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Structure of an Odorant-Binding Protein from the Mosquito Aedes aegypti Suggests a Binding Pocket Covered by a pH-Sensitive ""Lid""

LEITE, Ney Ribeiro; KROGH, Renata; XU, Wei; ISHIDA, Yuko; IULEK, Jorge; LEAL, Walter S.; OLIVA, Glaucius
Fonte: PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE Publicador: PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for the viruses that cause yellow fever, mostly in tropical regions of Africa and in parts of South America, and human dengue, which infects 100 million people yearly in the tropics and subtropics. A better understanding of the structural biology of olfactory proteins may pave the way for the development of environmentally-friendly mosquito attractants and repellents, which may ultimately contribute to reduction of mosquito biting and disease transmission. Methodology: Previously, we isolated and cloned a major, female-enriched odorant-binding protein (OBP) from the yellow fever mosquito, AaegOBP1, which was later inadvertently renamed AaegOBP39. We prepared recombinant samples of AaegOBP1 by using an expression system that allows proper formation of disulfide bridges and generates functional OBPs, which are indistinguishable from native OBPs. We crystallized AaegOBP1 and determined its three-dimensional structure at 1.85 angstrom resolution by molecular replacement based on the structure of the malaria mosquito OBP, AgamOBP1, the only mosquito OBP structure known to date. Conclusion: The structure of AaegOBP1 (= AaegOBP39) shares the common fold of insect OBPs with six alpha-helices knitted by three disulfide bonds. A long molecule of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was built into the electron-density maps identified in a long tunnel formed by a crystallographic dimer of AaegOBP1. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that delipidated AaegOBP1 undergoes a pH-dependent conformational change...

Analise matematica de um modelo de controle de populações de mosquitos; A mathematical analysis of a model of control of mosquito populations

Anderson Luis Albuquerque de Araujo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/02/2008 Português
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Neste trabalho, consideramos um problema de controle ótimo governado por uma equação diferencial parcial parabólica, que modela o crescimento e a difusão de uma população de mosquitos em uma certa região do plano. Para este modelo relativamente simples, mostramos a existência de uma trajetória ótima a ser seguida por uma unidade volante de pulverização de inseticida, no sentido de minimizar um certo funcional que leva em conta a população total de mosquitos bem como os custos da operação. Caracterizamos também tais trajetórias (controles) ótimas pela derivação de suas respectivas condições de otimalidade de primeira ordem. Para isso, usamos o formalismo de Dubovitskii e Milyutin, o qual está baseado na separação de certos cones associados ao funcional a ser minimizado e ás restrições do problema, incluindo a equação. Também analisamos o problema do ponto de vista do método de penalização.; In this work, we consider an optimal control problem governed by a parabolic partial differential equation, which models the growth and diffusion of a mosquito population in a certain region of the Euclidean plane. For this relatively simple model, we show the existence of an optimal trajectory to be followed by a insecticide spraying device...

Análise matemática de um modelo de controle de populações de mosquitos; A mathematical analysis of a model for control of mosquito populations

Anderson Luis Albuquerque de Araujo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/07/2010 Português
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A proliferação de mosquitos em regiões habitadas é uma importante questão de saúde pública, uma vez que tais insetos são vetores de várias doenças infecciosas. Assim, o estudo de técnicas de controle de populações de mosquitos tem um papel relevante na busca da eficiência no seu combate; em particular, a compreensão adequada de modelos matemáticos que descrevem tais situações pode auxiliar na tomada de decisão sobre quais seriam os procedimentos mais adequados para atingir este fim. Com este objetivo, neste trabalho fizemos a análise matemática rigorosa de um certo problema de controle ótimo associado a uma equação diferencial parcial que modela o crescimento e a difusão de uma população de mosquitos em uma região dada. Analisamos o problema de controlar tal população através da aplicação de inseticida por uma unidade volante de pulverização, buscando trajetórias ótimas a serem seguidas por esta unidade a fim de minimizar um certo funcional que envolve tanto a população total quanto os custos da operação.; The proliferation of mosquitoes in inhabited regions is an important public health issue since these insects are vectors of several infectious diseases. Thus, the study of techniques for controlling of mosquito populations has an important role in the quest for efficient combat techniques; in particular...

