin influx assay, shRNA-mediated knockdown of ZEB2 expression abrogated this effect. We conclude that GH increases expression of ZEB2 in part by increasing expression of a ZEB2 natural antisense transcript. GH-dependent increase in ZEB2 expression results in loss of P- and E-cadherins in podocytes and increased podocyte permeability to albumin. Decreased expression of P- and E-cadherins is implicated in podocyte dysfunction and epithelial-mesenchymal transition observed in DN. We speculate that the actions of GH on ZEB2 and P- and E-cadherin expression play a role in the pathogenesis of microalbuminuria of DN.

MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS OF HEPATIC FIBROSIS AND CURRENT THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES

Mormone, Elisabetta; George, Joseph; Nieto, Natalia
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.643726%
The pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis involves significant deposition of fibrilar collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins. It is a rather dynamic process of wound healing in response to a variety of persistent liver injury caused by factors such as ethanol intake, viral infection, drugs, toxins, cholestasis and metabolic disorders. Liver fibrosis distorts the hepatic architecture, decreases the number of endothelial cell fenestrations and causes portal hypertension. Key events are the activation and transformation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells into myofibroblast-like cells with the subsequent up-regulation of proteins such as α-smooth muscle actin, interstitial collagens, matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases and proteoglycans. Oxidative stress is a major contributing factor to the onset of liver fibrosis and it is typically associated with a decrease in the antioxidant defense. Currently, there is no effective therapy for advanced liver fibrosis. In its early stages, liver fibrosis is reversible upon cessation of the causative agent. In this review, we discuss some aspects on the etiology of liver fibrosis, the cells involved, the molecular pathogenesis and the current therapeutic approaches.

The Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Implications of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Meguro, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Toru; Kawamoto, Masaki; Hirata, Koichi
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.632393%
The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is affected by tumoral factors and liver functions; therefore it is often difficult to select the appropriate therapeutic methods for HCC. Recently, two global phase III trials showed that sorafenib, which is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, improved the prognosis of patients with advanced HCC. As a new therapeutic strategy for HCC, sorafenib is expected to expand the indication for HCC in the future. However, it alone is insufficient for the molecular-targeted treatment of HCC because the signaling pathway exists not only in cancer cells but also in normal cells. Recently, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have attracted attention as a novel therapeutic target for HCC. There is now much evidence that stem cell properties such as self-renewal, unlimited proliferation, and differentiation are highly relevant to cancer recurrence and the drug resistance of HCC. In this review, we describe the molecular pathogenesis and the current state and future development of molecular- and CSC-therapeutic targeted agents for HCC, citing various reports.

Alveolar Soft Part Sarcomas: Molecular Pathogenesis and Implications for Novel Targeted Therapies

Mitton, Bryan; Federman, Noah
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.643726%
Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a very rare soft tissue sarcoma which arises primarily in children and young adults. Despite its unique histology and well-characterized genetic translocation, many questions remain regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of this tumor type. Though collective clinical experience with this tumor type spans more than 60 years, there has been little progress made in treating this uncommon but frequently fatal disease. This paper focuses on the available data regarding its molecular pathogenesis and insights into targeted therapeutics as well as the results of clinical trials performed to date to hopefully improve the outcome of patients with this rare malignancy.

Molecular Pathogenesis of Neuromyelitis Optica

Bukhari, Wajih; Barnett, Michael H; Prain, Kerri; Broadley, Simon A
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/10/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.721675%
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare autoimmune disorder, distinct from multiple sclerosis, causing inflammatory lesions in the optic nerves and spinal cord. An autoantibody (NMO IgG) against aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel expressed on astrocytes is thought to be causative. Peripheral production of the antibody is triggered by an unknown process in genetically susceptible individuals. Anti-AQP4 antibody enters the central nervous system (CNS) when the blood brain barrier is made permeable and has high affinity for orthogonal array particles of AQP4. Like other autoimmune diseases, Th17 cells and their effector cytokines (such as interleukin 6) have been implicated in pathogenesis. AQP4 expressing peripheral organs are not affected by NMO IgG, but the antibody causes extensive astrocytic loss in specific regions of the CNS through complement mediated cytotoxicity. Demyelination occurs during the inflammatory process and is probably secondary to oligodendrocyte apoptosis subsequent to loss of trophic support from astrocytes. Ultimately, extensive axonal injury leads to severe disability. Despite rapid advances in the understanding of NMO pathogenesis, unanswered questions remain, particularly with regards to disease mechanisms in NMO IgG seronegative cases. Increasing knowledge of the molecular pathology is leading to improved treatment strategies.

