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Ética e educação em John Dewey: o homem comum e a imaginação moral na sociedade democrática; Ethics and education in John Dewey: the common man and the moral imagination in democratic society

Trindade, Christiane Coutheux
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/08/2014 Português
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John Dewey (1859-1952) responde por reflexões pedagógicas de grande disseminação, encontradas em meio a uma vasta produção que trata de múltiplas questões prementes de seu tempo, em particular aquelas relacionadas à democracia. Partindo da premissa de que sua filosofia da educação é melhor compreendida quando associada a suas reflexões mais abrangentes, elegeu-se como objetivo desta pesquisa a análise da ressonância da ética de John Dewey em seus ideais pedagógicos, diante de sua concepção de sociedade democrática. O autor se opõe à compreensão da moral como reduto exclusivo da subjetividade sua ética é social e cultural, nascendo o exercício moral de um contexto que serve de base para a busca de alternativas diante de conflitos. Impulso, dever, desejo, interesse, hábito e consequência são componentes da deliberação moral, que ocasionalmente entram em disputa e contam com o apoio da razão e da sensibilidade para descobrirem formas de se harmonizar esse ajuste é a ética, que se efetiva ao considerar as possibilidades de crescimento pessoal e comum que uma decisão traz. Importa a Dewey devolver a ética ao homem comum, nas sua ações cotidianas, para que cada um possa tomar parte das responsabilidades sobre si mesmo e sobre a vida comunitária. Somos constituídos por nossos atos e...

DETESTABLE OR MARVELOUS? -- NEUROANATOMICAL CORRELATES OF CHARACTER JUDGMENTS

Croft, Katie E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Kovach, Christopher K.; Anderson, Steven W.; Adolphs, Ralph; Tranel, Daniel
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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As we learn new information about the social and moral behaviors of other people, we form and update character judgments of them, and this can profoundly influence how we regard and act towards others. In the study reported here, we capitalized on two interesting neurological patient populations where this process of complex “moral updating” may go awry: patients with bilateral damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and patients with bilateral damage to hippocampus (HC). We predicted that vmPFC patients, who have impaired emotion processing, would exhibit reduced moral updating, and we also investigated how moral updating might be affected by severe declarative memory impairment in HC patients. The vmPFC, HC, and brain-damaged comparison (BDC) participants made moral judgments about unfamiliar persons before and after exposure to social scenarios depicting the persons engaged in morally good, bad, or neutral behaviors. In line with our prediction, the vmPFC group showed the least amount of change in moral judgments, and interestingly, the HC group showed the most amount of change. These results suggest that the vmPFC and hippocampus play critical but complementary roles in updating moral character judgments about others: the vmPFC may attribute emotional salience to moral information...

The Relationship Between Effort and Moral Worth: Three Amendments to Sorensen’s Model

Douglas, Thomas
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Kelly Sorensen defends a model of the relationship between effort and moral worth in which the effort exerted in performing a morally desirable action contributes positively to the action’s moral worth, but the effort required to perform the action detracts from its moral worth. I argue that Sorensen’s model, though on the right track, is mistaken in three ways. First, it fails to capture the relevance of counterfactual effort to moral worth. Second, it wrongly implies that exerting unnecessary effort confers moral worth on an action. Third, it fails to adequately distinguish between cases in which effort is required because of defects of moral character and those in which effort is required because of barriers external to moral character, such as social pressures or non-moral cognitive deficits. I suggest three amendments to Sorensen’s model that correct these three defects.

Para inspirar confian?a: considera??es sobre a forma??o moral em Kant

Oliveira, M?rio Nogueira de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto Publicador: Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto
Tipo: Artigo publicado em periodico
Português
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Este artigo trata da forma??o moral do homem segundo Kant. Para ele, ?o homem, afetado por tantas inclina??es, ? na verdade capaz de conceber a id?ia de uma raz?o pura pr?tica, mas n?o ? t?o facilmente dotado da for?a necess?ria para a tornar eficaz in concreto no seu comportamento?. Deste modo, para implementar nossas m?ximas de comportamento Kant elabora seu estudo sobre a forma??o do homem para lev?-lo a uma vida livre e moral. _____________________________________________Abstract: This article treats the concept of moral formation according to Kant. He sustains that "man, affected by many inclinations, is able to conceive the idea of a pure practical reason, but is not equally able to make it effective in his behavior". So, in order to improve our maxims of behavior Kant elaborates his study on man education in order to lead him to freedom and morality.