Some environmental and biological factors influencing the activity of entomopathogenic Bacillus on mosquito larvae in Brazil

Consoli,R. A. G. B; Carvalho-Pinto,C. J; Oliveira,M. A; Santos,B. S; Lamounier,M. A; Alves,R. S. A; Silva,C. M. B; Rabinovitch,L
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/1995 Português
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The influence of environmental and biological factors on the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis and B. sphaericus as mosquito larvicides are reviewed. The importance of strain dependence, cultivating media/methods, mosquito species/specificity, formulations and their relation to mosquito feeding habits, as well as temperature, solar exposure, larval density and concomitant presence of other aquatic organisms are addressed with reference to the present status of knowledge in Brazil.

Mosquito Frequency and Feeding Habits in an Enzootic Canine Dirofilariasis Area in Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Labarthe,Norma; Serrão,Maria Lúcia; Fontenele Melo,Yuri; Oliveira,Sebastião José de; Lourenço-de-Oliveira,Ricardo
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/1998 Português
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Heartworm, a chronic fatal mosquito-borne canine disease, is frequently diagnosed in dogs from the State of Rio de Janeiro, where its prevalence is 29.7% in the city of Niterói. Nevertheless it is rarely detected in cats (0.8%) from the same state. Dogs are the primary source of infection to mosquitoes, because cats either do not demonstrate microfilaremia or it is too low and transient for transmission. A mosquito survey was conducted in Itacoatiara, Niterói, from March 1995 to February 1996, using canine, feline and human baits. A total of 21 mosquito species (3,888 females) was collected and biting frequency was highest at dusk. The four species collected most frequently (88.9%) were: Aedes taeniorhynchus (30% of the total catch; with the peak in May/June); Culex quinquefasciatus (22.5%; August/October); Aedes scapularis (19.4%; August, October/November and January) and Culex declarator (17%; November/January). Human baits were attractive to these species and dogs were significantly more attractive to them than cats. Ae. taeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. declarator and Cx. nigripalpus are the most likely mosquito species to transmit Dirofilaria immitis parasites to dogs and may transmit the parasite to humans. It is also suggested that the vector to cats belongs to the genus Culex

High-throughput Sorting of Mosquito Larvae for Laboratory Studies and for Future Vector Control Interventions

Marois, Eric; Scali, Christina; Soichot, Julien; Kappler, Christine; Levashina, Elena A; Catteruccia, Flaminia
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Mosquito transgenesis offers new promises for the genetic control of vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Genetic control strategies require the release of large number of male mosquitoes into field populations, whether they are based on the use of sterile males (sterile insect technique, SIT) or on introducing genetic traits conferring refractoriness to disease transmission (population replacement). However, the current absence of high-throughput techniques for sorting different mosquito populations impairs the application of these control measures. Methods: A method was developed to generate large mosquito populations of the desired sex and genotype. This method combines flow cytometry and the use of Anopheles gambiae transgenic lines that differentially express fluorescent markers in males and females. Results: Fluorescence-assisted sorting allowed single-step isolation of homozygous transgenic mosquitoes from a mixed population. This method was also used to select wild-type males only with high efficiency and accuracy, a highly desirable tool for genetic control strategies where the release of transgenic individuals may be problematic. Importantly, sorted males showed normal mating ability compared to their unsorted brothers. Conclusions: The developed method will greatly facilitate both laboratory studies of mosquito vectorial capacity requiring high-throughput approaches and future field interventions in the fight against infectious disease vectors.