Analysis of the Molecular Pathogenesis of Cardiomyopathy-Causing cTnT Mutants I79N, ΔE96, and ΔK210

Bai, Fan; Caster, Hannah M.; Pinto, Jose R.; Kawai, Masataka
Fonte: The Biophysical Society Publicador: The Biophysical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/05/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58442%
Three troponin T (TnT) mutants that cause hypertrophic, restrictive, and dilated cardiomyopathy (I79N, ΔE96, and ΔK210, respectively), were examined using the thin-filament extraction/reconstitution technique. Effects of Ca2+, ATP, phosphate, and ADP concentrations on force and its transients were studied at 25°C. Maximal Ca2+ tension (THC) and Ca2+-activatable tension (Tact), respectively, were similar among I79N, ΔE96, and WT, whereas ΔK210 led to a significantly lower THC (∼20% less) and Tact (∼25% less) than did WT. In pCa solution containing 8 mM Pi and ionic strength adjusted to 200 mM, the Ca2+ sensitivity (pCa50) of I79N (5.63 ± 0.02) and ΔE96 (5.60 ± 0.03) was significantly greater than that of WT (5.45 ± 0.04), but the pCa50 of ΔK210 (5.54 ± 0.04) remained similar to that of WT. Five equilibrium constants were deduced using sinusoidal analysis. All three mutants showed significantly lower K0 (ADP association constant) and larger K4 (equilibrium constant of force generation step) relative to the corresponding values for WT. I79N and ΔK210 were associated with a K2 (equilibrium constant of cross-bridge detachment step) significantly lower than that of ΔE96 and WT. These results demonstrated that at pCa 4.66...

Molecular pathogenesis and mechanisms of thyroid cancer

Xing, Mingzhao
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66489%
Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine malignancy. There has been exciting progress in understanding its molecular pathogenesis in recent years, as best exemplified by the elucidation of the fundamental role of several major signalling pathways and related molecular derangements. Central to these mechanisms are the genetic and epigenetic alterations in these pathways, such as mutation, gene copy-number gain and aberrant gene methylation. Many of these molecular alterations represent novel diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers and therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer, which provide unprecedented opportunities for further research and clinical development of novel treatment strategies for this cancer.

LuxR Homologue SmcR Is Essential for Vibrio vulnificus Pathogenesis and Biofilm Detachment, and Its Expression is Induced by Host Cells

Kim, Seung Min; Park, Jin Hwan; Lee, Hyun Sung; Kim, Won Bin; Ryu, Jung Min; Han, Ho Jae; Choi, Sang Ho
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63659%
Quorum sensing is a cell-to-cell communication system known to control many bacterial processes. In the present study, the functions of quorum sensing in the pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus, a food-borne pathogen, were assessed by evaluating the virulence of a mutant deficient in SmcR, a quorum-sensing regulator and homologue of LuxR. When biofilms were used as an inoculum, the smcR mutant was impaired in virulence and colonization capacity in the infection of mice. The lack of SmcR also resulted in decreased histopathological damage in mouse jejunum tissue. These results indicated that SmcR is essential for V. vulnificus pathogenesis. Moreover, the smcR mutant exhibited significantly reduced biofilm detachment. Upon exposure to INT-407 host cells, the wild type, but not the smcR mutant, revealed accelerated biofilm detachment. The INT-407 cells increased smcR expression by activating the expression of LuxS, an autoinducer-2 synthase, indicating that host cells manipulate the cellular level of SmcR through the quorum-sensing signaling of V. vulnificus. A whole-genome microarray analysis revealed that the genes primarily involved in biofilm detachment and formation are up- and downregulated by SmcR, respectively. Among the SmcR-regulated genes...

Insights into the Molecular Pathogenesis of Activated B-Cell-like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Its Therapeutic Implications

Lenz, Georg
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/05/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.721675%
Within the last couple of years, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has significantly improved. Large-scale gene expression profiling studies have led to the discovery of several molecularly defined subtypes that are characterized by specific oncogene addictions and significant differences in their outcome. Next generation sequencing efforts combined with RNA interference screens frequently identify crucial oncogenes that lead to constitutive activation of various signaling pathways that drive lymphomagenesis. This review summarizes our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL subtype that is characterized by poor prognosis. A special emphasis is put on findings that might impact therapeutic strategies of affected patients.

Concepts on the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Bone growth and mass, vertebral column, spinal cord, brain, skull, extra-spinal left-right skeletal length asymmetries, disproportions and molecular pathogenesis.