La critique de la raison pure, une œuvre inachevée

Westra, Adam
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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RÉSUMÉ: Selon Kant, il faut rendre la Critique plus compréhensible. Cela revient à doter son exposition d’un plus haut degré de lucidité (Helligkeit), c’est-à-dire combiner la clarté discursive avec une clarté intuitive. Pour ce faire, nous représentons les grandes lignes de la structure discursive de la Critique sous la forme d’un modèle emprunté à la description de la formation du caractère moral esquissé dans l’Anthropologie. Ainsi, la raison est d’abord régie par son « instinct de connaissance » (Wißbegierde, Erkenntnistrieb), qui la plonge dans un état de vacillement (Schwankender Zustand). Ensuite, elle réagit par du dégoût (Überdruß), ce rejet ouvrant la voie à l’introspection (Selbsterkenntnis) proprement critique. La raison entreprend alors une révolution de son mode de pensée spéculatif (Revolution der Denkungsart) consistant à passer, sous l’égide du devoir moral (Pflicht), de la malhonnêteté à l’honnêteté, envers soi-même ainsi qu’envers autrui. Il s’agit, en un mot, d’une « renaissance » (Wiedergeburt) morale.; ABSTRACT: According to Kant, the Critique must be made more comprehensible. This entails increasing the degree of lucidity (Helligkeit) of the exposition...

A Mixed-Method Study of Educator Knowledge and Practice Related to Student Socio-moral Development

Rizzo, Kelly Joelle
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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The purpose of this study was to explore elementary educators’ knowledge of moral development, how this knowledge relates to their beliefs and sense of efficacy pertaining to character education practices and the socio-moral reasoning of their students. It was hypothesized that educators’ beliefs and practices related to character education would reflect their pedagogy rather than knowledge of moral development theory. It was further hypothesized that there would be differences in student socio-moral reasoning specifically the beliefs and desires that guide actions would differ based on grade and gender. This mixed-method study employing self-report questionnaires, open response vignettes, and semi-structured educator interviews yielded quantitative and qualitative data. Findings indicated socio-moral reasoning of students differed according to grade (age) and gender. Knowledge of moral development theory was found to vary among participants however some practices employed by educators did align with a social cognitive approach to moral development. Significant variables identified consistently among educator and student participants included, autonomy, social competence, sense of school community, and supportiveness. These variables...

Perceptions of Character Education in a Seventh-Day Adventist School

Tyrell, Marva E.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Character education has been viewed by many educators as having significant historical, academic, and social value. Many stakeholders in education argue for character development as a curricular experience. While understanding the degree to which character education is of worth to stakeholders of institutions is important, understanding students, teachers, and administrators perspectives from their lived experiences is likewise significant. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain a deeper understanding of character education within a Biblical framework environment by examining the lived experiences of students, administrators, and teachers of a Seventh-day Adventist School. Phenomenology describes individuals’ daily experiences of phenomena, the manner in which these experiences are structured, and focuses analysis on the perspectives of the persons having the experience (Moustakas, 1994). ). This inquiry was undertaken to answer the question: What are the perceptions of students, teachers, and an administrator toward character education in a Seventh-day Adventist school setting? Ten participants (seven students and three adults) formed the homogeneous purposive sample, and the major data collection tool was semi-structured interviews (Patton...

The utilitarian imagination: an inquiry into the relationship between character formation, moral freedom and social reform in John Stuart Mill’s Moral Science.

Goldstone, Alan
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis examines John Stuart Mill‘s conception of moral character and his views on the possibility and importance of moral self-development. The purpose and substance of Mill‘s project were conceived and developed within a dense intellectual nexus of romantic, liberal, utilitarian, naturalist and Kantian insights. These must be disentangled if we are to comprehend his paradigm of moral character. Mill‘s attempts to incorporate these ideas into a systematic Moral Science—including psychology, ethics and sociology—required a trenchant critique of certain types of social and political reform. The evolution of Mill‘s critique is contextualised by an analysis of his engagement with four thinkers he came to consider inimical to his moral and political goals: Thomas Hobbes, Jeremy Bentham, Robert Owen and Auguste Comte. This thesis offers detailed analyses of Mill‘s critique of religion and his doctrine of international non-intervention, two themes that remain controversial and misunderstood in scholarly literature. An examination of these themes illuminates Mill‘s thinking in two important ways. First, it demonstrates that Mill‘s ideas of freedom and character formation utilise moralised ideas about the importance of moral and emotional development to political philosophy. Second...