Paleoambiente da forma??o mosquito e a implanta??o do sistema des?rtico ?mido da forma??o corda, jur?ssico superior, Centro-Oeste da Bacia do Parna?ba

RABELO, Cleber Eduardo Neri
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Pará Publicador: Universidade Federal do Pará
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
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O Mesoz?ico foi marcado por mudan?as geol?gicas significativas, decorrentes de soerguimentos resultante da orogenia Gonduanide, que possibilitou a implanta??o de sistemas des?rticos concomitantemente com expressivos eventos magm?ticos. Na Bacia do Parna?ba, Nordeste do Brasil, estes eventos est?o registrados nas unidades silicicl?sticas do Tri?ssico, os arenitos da Forma??o Samba?ba, representadas pelos derrames bas?lticos e arenitos fluviais e e?licos subordinados da Forma??o Mosquito e pelos arenitos fl?vio-e?licos da Forma??o Corda. O estudo de f?cies e estratigr?fico realizado em afloramentos e testemunhos de sondagem na regi?o entre Formosa da Serra Negra e Montes Altos, Estado do Maranh?o, possibilitou reconstituir o paleoambiente do topo da Forma??o Mosquito e da Forma??o Corda, e inferir condi??es paleoclim?ticas para a por??o centro-oeste da Bacia do Parna?ba durante o Jur?ssico. Foram identificadas vinte f?cies sedimentares agrupadas em cinco associa??es de f?cies (AF) representativas de uma plan?cie vulc?nica com dep?sitos fluviais espor?dicos e arenitos e?licos subordinados (AF1-Forma??o Mosquito), sucedida pela instala??o de um sistema des?rtico ?mido (AF2-AF5; Forma??o Corda). A plan?cie vulc?nica (AF1) constitui derrames bas?lticos intercalados com arenitos finos a grossos (arenitos intertrap) compostos por gr?os arredondados a subangulosos de quartzo...

Mosquito Larvicides from Cyanobacteria

Berry, Gerald A
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce a diverse array of toxic or otherwise bioactive metabolites. These allelochemicals may also play a role in defense against potential predators and grazers, particularly aquatic invertebrates and their larvae, including mosquitoes. Compounds derived from cyanobacteria collected from the Florida Everglades and other Florida waterways were investigated as insecticides against the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a vector of dengue and yellow fever. Screening of cyanobacterial biomass revealed several strains that exhibited mosquito larvicidal activity. Guided via bioassay guided fractionation, a non-polar compound from Leptolyngbya sp. 21-9-3 was found to be the most active component. Characterization revealed the prospective compound to be a monounsaturated fatty acid with the molecular formula C16H30O2. This is the first evidence of mosquito larvicidal activity for this particular fatty acid. With larvicidal becoming more prevalent, fatty acids should be explored for future mosquito control strategies.

Importance of endogenous feedback controlling the long-term abundance of tropical mosquito species

Yang, G.J.; Bradshaw, C.; Whelan, P.; Brook, B.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Tokyo Publicador: Springer-Verlag Tokyo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Mosquitoes are a major vector for tropical diseases, so understanding aspects that modify their population dynamics is vital for their control and protecting human health. Maximising the efficiency of control strategies for reducing transmission risk requires as a first step the understanding of the intrinsic population dynamics of vectors. We fitted a set of density-dependent and density-independent models to the long-term time series of six tropical mosquito species from northern Australia. The models’ strength of evidence was assessed using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC c ), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and jack-knifed cross-validation (C-V). Density dependence accounted for more than 99% of the model weight in all model-selection methods, with the Gompertz-logistic (Cushing model) being the best-supported model for all mosquito species (negative density feedback expressed even at low densities). The second-most abundant species, Aedes vigilax (a saline breeder), showed no spatial heterogeneity in its density-dependent response, but the remaining five species had different intrinsic growth rates across 11 study sites. Population densities of saline species were high only during the late dry to early wet season following the highest tides of the month or early flood rains when swamps were mostly saline...

Chikungunya virus: evidence for global policy, practice and research in disease management, surveillance, and mosquito control.