Burwell, R.; Dangerfield, P.; Freeman, B.
Fonte: IOS Press Publicador: IOS Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.86336%
There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the causes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Encouraging advances thought to be related to AIS pathogenesis have recently been made in several fields including anthropometry of bone growth, bone mass, spinal growth modulation, extra-spinal left-right skeletal length asymmetries and disproportions, magnetic resonance imaging of vertebral column, spinal cord, brain, skull, and molecular pathogenesis. These advances are leading to the evaluation of new treatments including attempts at minimally invasive surgery on the spine and peri-apical ribs. Several concepts of AIS are outlined indicating their clinical applications but not their research potential. The concepts, by derivation morphological, molecular and mathematical, are addressed in 15 sections: 1) initiating and progressive factors; 2) relative anterior spinal overgrowth; 3) dorsal shear forces that create axial rotational instability; 4) rotational preconstraint; 5) uncoupled, or asynchronous, spinal neuro-osseous growth; 6) brain, nervous system and skull; 7) a novel neuro-osseous escalator concept based on a putative abnormality of two normal polarized processes namely, a) increasing skeletal dimensions, and b) the CNS body schema – both contained within a neuro-osseous timing of maturation (NOTOM) concept; 8) transverse plane pelvic rotation...

Molecular pathogenesis of urothelial bladder cancer

Theodorescu, D.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58442%
Carcinoma of the urinary bladder is the second most common urologic malignancy. In addition, these tumors are one of the best understood genitourinary neoplasms with a well defined etiology, natural history, tumor biology, treatment options and outcome. This level of understanding arises as a consequence of multiple factors and represents a convergence of knowledge from diverse scientific disciplines. Insight provided by these disciplines, coupled with unique features of this neoplasm which make it assessable for detection, monitoring and treatment, combine to make this disease a model system for modern oncology. The intent of this review is to provide the reader an overview of our current understanding of this tumor from the standpoint of its molecular biology as related to tumor development and progression.

Recent Advances in the Molecular Pathogenesis of Ewing's Sarcoma

Toomey, Elizabeth C.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Lessnick, Stephen L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.721675%
Tumor development is a complex process resulting from interplay between mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressors, host susceptibility factors, and cellular context. Great advances have been made by studying rare tumors with unique clinical, genetic, or molecular features. Ewing's sarcoma serves as an excellent paradigm for understanding tumorigenesis because it exhibits some very useful and important characteristics. For example, nearly all cases of Ewing's sarcoma contain the (11;22)(q24;q12) chromosomal translocation that encodes the EWS/FLI oncoprotein. Besides the t(11;22), however, many cases have otherwise simple karyotypes with no other demonstrable abnormalities. Furthermore, it appears that an underlying genetic susceptibility to Ewing's sarcoma, if it exists, must be rare. These two features suggest that EWS/FLI is the primary mutation that drives the development of this tumor. Finally, Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive tumor that requires aggressive treatment. Thus, improved understanding of the pathogenesis of this tumor will not only be of academic interest, but may also lead to new therapeutic approaches for individuals afflicted with this disease. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of Ewing's sarcoma...

Molecular Pathogenesis and Cellular Pathology of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 7 Neurodegeneration

Garden, Gwenn A.; La Spada, Albert R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.632393%
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is unique among CAG / polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat diseases due to dramatic intergenerational instability in repeat length and an associated cone-rod dystrophy retinal degeneration phenotype. SCA7 is caused by a polyQ expansion in the protein ataxin-7. Like other neurodegenerative diseases caused by polyQ expansion mutations, the spectrum of clinical severity and disease progression worsens with increasing polyQ length. Several potential mechanisms for the molecular pathogenesis of polyQ-expanded ataxin-7 have been suggested. These include, but are not limited to, alteration of endogenous ataxin-7 function, abnormal processing and stability of polyQ ataxin-7, and alteration of transcriptional regulation via interaction of polyQ-expanded ataxin-7 with other transcriptional regulators. Ataxin-7's normal function as a transcription factor may contribute to the selective vulnerability of specific cellular populations in SCA7, and the resolution of the mechanistic basis of this pathogenic cascade is a major focus of SCA7 disease research. PolyQ-expanded ataxin-7 can cause non-cell autonomous neurodegeneration in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Advances in understanding SCA7's molecular basis have led to important insights into cell-type specific neurodegeneration. We expect that further study of ataxin-7 normal function...

Genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to eosinophilic esophagitis

Holvoet,Sébastien; Blanchard,Carine
Fonte: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas Publicador: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.76965%
From the epidemiologic studies, to the first genome wide association study in 2010, the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of EoE has been both inspiring and puzzling. Epidemiologic studies have highlighted the contribution of the genetic in the EoE disease by emphasizing the presence of familial type of EoE, but has also revealed the complexity of its transmission that does not follow a Mendelian inheritance. The molecular pathogenesis advances have helped in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying this esophageal inflammation but has also allow the identification of candidate genes for which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are associated with the disease. Recently, the genome wide analysis of more than half a million single nucleotide polymorphism has allowed the identification of gene variations associated with the EoE disease and has led to substantial advance in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to EoE. Undeniably, EoE is a complex polygenic disease and we certainly are only at the ground level of its detailed comprehension.