Does the United States Naval Academy Admissions Board evaluate an applicant's moral values if so, how?

Clemans, Craig C.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xi, 95 p. : ill. ;
Português
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If moral character is an important trait for an officer, one would assume that the United States Naval Academy would admit only those who possess the requisite moral values. This study explored that assumption. Through the literature review, this study examined the Admission Board's process for evaluating an applicant's moral values, its' charter and each step of the admissions process. The study considered what impact the espoused values of the Naval Academy had on the Admissions Board members and their determinations with regard to applicants.

Moral Dimensions of Grading in High School English

Zoeckler, Laurence Gerard
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
Português
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Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, School of Education, 2005; Moral issues are deeply embedded in the grading practices of high school English teachers. The problem of giving the right grade for each pupil is central to the study's examination of grading practices of the English department in an upstate New York high school. Arriving at a fair grade, weighing in both achievement and non-achievement factors such as effort and attitude in determining grades, and the role of teachers' expectations in terms of perceived student ability and progress are examined using a theoretical framework derived chiefly from Jackson, Boostrom, and Hansen's The Moral LIfe of Schools (1993). The framework considers the grading process in terms of truth, worthwhileness, trust, and intellectual and moral attentiveness. A series of semi-structured interviews conducted over the course of an entire school year provide the data for examining the teachers' grading practices and perspectives. Results indicate that English teachers struggle with issues of fairness, but are confident that their grades communicate the messages they hope to send. Grading strategies are adjusted depending on purpose, and are sometimes altered due to school district grade reporting procedures. Early in the school year...

The Dalhousie Dentistry Story: A Case for Proportionality, Professionalism, and the Promotion of Moral Character

Bensimon, Cécile M.
Fonte: Programmes de bioéthique et l’Association des étudiants de bioéthique de l’Université de Montréal (AÉBiUM) Publicador: Programmes de bioéthique et l’Association des étudiants de bioéthique de l’Université de Montréal (AÉBiUM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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La tribune de l'éditeur / Editor's Soapbox

Character before the Novel: Representing Moral Identity in the Age of Shakespeare

Graham, Jamey Elizabeth
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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This dissertation argues that the modern concept of literary character was an unintended consequence of Renaissance moral poetics. The evolution of "character" as a term of literary analysis, from the rediscovery of Aristotle's Poetics in sixteenth-century Italy to the establishment of modern English usage in the late seventeenth century, is the focus of the first half of my work. Aristotle invented a theory of mimetic realism whereby the representation of types of character renders transparent the moral ideology operative in a culture. By placing types into a plot revealing how they do or do not conduce to human flourishing, the Aristotelian poet engages in ideological critique. As I claim, Renaissance humanists revived the form of the Aristotelian character type yet looked to the ethics of Christian Neo-Platonism or Neo-Stoicism to ground any ideological critique. The result was an array of eclectic accounts of poetic character's relation to the political subject. Through close examinations of three authors in the second half of my work, I elucidate the internal tensions and creative opportunities posed by such accounts. Michel de Montaigne's statements concerning the representation of moral character in the Essais test various criticisms and partial recuperations of Stoic-Aristotelian epideixis. I argue that Montaigne eventually attaches to the humanist image of the inspired poet...