Chen, Zhili
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Background: Chikungunya virus is a member of the mosquito-borne Alphaviruses accountable for the unexpected rise in crippling febrile arthralgia in the past decade. The continued increase in mortality and morbidity attributed to Chikungunya in at least 55 affected countries highlights uncertainty on the effectiveness of Chikungunya management strategies. Given that these strategies are included in numerous public health systems worldwide, it is necessary that an inaugural critical review of international evidence be conducted, resulting in research findings that can facilitate decision-making in practice and policy. Aims: This thesis specifically aims to conduct three comprehensive systematic reviews, to summarise evidence and to confirm the effectiveness of clinical manifestations management, early diagnosis of disease, disease education, public health surveillance systems and mosquito control strategies in Chikungunya. Thereafter, a content analysis involving the quality evaluation of existing Chikungunya management guidelines, and a cross-examination of guidelines and systematic reviews to formulate new graded evidence-based guideline recommendations is presented. Methods: The Joanna Briggs Institute model of evidence-based health care and its accompanying systematic methodology provided the main conceptual framework and steps to conduct the systematic reviews. In addition...

Primera cita de mosquito tigre, Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae), para Andalucía y primera corroboración de los datos de la aplicación Tigatrapp; First record of Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae), in Anadalusia and first corroboration of the data from Tigatrapp application

Delacour Estrella, Sarah; Collantes Alcaraz, Francisco; Ruiz Arrondo, Ignacio; Alarcón Elbal, Pedro María; Delgado Iniesta, Juan Antonio; Eritja, Roger; Bartumeus, Federic; Oltra, Aitana; Palmer, John R.B.; Lucientes Curdi, Javier
Fonte: Murcia: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia Publicador: Murcia: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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A partir de los datos proporcionados por los ciudadanos sobre la posible presencia de mosquito tigre a través de la innovadora aplicación Tigatrapp del proyecto AtrapaelTigre.com, se ratifica la presencia de esta especie invasora en el municipio de Alhaurín de la Torre (Málaga). Este trabajo representa la primera cita del vector potencial Aedes albopictus para la Comunidad Autónoma de Andalucía. Aparte de las molestias que causa como insecto fuertemente antropófilo y agresivo, esta especie invasora es un importante vector epidémico de chikungunya, dengue y Zika virus. Mediante su dispersión y establecimiento, aparece el riesgo real de transmisión autóctona a partir de casos importados de estas enfermedades desde zonas endémicas.; ABSTRACT: We analysed the data provided by citizens about the likely presence of Asian tiger mosquito by means of the Tigatrapp smartphone app, developed by the project AtrapaelTigre.com. We confirmed the presence of this invasive mosquito species in the municipality of Alhaurín de la Torre (Málaga). This work represents the first record of Aedes albopictus in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. In addition to its nuisances, this invasive species is an important epidemic vector of Chikungunya...

Mosquito species distribution in mainland Portugal 2005-2008

Osório, Hugo C.; Amaro, Fátima; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Pardal, Sara; Mendes, Luísa; Ventim, Rita; Ramos, Jaime A.; Nunes, Sofia; REVIVE workgroup; Alves, Maria J.
Fonte: European Mosquito Control Association Publicador: European Mosquito Control Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Information on distribution and relative abundance of the mosquito fauna of mainland Portugal has been collected by several surveillance programmes and projects over a long period. The work presented here documents additional information provided by capture of adult mosquitoes by the use of CDC light traps baited with CO2 in 48 localities in 13 districts in different parts of mainland Portugal during the period 2005-2008, and by larval surveys using dippers. More than 150,000 adult mosquitoes and 3,000 larvae belonging to 16 species were identified at the National Institute of Health / Centre for Vectors and Infectious Diseases Research. The three commonest species were Ochlerotatus caspius, Culex pipiens, and Cx. theileri. The most widespread species was Cx. pipiens, followed by Culiseta longiareolata. The composition and abundance of the different mosquito populations varied between geographical locations. Only larvae of two species, Cx. hortensis and Cx. laticinctus, were found. Some effects of collection methods on a complete picture of mosquito distribution and abundance are discussed.