The General Point of View: Love and Moral Approval in Hume's Ethics

Korsgaard, Christine
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Português
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Hume thinks moral judgments are based on sentiments of approval and disapproval we feel when we contemplate someone from a “general point of view.” But why do we take up the general point of view? Hume argues that we take up the general point of view in order to avoid contradictions in our moral judgments, but this argument does not work because we do not make moral judgments until we take up the general point of view. This chapter proposes a different account. Hume argues that approval is a calm form of love, love of character, which sets a normative standard for other forms of love. The chapter argues that character, as a form of causality, is constructed from the general point of view. We take up the general view to view people as agents with characters, that is, as possible objects of love.; Philosophy

La Identitat moral la gènesi de la idea d'humanitat /

Obiols i Solà, Maria Dolors
Fonte: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2003 Português
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Consultable des del TDX; Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada; La línia temàtica que ocupa el contingut fonamental d'aquesta tesi és la presentació de les visions més significatives en materia de identitat moral, i que podem discernir en el fil de la història de las idees. En la retrospectiva històrica que he desenvolupat he volgut mostrar l'evolució del concepte d'humanitat. La reconstrucció d'aquesta idea ha estat possible a través de la recuperació de tres paradigmes conceptuals: la visió del món grec, que s'expressa a través del moment aristotèlic; la visió cristiana, a través del pensament de sant Agustí; i el periode il·lustrat des de la filosofia de Kant. La clau interpretativa utilizada para abordar el pensament dels autors esmentats constitueix un enfoc analític adreçat als conceptes rellevants que composen els seus respectius discursos; tant pel què fa a l'antropologia filosòfica, com al pensament moral i social. A partir d'aquest tipus d'anàlisi ha estat possible el reestabliment del nexe, siempre subjacent, entre la teoria antropològica, i la filosofia moral i social. Per la qual cosa, els diferents conceptes de natura humana, que se'ns descobreixen a través del viatge per les fases claus de la història de la filosofia...

Detestable or marvelous? Neuroanatomical correlates of character judgments

Croft, Katie E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Kovach, Christopher K.; Anderson, Steven W.; Adolphs, Ralph; Tranel, Daniel
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.061472%
As we learn new information about the social and moral behaviors of other people, we form and update character judgments of them, and this can profoundly influence how we regard and act towards others. In the study reported here, we capitalized on two interesting neurological patient populations where this process of complex “moral updating” may go awry: patients with bilateral damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and patients with bilateral damage to hippocampus (HC). We predicted that vmPFC patients, who have impaired emotion processing, would exhibit reduced moral updating, and we also investigated how moral updating might be affected by severe declarative memory impairment in HC patients. The vmPFC, HC, and brain-damaged comparison (BDC) participants made moral judgments about unfamiliar persons before and after exposure to social scenarios depicting the persons engaged in morally good, bad, or neutral behaviors. In line with our prediction, the vmPFC group showed the least amount of change in moral judgments, and interestingly, the HC group showed the most amount of change. These results suggest that the vmPFC and hippocampus play critical but complementary roles in updating moral character judgments about others: the vmPFC may attribute emotional salience to moral information...

Psicologia moral e educação: para além de crianças "boazinhas"; Moral psychology and education: moving beyond "nice" children

Nucci, Larry
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2000 Português
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As rápidas mudanças sociais têm pleiteado, nos EUA, o retorno do ensino de valores tradicionais por meio de programas de educação do caráter. Esses esforços visam fomentar virtudes que levam as crianças a se tornarem pessoas "boazinhas", educadas, respeitosas e que tratem os outros com justiça. Ainda que se concorde com esse propósito, dúvidas podem ser levantadas a respeito da suficiência dessa abordagem da socialização no que diz respeito ao desenvolvimento humano numa perspectiva moral crítica. Tal perspectiva é necessária para que uma pessoa possa avaliar, a partir de um ponto de vista moral, seus valores socialmente adquiridos. Na ausência de tal capacidade, não se pode evitar a reincidência da imoralidade entranhada no conjunto existente de normas sociais. Assim sendo, o autor discute pesquisas e teorias atuais sobre o desenvolvimento social infantil que oferecem uma base a partir da qual se possam construir programas educacionais para além da preparação das crianças com vistas ao enquadramento no status quo moral. Este trabalho indica que, em todas as fases do desenvolvimento, as concepções de moralidade são distintas daquelas oriundas de outros valores sociais e convenções não morais. Ao final...

Para um estudo psicológico das virtudes morais; For a psychological study of moral virtues

La Taille, Yves de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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O propósito deste artigo é defender a importância de estudos psicológicos das virtudes morais (como generosidade, coragem, humildade, fidelidade etc.). Tal defesa é realizada de várias formas. Do ponto de vista filosófico, o tema das virtudes não somente é clássico (Ver Aristóteles, por exemplo) como tem sido rediscutido por autores contemporâneos descontentes com as limitações da ética moderna, em geral baseada no conceito de direito. Do ponto de vista psicológico, o autor defende a idéia segundo a qual as virtudes morais não somente participam da gênese da moralidade, como representam traços de caráter essenciais à coesão da personalidade moral. Tal perspectiva está, de certa forma, anunciada na obra de Piaget sobre o juízo moral, como em autores outros como Tugendhat. Ela está também presente nos estudos sobre a relação entre o sentimento de vergonha e a ética. Finalmente, aponta-se que, no que se refere à educação moral, as virtudes podem representar um tema rico e sugestivo para a reflexão das crianças e adolescentes.; The purpose of this article is to advocate the importance of psychological studies of the moral virtues (such as generosity, courage, modesty, faithfulness, etc.). This argument is proposed by several ways. From the philosophical viewpoint...

An Honest Dissertation: Exploring the Roles of Culture and Character in Shaping Individual Dishonesty

Mann, Heather
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The question of what leads an individual to act dishonestly interests researchers, policy-makers, and lay-people alike. While a growing body of research suggests that dishonest behavior is typically limited, and reflects a balance of internal and external incentives, important questions remain unanswered. To what extent is honest behavior guided by stable, internal factors (i.e. moral character), and to what extent is it shaped by situational factors? This question is the subject of continuing and recently revived debate. To what extent do socio-cultural factors impact dishonesty, and to what extent is dishonesty universal? Casual observation suggests significant cross-cultural variation in terms of specific dishonest behaviors (e.g. soliciting bribes), but this source of variation has received little research attention. In five related research chapters encompassing three studies, I explore questions about character and culture using empirical research methods. Using a behavioral die task, I find similar patterns of dishonest behavior across individuals from different countries, though within-country differences are also observed. Using survey data, I find that internal sanctions are the most important deterrent of dishonesty across cultures. In addition...

Moral Character versus Situations: an Aristotelian contribution to the debate; Moral Character versus Situations: an Aristotelian contribution to the debate

Marmodoro, Anna
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2012 Português
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; In everyday life we assume substantial behavioural reliability in others, and on the basis of it wetalk of people as acting “in character” and “out of character”. This common assumption seemsintuitively well founded. But recent experiments in social psychology have generatedphilosophical controversy around it. In the context of this debate, John Doris challengesAristotle’s well known and influential view that people’s behavioural reliability with respect toacting virtuously is underpinned by character traits, understood as settled and integrateddispositions of the agent to have appropriate judgment and appropriate feelings toward what sheis called upon to do in a given situation. In this paper I will take John Doris’ challenge at facevalue, and argue in response that Aristotle’s position is not undermined by it. In fact, rethinkingAristotle’s realism about character and moral virtues in light of Doris’ criticism has important andhitherto unexplored heuristic value for Aristotelian scholars and situationist philosophers alike.

Aristotle on the possibility of changing the character; Aristóteles e a Possibilidade da Mudança de Caráter

Hobuss, João; Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel)
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/12/2013 Português
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In Nicomachean Ethics, book 2, Aristotle clearly states that the repeated  practice of virtuous actions leads to the formation of a certain state of character, that is, habituation would work as a second nature due to the fixedness and state it  establishes, what would apparently prevent any character modifications. The problem lies in the fact that several Corpus Aristotelicum passages seem to contradict this statement, allowing a different interpretation from the one that would suggest the idea of habituation as something that works similarly to nature. This article proposes to investigate an eventual interpretation, both in the Ethics and other works in the Corpus Aristotelicum, of the possibility of character change, decadence, or moral reform, as well as its implications on the investigation of determinism and moral responsibility issues.; No livro dois da Ética Nicomaqueia, Aristóteles afirma com clareza que a prática reiterada de ações virtuosas leva à constituição de uma determinada disposição de caráter, ou seja, o hábito funcionaria como uma segunda natureza, em função da fixidez e estabilidade da disposição por ele constituída, o que aparentemente impediria qualquer modificação no que concerne ao caráter. O problema é que várias passagens do Corpus Aristotelicum parecem contradizer esta asserção...