Mosquito surveillance for prevention and control of emerging mosquito-borne diseases in Portugal - 2008-2014

Osório, H.C.; Zé-Zé, L.; Amaro, F.; Alves, M. J.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/11/2014 Português
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Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program-REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)-has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes-collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2-and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs.; This work was partially supported by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) under the project “New arboviruses isolated in Portugal. Risk assessment and public health application” (PTDC/SAU-SAP/119199/2010).

Predicting the timing and magnitude of tropical mosquito population peaks for maximizing control efficiency

Yang, G.J.; Brook, B.; Bradshaw, C.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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The transmission of mosquito-borne diseases is strongly linked to the abundance of the host vector. Identifying the environmental and biological precursors which herald the onset of peaks in mosquito abundance would give health and land-use managers the capacity to predict the timing and distribution of the most efficient and cost-effective mosquito control. We analysed a 15-year time series of monthly abundance of Aedes vigilax, a tropical mosquito species from northern Australia, to determine periodicity and drivers of population peaks (high-density outbreaks). Two sets of density-dependent models were used to examine the correlation between mosquito abundance peaks and the environmental drivers of peaks or troughs (low-density periods). The seasonal peaks of reproduction (r) and abundance () occur at the beginning of September and early November, respectively. The combination of low mosquito abundance and a low frequency of a high tide exceeding 7 m in the previous low-abundance (trough) period were the most parsimonious predictors of a peak's magnitude, with this model explaining over 50% of the deviance in . Model weights, estimated using AICc, were also relatively high for those including monthly maximum tide height, monthly accumulated tide height or total rainfall per month in the trough...

Algoritmo genético aplicado ao controle do mosquito transmissor da dengue

Lyra, Luiz Gustavo
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 65 f.
Português
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Pós-graduação em Biometria - IBB; Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world. In recent years, dengue disease has become a major international public health on concern. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 50 100 million dengue infections occur each year and that over 2.5 billion people lives in more than 100 countries where dengue is endemic . Preventing or reducing dengue virus transmission depends on control of the mosquito vectors or interruption of human vector contact. In this work we studied a mathematical model that describes the populational dynamics of dengue's mosquito transmitter. This model describes the populational dynamics of mosquitoes in all stages of their development and discusses two methods to control mosquitoes, biological control with the release of sterile male mosquitoes in the environment and chemical control using insecticide. To evaluate these forms of control over the system is formulated a optimal control problem. Therefore, to assist in solving this problem we propose a genetic algorithm and the last we show computational results; A dengue é uma infecção viral transmitida por mosquito encontrado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Nos tempos atuais a dengue tornou-se de grande interesse para a saúde pública internacional...

Recasting the theory of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission dynamics and control

Smith, David L.; Perkins, T. Alex; Reiner, Robert C.; Barker, Christopher M.; Niu, Tianchan; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Ellis, Alicia M.; George, Dylan B.; Le Menach, Arnaud; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Bisanzio, Donal; Buckee, Caroline; Chiyaka, Christinah; Cummi
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Mosquito-borne diseases pose some of the greatest challenges in public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Efforts to control these diseases have been underpinned by a theoretical framework developed for malaria by Ross and Macdonald, including models, metrics for measuring transmission, and theory of control that identifies key vulnerabilities in the transmission cycle. That framework, especially Macdonald's formula for R0 and its entomological derivative, vectorial capacity, are now used to study dynamics and design interventions for many mosquito-borne diseases. A systematic review of 388 models published between 1970 and 2010 found that the vast majority adopted the Ross–Macdonald assumption of homogeneous transmission in a well-mixed population. Studies comparing models and data question these assumptions and point to the capacity to model heterogeneous, focal transmission as the most important but relatively unexplored component in current theory. Fine-scale heterogeneity causes transmission dynamics to be nonlinear, and poses problems for modeling, epidemiology and measurement. Novel mathematical approaches show how heterogeneity arises from the biology and the landscape on which the processes of mosquito biting and pathogen transmission unfold. Emerging theory focuses attention on the ecological and social context for mosquito blood feeding...

Prediction of Mosquito Abundance in Temperate Regions, Using Ecological, Hydrological and Remote Sensing Models

Jian, Yun
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2014 Português
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New and old mosquito-borne diseases have emerged and re-emerged in temperate regions over the recent past, but an understanding of mosquito population dynamics, a fundamental step toward disease control, remains elusive. In particular, we are still lacking reliable predictive models of mosquito abundance in temperate areas due to the subtle links between the fluctuation of mosquito population and highly heterogeneous environmental drivers. Hence, this doctoral dissertation presents an interdisciplinary approach towards an improved understanding and prediction of the fluctuations in mosquito abundance in temperate regions. In the first part of this dissertation a hierarchical Gompertz-based model is used to assess the relative importance of endogenous (density dependence) and exogenous (environmental forcings) controls and their interactions in regulating the dynamics of a West Nile Virus vector (Culex pipiens) in the Po River delta in Italy. The results clearly detect the effects of density-dependence in the observed population dynamics for the mosquito species analyzed and highlight the controls exerted by environmental forcings and habitat conditions. Subsequently, the characteristic scales of temporal variability in mosquito populations...

Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica

Calderón-Arguedas,Olger; Troyo,Adriana; Solano,Mayra E; Avendaño,Adrián; Beier,John C
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 Português
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Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100x100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area...

Toxicological effects of prolonged and intense use of mosquito coil emission in rats and its implications on malaria control

Taiwo Idowu,Emmanuel; Aimufua,Oyenmwen Judith; Yomi-Onilude,Ejovwoke; Akinsanya,Bamidele; Adetoro Otubanjo,Olubumi
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2013 Português
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Efectos toxicológicos del uso prolongado e intenso de emisiones de espirales contra mosquitos en ratas y sus implicaciones sobre el control de la malaria. Mosquito coil is a vector control option used to prevent malaria in low income counties, while some studies have addressed this issue, additional reseach is required to increase knowledge on the adverse health effects caused by the prolonged use of coils. In this study we investigated the toxicological effects of fumes from two locally manufactured mosquito coil insecticides (with pyrethroids: transfluthrin and d-allethrin as active ingredients) on male albino rats. For this, we recorded the haematological and biochemical indices, and made histopathology and mutagenicity evaluations in rats exposed to mosquito fumes during 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 week periods. Haematological determination was performed using automated hematology analyzer to determine White Blood Cell (WBC), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell (RBC) and Platelet (PLT) counts, while biochemical evaluations were determined using available commercial kits. Gross histopathological changes were studied for the kidney, liver and lungs in sacrificed rats. The rat sperm head abnormalities assessment was used to evaluate mutagenicity. Mosquito coil fumes produced significant increase (P<0.05) in the levels of total protein...

Mosquito vector abundance immediately before and after tropical storms Alma and Arthur, northern Belize, 2008

Morrow,Meredith G; Johnson,Richard N; Polanco,Jorge; Claborn,David M
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVE: To monitor adult mosquito abundance in northern Belize before/after the first tropical storm of the wet season to estimate the time required for development/recovery of potential vector populations; determine which species predominate post-storm; and compare the effectiveness of two types of mosquito traps-octenol-baited Mosquito Magnets® and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps (with/without octenol). METHODS: Field experiments were conducted in Orange Walk Town, Belize, 21 May to 3 June 2008. Incidence rate ratios and exact binomial 95% confidence intervals were reported and trap-nights calculated to compare species abundance pre- and post-storm as well as trap-type effectiveness. RESULTS: Twice as many species and three times more Anopheles spp. were trapped pre-storm versus post-storm. However, greater numbers of Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culex (Culex) spp. were trapped post-storm. Mosquito Magnets® were consistently more effective than the CDC traps, obtaining twice as many Anopheles spp. and four times as many culicine species as the octenol-baited version (which collected 14 times more mosquitoes overall and 3.5 times more culicine species than the unbaited version). The unbaited CDC trap did not trap any Anopheles spp. during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated octenol is an effective attractant for An. crucians in northern Belize; malaria risk in Belize declines immediately post-storm (i.e....